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The Respiratory System

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Accelerated Biology The job of the respiratory system is to obtain oxygen and eliminate carbon dioxide CO2 is a waste product of cellular respiration and is toxic to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Respiratory System


1
The Respiratory System
  • Accelerated Biology

2
Function of the Respiratory System
  • The job of the respiratory system is to obtain
    oxygen and eliminate carbon dioxide
  • CO2 is a waste product of cellular respiration
    and is toxic to cells
  • Then, the circulatory system transports the
    oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body

3
Structures of the Respiratory System
  • Nasal cavity lined with cilia to trap inhaled
    particles and moisten and warm the air
  • mucus traps inhaled particles
  • cilia sweeps mucus up to throat to be swallowed
  • Pharynx where oral and nasal cavities meet.
  • Passageway for air and food
  • Larynx voice box

4
Structures of the Respiratory System
  • Ciliated epithelium of the respiratory system.
  • SEM X5000

5
Structures of the Respiratory System
  • Epiglottis flap of cartilage that covers the
    trachea when swallowing to prevent food and
    liquids from entering your lungs

6
Structures of the Respiratory System
  • Trachea wind pipe with cartilaginous rings
  • Bronchi two branches of the trachea that lead
    to each lung

7
Structures of the Respiratory System
  • Bronchiole smaller branches of the two bronchi
    that end in tiny air sacs called alveoli

8
Structures of the Respiratory System
  • Alveoli You have 300,000,000 air sacs in your
    lungs where gas exchange occurs
  • Increase the surface area of your lungs to 42x
    the surface area of your body
  • Their membranes are one cell thick and are
    surrounded with capillaries.

9
Aveoli In the lungs
10
Structures of the Respiratory System
  • Diaphragm thin sheet of smooth muscle spanning
    the rib cage that moves up and down to bring air
    into and out of the lungs

11
Breathing
  • Breathing occurs because of air pressure
    differences between the lungs and the atmosphere
  • Lungs have no muscles, so the work is done by the
    diaphragm and intercostal muscles
  • Intercostals muscles between the ribs

12
Inhalation
  • Gain O2 by inhaling
  • Intercostals and diaphragm contract
  • Diaphragm flattens and pulls downward
  • Rib cage is pushed up and out causing a decrease
    in the air pressure in the lungs (air pressure in
    lungs is now lower than atmospheric pressure)
  • Air is sucked into lungs

13
Exhalation
  • Rid body of CO2 by exhaling
  • Passive - also due to change in lung air pressure
  • Intercostals and diaphragm relax, decreasing the
    volume in the chest cavity
  • Increases the air pressure in the lungs (higher
    than atmospheric pressure)
  • Air is forced out

14
Inhalation and Exhalation
15
Gas Exchange
  • The exchange of CO2 and O2 in both the body
    tissues and the lungs. Occurs as a result of
    diffusion
  • O2 from alveoli diffuses into the blood in the
    capillaries, in turn CO2 in the blood diffuses
    into the alveoli
  • Body tissues CO2 levels high, O2 levels low
  • RBC in lungs O2 levels high, CO2 levels low

16
How is breathing regulated?
  • Receptors in the brain and the cardiovascular
    system continually monitor the levels of O2 and
    CO2 in the blood
  • As CO2 levels increase, the pH decreases (blood
    becomes more acidic) causing a persons breathing
    rate to increase. Thus, they will expel more CO2
    and take in more O2

17
How is breathing regulated?
  • CO2 combines with H2O to form carbonic acid
    (H2CO3)
  • Carbonic acid breaks up to form bicarbonate ions
    (HCO3) and Hydrogen ions (H)
  • Most CO2 travels to the lungs as bicarbonate ions
    (HCO3)
  • The H ions is what makes the blood acidic,
    causing an increase in breathing.
  • The Equation
  • H2O CO2? H2CO3? HCO3- H

18
Carbon Monoxide poisoning
  • Carbon Monoxide binds more readily to hemoglobin
    than oxygen and carbon dioxide
  • If present, it will prevent oxygen from being
    delivered and lead to hypoxia, an inadequate
    oxygen supply

19
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20
Asthma
  • Asthma Chronic condition where the bronchioles
    of the lungs become inflamed due to sensitivity
    of stimuli in the air
  • Bronchial walls tighten and extra mucus is
    produced causing airways to narrow
  • Strenuous exercise and stressful situations can
    trigger an asthma attack

21
The effects of smoking
  • Emphysema Elastic fibers in the lungs are
    destroyed
  • Begins with the destruction of the alveoli
  • Results in fatigue and breathlessness
  • Smoking causes 90 of emphysema cases

22
The effects of smoking
  • Lung Cancer abnormal cell growth
  • One of the leading of causes of death in the
    world
  • Accounts for 28 of all cancer deaths
  • Smoking is the major cause of lung cancer
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