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This complete mine emergency training program developed by the Division of Mines (DM) was designed to increase the technical knowledge and safety awareness of mining personnel and to provide up-to-date mine emergency training materials and a 90-Day Mine

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Title: This complete mine emergency training program developed by the Division of Mines (DM) was designed to increase the technical knowledge and safety awareness of mining personnel and to provide up-to-date mine emergency training materials and a 90-Day Mine


1
HAZARD ALERT LIVE TOMORROW
VIRGINIA
DIVISION OF MINES
INSTRUCTORS GUIDE
This complete mine emergency training program
developed by the Division of Mines (DM) was
designed to increase the technical knowledge and
safety awareness of mining personnel and to
provide up-to-date mine emergency training
materials and a 90-Day Mine Emergency Evacuation
and Firefighting record book. Mine emergency
preparedness and emergency incident training
efforts have been intensified with special
emphasis devoted to Virginia fires/inundations,
explosions and mine explosion, fire and
inundation training exercises and gas detection
training. As Virginia and national coal mines
advance in close proximity to old abandoned
mines, the recognition and reaction to possible
inundations of water, methane and blackdamp (low
oxygen) present a tremendous potential for
explosions, serious accidents and fatalities.
Nothing is more important than mine emergency
training. This instructors guide and associated
PowerPoint presentation was developed for local
and national use by DM, industry, MSHA, private
and educational institution trainers. This guide
will enhance the capability of instructors to
provide quality, effective mine emergency
training and can be used in various types of
training classes including (1) new miner (2)
annual refresher (3) experienced miner training
and (4) supervisory retraining.
2
MINE EMERGENCIES

EXPLOSIONS FIRES - INUNDATIONS
The disasters at Sago, Alma and Kentucky Darby
has made each of us realize that we must
re-evaluate the quality and effectiveness of our
mine emergency preparedness. Conditions in the
mine as well as training, especially the donning
of SCSRs, always provide potential risks if we
arent fully prepared and react properly to any
mine emergency situation. Effective emergency
escape procedures and donning of SCSRs has
become paramount as miners lives have been
lost. We must do more and do it better to fully
prepare ourselves and our nations miners to be
able to safely react to any mine emergency
situation.
3
MINE EMERGENCIES

EXPLOSIONS FIRES - INUNDATIONS  The following
are basic mine emergency safety keypoints in
addressing mine explosions, fires, gas and water
inundations, etc. that all trainers and coal
miners should be familiar with. A lack of
effective training or knowledge of emergency
procedures could result in serious injury or even
death if you arent properly trained and dont
know how to react properly to a mine
emergency. Always Remember If you fail to plan,
then you can plan to fail. Never Forget Nothing
is more important than mine emergency and SCSR
training.
  1. You must always be confident that you know how to
    properly donn an SCSR. You never know when you
    may have to exit the mine wearing one.
    Underground coal miners have perished when a mine
    emergency occurred and the miners could not
    properly donn an SCSR due to inadequate,
    ineffective training. If you dont wear an SCSR
    on your person, then always keep it readily
    accessible at all times and know where other
    SCSRs may be stored underground.

4
  1. Know your mine ventilation and emergency
    escapeway systems. Know how the air flows in
    your mine. Know where and how water drains in
    your mine and how water accumulations affect the
    mine ventilation system(especially travelways and
    escapeways). Make sure all miners are familiar
    with the emergency escapeway routes and where the
    lifeline is located. Always keep the lifeline
    advanced to at least the loading point/section
    transformer area. EVERYONES LIFE MAY DEPEND ON
    IT!!!
  2. Keep your escapeway map up-to-date and know where
    it is located at all times. You never know
    when this map may have to be used to escape
    safely from the mine.
  3. Know the elevations of your mine. Be familiar
    with all low places in your mine, because water
    and or low oxygen that enters your mine will flow
    to these low-lying areas. Be familiar with water
    drainage and pumps located in the travelways and
    escapeway entries and other areas of the mine and
    what may happen if the pumps are deenergized.

5
(No Transcript)
6
VII. Barometric pressure coal miners must
have a basic knowledge of barometric pressure to
fully understand the relationship of weather
fronts moving through with the barometric
pressure dropping and methane liberation in a
coal mine.
  1. The barometric pressure drops when weather fronts
    (cold, rain, snow, etc.) start moving in and
    through the area
  2. As the pressure drops, more methane is liberated
    because the normal barometric pressure that helps
    stabilize and hold the methane in place is
    reduced
  3. More methane is liberated out into active mine
    workings behind seals etc.
  4. More methane will be liberated in mines that
    normally liberate gas on a regular basis and
    methane may be found in mines where not normally
    detected except when weather fronts are moving
    through and the barometric pressure is dropping.

7
  • The first action that should be taken underground
    if a mine emergency such as an explosion, fire or
    inundation of gas or water does occur is to
    account for all miners underground in your
    assigned work area, face, belt drive, etc. The
    outside (surface) person should be properly
    trained that his/her first course of action after
    receiving report of an underground emergency is
    to attempt to contact and inform everyone located
    underground about the type and location of the
    emergency. The outside person should also be
    properly trained on how to notify State, Federal
    and mine rescue officials. Miners located in all
    areas of the mine should be alerted to the
    emergency as soon as possible to also expedite
    their timely evacuation. This timely
    notification of miners located on a different
    working section during the Pennsylvania Quecreek
    mine water inundation saved the lives of nine (9)
    coal miners and timely notification/evacuation
    from a Virginia coal mine in which an
    ignition/mine fire occurred in 2005 may very well
    have saved the lives of 93 underground miners.
    NEVER FORGET Lives are at Risk. Timely
    notification and evacuation has to happen and
    everyone that goes into the mine must be properly
    trained in the emergency procedures to be
    followed.

8
  1. Rehearse fire fighting and mine emergency escape
    procedures. Everyone should know what they
    should and should not do and where they should go
    from any location in the mine if a mine emergency
    occurs. Miners should be trained and retrained
    during ninety-day emergency evacuation/fire
    drills and annual retraining to proceed
    immediately to a designated location and all
    miners accounted for at a designated location if
    a mine emergency does occur. The designated
    location on a working section should usually be
    the mantrip station, which in most cases will be
    in or near the intake escapeway and lifeline
    entry.
  2. Remember if your mine fan is exhausting and
    your mine cuts into another mine, then
    contaminants including methane, carbon dioxide,
    low oxygen, etc. will be drawn out of the old
    mine into your mine. The rate of flow of gases
    into your mine will depend on the mine
    ventilation system, elevations of both mines in
    relation to each other, and whether or not mine
    gases in the old mine are pressurized. If your
    mine fan is blowing, then your mines ventilation
    will have a tendency to keep pressure against the
    mine gases from the old mine, but pressurized
    mine gases from the old mine could override your
    ventilation system and enter your mine. Know and
    understand your mine ventilation system. Know
    how the beltline entry is ventilated and in what
    direction a fire and/or smoke would travel if
    located in the beltline entry.

9
  1. Never use a SCSR to enter a known or suspected
    dangerous atmosphere (smoke, cut into old mines,
    etc.) other than to escape. Only mine rescue
    teams wearing proper apparatus should enter such
    areas. SCSRs should only be used for escape
    purposes.
  2. If a mine emergency does occur The person or
    persons discovering an emergency situation should
    immediately attempt to contact and inform surface
    personnel from the first accessible telephone of
    the following
  • Where and what happened conditions present at
    incident area
  • Any miners to be left in the mine and their
    condition, location, etc
  • Time and number of crew members leaving a
    particular location
  • Method and direction of escape (walking,
    crawling, riding, and entry traveled, etc.).

The surface person should attempt to alert other
miners in the mine immediately upon receiving
information about the emergency.
10
  1. Never reverse or change existing ventilation
    direction, except under the direction of DM,
    MSHA, company and mine rescue officials. Coal
    miners are trained and retrained to exit a mine
    using the intake escapeway entries during mine
    emergencies and reversing or altering ventilation
    in the designated intake escapeway entry(ies)
    could cause serious injuries or death to the
    miners.
  2. No person should enter a mine to attempt rescue
    of miners where a mine emergency exists, except
    under the direction of DM, MSHA, company and mine
    rescue officials.
  3. Mine fires create special dangers to workers
    located underground including (1) restricted or
    zero visibility while attempting escape from the
    mine (2) extreme heat that affects the body,
    lungs and the mine roof (3) smoke (4) carbon
    monoxide, carbon dioxide and toxic smoke tars.
  4. REMEMBER Most underground fires that arent
    controlled in 30 minutes usually result in
    sealing the mine, hopefully with everyone out of
    the mine. 30 MINUTES Is the Golden Time that
    we live by in the coal mining industry to get an
    underground fire under control or else usually
    the mine will have to be sealed.

11
EXPLOSION SCENARIO TRAINING Part I
  • The location and extent of the explosion, if
    known, shall be reported immediately to the
    authorized person located on the surface. The
    authorized person located on the surface shall do
    the following immediately upon receiving
    information that an explosion has occurred
  1. Contact the responsible person or designee at the
    mine, supervisors and/or personnel in all
    available areas of the mine
  2. Notify Division of Mines and MSHA officials
    immediately, at once without delay after
    confirming the incident and within 15 minutes
  3. Notify mine rescue teams and other support
    personnel as directed by the responsible person
    or his designee.

12
Underground personnel evacuating should, if
possible and time permitting, contact surface
personnel from the first accessible telephone and
provide the following information
  1. Location and extent of explosion, if known, and
    conditions present at your location
  2. Any miners evacuating from the mine and their
    location, conditions, etc
  3. Number of miners leaving a particular location
  4. Direction, entry and method of evacuation
    (riding, walking, crawling, etc.)

13
  1. All mine personnel not required for emergency
    response shall evacuate from the mine by the
    quickest, most practical means, which may very,
    depending on the situation, post-explosion
    conditions, availability of transportation
    equipment, etc.
  2. All underground personnel shall be accounted for,
    assembled to prepare for evacuation and withdrawn
    to a location designated by the responsible
    person or his designee. Miners shall report
    changes in normal work areas to the responsible
    person or authorized person on the surface.
  3. The electrical power to the affected area of the
    mine shall be deenergized as directed by the
    responsible person or his designee. Electrical
    power to other areas of the mine should be
    deenergized as necessary, while considering
    evacuation of mine personnel.

14
  1. All underground personnel not required for
    emergency response shall evacuate by traveling
    the primary or alternate (secondary) escapeway as
    directed by the mine responsible person or his
    designee.
  • FIRST CHOICE The entry traveled using the
    normal mode of transportation into and out of the
    mine is usually the quickest and is usually the
    primary or alternate (secondary) escapeway. The
    entry traveled into and out of the mine should be
    traveled until conditions such as physical
    obstructions, smoke, fire, etc. prevent further
    evacuation in this entry. The decision to
    evacuate and ride in the primary OR alternate
    (secondary) escapeway depends on several factors
    including the mine ventilation, presence of
    smoke, fire, toxic fire/explosion gases, physical
    obstructions, etc. This decision should be based
    on the entry which would provide the most
    practical, safest and most expedient evacuation
    from the mine. REMEMBER You can always ride
    faster than you can walk or crawl and with
    conditions permitting, ride as far as you
    possibly can.

15
  • SECOND CHOICE If at the beginning or during
    evacuation you have no transportation equipment
    available to ride in the primary or alternate
    (secondary) escapeway, then with conditions
    permitting walk or crawl the primary or
    secondary escapeway. The decision whether to
    travel the primary or secondary escapeway depends
    on many factors as previously described. If the
    escapeway being traveled becomes blocked with
    obstructions such as roof falls, water, smoke,
    fire, etc., then you have to consider further
    evacuation in a different escapeway entry.
  • THIRD CHOICE An alternate (secondary) or intake
    escapeway not selected as the second choice.

16
  1. Each miner shall have an SCSR in their possession
    and an additional SCSR readily accessible or on
    the transportation equipment. The additional
    SCSR storage locations are shown on both the mine
    map (surface) and escapeway map. Identify
    locations of stored SCSRs, if applicable.
    Miners should don a self-rescue device when
    smoke, odor, fire, or any contaminated atmosphere
    is encountered. Miners are encouraged to don
    self-rescue devices whenever they believe they
    are exposed to a toxic or irrespirable
    atmosphere. Mine operators are encouraged to
    provide air quality detectors so that miners will
    be able to better identify hazardous atmospheres.
  2. Lifelines or equivalent devices re provided in
    both the primary and (alternate) escapeway.

17
  1. Additional SCSRs are stored on active working
    sections sections being installed or removed
    and at rehabilitation sites and are located at
    crosscut no. (s) ___ ___ and are physically
    attached to the lifelines or equivalent devices.
    Reflective, direction signs are conspicuously
    posted in each entry that identify each storage
    location.
  2. During evacuation, the miners should get an
    escapeway map, if applicable, to take with them.
    The escapeway entry, primary or alternate
    (secondary), that will be traveled shall be
    explained to all miners. The authorized person
    located on the surface should be informed of the
    number of miners beginning evacuation and the
    escape route that will be used while exiting the
    mine.

18
  1. If walking or crawling, the supervisor should
    travel in front with all persons using the
    lifeline to ensure no one is left behind. The
    miners should regulate their travel speed to
    accommodate the slower personnel in the group.
  2. The miners should consider barricading or
    entering a refuge chamber only when all escape
    routes are physically blocked or too hazardous to
    travel. If all possible means of escape are
    exhausted and barricading is the only
    alternative, then barricade using all available
    resources to make the barricaded area airtight as
    possible while knowing that one (1) cubic yard of
    air per person per hour is required for survival.
    A note should be left outside the barricade
    indicating the number of miners and time the
    barricade was built. Oxygen tanks, water, food,
    all SCSRs and a sounding device for striking
    roof supports for seismic location from the
    surface must be taken into the barricade.

19
EXPLOSION SCENARIO TRAINING Part
II
MINERS ON SECTION, OTHER SECTIONS AND OUTBY
AREAS
  1. Account for and assemble applicable personnel to
    prepare for evacuation. The responsible person
    will initiate and conduct immediate evacuation
    when imminent danger exists.
  2. Report location and extent of explosion, if
    known, to surface personnel.
  3. Evacuate all personnel not required for emergency
    response.
  4. Evaluate status of ventilation and ventilation
    controls altered, destroyed, removed,
    installed, etc.
  5. Evaluate air qualities and quantities in areas of
    the mine.
  6. Evaluate status/location of electrical and
    mechanical equipment/vehicles.
  7. Evaluate extent of the explosion area.

20
EVACUATION PROCEDURES
Transportation Equipment Available
Travel by transportation equipment the safest and
most expedient entry (primary or alternate
escapeway) to the surface, shift/slope bottom,
etc.
Transportation Equipment Unavailable
Travel (walk/crawl) the primary or alternate
escapeway entry whichever provides the safest
and most expedient travelway to the surface,
shaft/slope bottom, etc.
21
CONDITIONS REQUIRING IMMEDIATE DONNING OF SCSRS
  • Miners should don a self-rescue device when
    smoke, odor, fire, or any contaminated atmosphere
    is encountered.
  • Miners are encouraged to don self-rescue devices
    whenever they believe they are exposed to a toxic
    or irrespirable atmosphere.
  • Mine operators are encouraged to provide air
    quality detectors so that miners will be able to
    better identify hazardous atmospheres.

22
Stoppings damaged and overcasts destroyed
Fan
Timbers on Fire
Shuttle Car
Shuttle Car
1440
Continuous Miner
x
R
x
x
x
x
x
x
Explosion Doors
C
C
x
x
x
D
D
D
C
C
NORTH MAINS 2700 to
Surface
D
x
Belt
Feeder
C
x
D
C
D
D
D
C
D
x
x
X
C
D
D
C
D
x
x
x
x
D
D
R
High Voltage Splitter Box
1 Pump
EXPLOSION MAP - 2006
High Voltage Cable
Pump Cable
Mantrip Station
Section Transformer
Barricade Material
Transformer
Transformer
2 Belt Drive (Transfer Point 2000 to Surface)
x
2 Pump
Old Widow Kennedy Mine 140 Below
1430
1430
High Voltage Substation
D
D
SCSR Storage Locations (15 at each location)
1440
CC 10
SAFETY FIRST COAL COMPANY
Roof Fall
Section Transformer
x
Feeder
Shuttle Car
x
x
Barricade Material
x
C
C
WEST MAINS 2700 to
Surface
C
C
C
x
C
C
C
C
Mantrip Station
x
Continuous Miner
23
EXPLOSION MAP 2006
North Mains - Escape
NORTH MAINS 2700 to
Surface
Continuous Miner
SAFETY FIRST COAL COMPANY
x
Mantrip Station
x
Shuttle Car
C
C
C
C
Barricade Material
C
C
C
x
Feeder
C
C
x
x
Section Transformer
Old Widow Kennedy Mine 140 Below
X
D
D
Roof Fall
Shuttle Car
2 Belt Drive (Transfer Point 2000 to Surface)
WEST MAINS 2700 to
Surface
R
D
D
D
D
R
x
C
x
Timbers on Fire
C
x
D
X
C
C
x
X
x
X
D
D
D
D
C
Feeder
x
C
D
x
Transformer
Stoppings damaged and overcasts destroyed
x
C
X
Continuous Miner
C
x
x
X
Section Transformer
2 Pump
High Voltage Splitter Box
Mantrip Station
x
x
D
1430
D
Barricade Material
1440
CC 10
SCSR Storage Locations (15 at each location)
24
EXPLOSION MAP 2006 West Mains - Escape
Timbers on Fire
Old Widow Kennedy Mine 140 Below
D
D
Roof Fall
2 Belt Drive (Transfer Point 2000 to Surface)
WEST MAINS 2700 to
Surface
R
D
D
D
D
R
x
Shuttle Car
C
x
C
x
x
x
x
x
C
D
x
C
x
D
D
D
D
Feeder
C
D
C
D
C
x
x
Transformer
Continuous Miner
x
C
C
x
x
x
Section Transformer
2 Pump
High Voltage Splitter Box
x
x
D
D
1440
Mantrip Station
Barricade Material
1430
CC 10
Stoppings damaged and overcasts destroyed
SCSR Storage Locations (15 at each location)
25
EXPLOSION MAP 2006 Escape To
Surface
2 Belt Drive (Transfer Point 2000 to Surface)
D
C
x
C
D
D
D
D
C
Feeder
C
C
D
x
x
Transformer
x
C
x
C
x
x
Section Transformer
2 Pump
High Voltage Splitter Box
x
x
D
D
Barricade Material
Mantrip Station
1440
1430
1440
D
D
CC 10
SCSR Storage Locations (15 at each location)
x
1 Pump
1430
Pump Cable
Transformer
High Voltage Substation
Belt
x
Fan
Explosion Doors
High Voltage Cable
26
EXPLOSION TRAINING 2006

SAFETY FIRST COAL COMPANY

MINE HISTORY

AVERAGE WORKING HEIGHT 48

VENTILATION SYSTEM EXHAUSTING

VENTILATION DIRECTION AS SHOWN ON MAP
FAN
INFORMATION 48 FAN, 250HP 550 VAC MOTOR
Seven (7) persons are scheduled to produce coal
on the West Mains Section, located 2700 feet from
the surface. The crew consists of the foreman,
miner operator and miner helper, two (2) shuttle
car operators, repairman, and a face utility man.
Three (3) men perform maintenance, cleaning and
rock dusting work on the beltlines from the
surface to both working sections. Five (5) men
(repairmen) are scheduled to perform maintenance
work on the North Mains Section located 2700 feet
from the surface. The foreman is the responsible
person for this shift. An old abandoned mine
(Widow Kennedy Mine) is located approximately 140
feet below this mine in the area at the 2 belt
drive/transfer point. The old Widow Kennedy
Mine, mined back in the 1970s was known for
liberating large amounts of methane.
27
The primary escapeway is 4 entry for both the
North Mains and West Mains Sections. The
alternate escapeway is 3 entry (beltline entry)
for both North Mains and East Mains Sections.
Fifteen (15) SCSRs are stored at cc 10 in both
the primary and alternate escapeways, one
crosscut outby the North Mains West Mains
junction. This mine is not known for liberating
large amounts of methane but when the barometric
pressure drops, more methane than normal is
detected. Also when the barometric pressure
drops, the beltman that performs on-shift belt
examinations has detected .2 to .3 methane in
the belt entry near the 2 belt drive. A cold
front has been moving through the area and it has
been raining and snowing for the past two
days. Four wheeled (battery powered) mantrips
are used for transportation. Both crews
normally travel the 4 entry (primary escapeway)
to the working section.
28
The preshift examination of the face areas
conducted at 500 AM and 630 AM, respectively
revealed the following NORTH MAINS
WEST MAINS 1 entry - .3 Ch4 and 20.8 O2
.1 Ch4 and 20.8 O2 2 entry - .4 Ch4 and 20.8
O2 .1 Ch4 and 20.8 O2 3 entry- .1 Ch4 and
20.8 O2 0 Ch4 and 20.8 O2 4 entry- .0 Ch4
and 20.8 O2  0 Ch4 and 20.9 O2 5 entry- .0
Ch4 and 20.8 O2 0 Ch4 and 20.9 O2
29
MINE EMERGENCY EXPLOSION EXERCISE -
2006  INSTRUCTOR COPY     The attached maps will
be used to work through this mine emergency
explosion problem.   A series of questions will
be asked as situations occur as a result of the
explosion. Answers to these questions are
provided, however, all of the answers may not be
correct. There will be at least one correct
answer for each question, however, more than one
answer may be correct. Miners lives may be saved
or lost based on the critical, life-saving
decisions that they have to make while working
through the exercise and attempting to escape
from the mine.   Select the correct answers.
30
The mine operator and foreman plan to conduct a
safety talk on the surface prior to the 15 men
going underground.


The company has just implemented a New
production bonus plan.

The mine operator
discussed the New bonus plan and the foreman
discussed electrical safety, locking and tagging
out and cable maintenance.
31
QUESTION A
What other information could have and should have
been discussed during the safety talk based on
the mine map and information provided?
____ 1. The hazards of mining with underlying
old mines that may contain methane. ____ 2. The
effects that barometric pressure and weather
storm fronts have on methane liberation in
underground mines. ____ 3. The
importance of conducting gas tests before and
continuously while cutting and welding. ____ 4.
The importance of installing check curtains and
face line curtains when the outside man calls
inside reporting a State or Federal inspector
outside. ____ 5. The two mine disasters (Sago
and Kentucky Darby) that resulted from methane
explosions.
32
QUESTION A - ANSWERS
  • CORRECT Explosions and dangerous situations
    have occurred when underlying mines have cracked
    into active mines releasing methane, blackdamp,
    etc. One explosion in Virginia occurred when an
    old mine cracked 143 feet into an overlying,
    active mine releasing methane which resulted in
    an explosion.
  • CORRECT All miners must understand that weather
    fronts (cold, rain, snow) cause the barometric
    pressure to drop which results in an increase in
    methane liberation in coal mines.
  • CORRECT Continuously monitoring for methane
    while cutting and welding is critically important
    in all coal mines.

33
  1. INCORRECT Section ventilation as well as all
    mine ventilation is critically
    important to prevent accumulations of methane at
    all locations in the mine. The presence of
    inspectors should not determine when miners
    should maintain proper ventilation.
  2. CORRECT Explosions can occur in any coal mine.
    Mines that have underlying mines may present
    extremely dangerous conditions, especially those
    known to liberate large amounts of methane. All
    miners must stay alert in a mine that has an
    underlying mine, as your mine could crack into
    the underlying mine causing an inundation of
    methane, carbon dioxide, etc.

34
The West mains crew arrived on the section and
started producing coal.


The maintenance crew arrived on the North
Mains section and started cutting/welding bit
lugs on the continuous miner ripper head.

The outside man is standing near the front-end
loader, approximately 40 feet from the 3, 4 and
5 portals. Its 730 A.M., at which time, the
outside man always eats his sausage/egg biscuit
and drinks a large cup of coffee. The mine
operator departed the mine site to go to Bills
Electrical Supply Co., located 30 miles away, to
buy some electrical supplies. The outside man
feels a sudden outrush of air from the portals
and observes coal/rock dust and debris in the air
exiting from the portals. At this time, the
outside man feels most likely that an explosion
has occurred underground.
35
QUESTION B
What are some priority things that the outside
man must think about and do?
____ 1. Immediately try to contact all
underground personnel, especially the foreman,
who is the responsible person on this
shift. _____ 2. Try to contact the mine
operator. _____ 3. Notify the next-of-kin of all
miners underground and tell them that an
explosion has occurred at the mine and that no
contact has been made with any of the miners
since the explosion. _____ 4. Deenergize all
underground electrical power while leaving the
mine fan circuit energized. _____ 5. Get the
emergency contact notification list (sheriff,
state police, mine rescue teams, State and
Federal officials, etc.) and put near the public
telephone so appropriate personnel can be
notified as quickly as possible.
36
QUESTION B - ANSWERS
  • CORRECT This is the first thing that the
    outside man should do in any case of an
    underground mine emergency.
  • CORRECT After the outside man attempts to
    contact everyone underground.
  • INCORRECT The mine operator or his agent should
    determine when and how the next-of-kin should be
    notified.
  • CORRECT All underground electrical power should
    be deenergized immediately. The fan circuit must
    remain energized.
  • CORRECT This is a difficult situation, as is
    all mine emergencies. Several different people
    and agencies must be notified as quickly as
    possible.

37
WEST MAINS CREW The West mains continuous miner
crew is moving the miner across the LOCC between
the 2 and 3 entry face areas. Several of the
crew are installing timbers on each side of a
roof fall that had occurred in the 3rd crosscut
outby the face area, between the 2 and 3
entries. The foreman is helping move the
continuous miner. The crew heard a loud noise
that sounded like an enormous roof fall which
lasted for about 5 seconds. The crew felt a
vibration and a change of pressure in their ears.
They also felt a sudden inrush of air, followed
immediately by the section being inundated with
rock and coal dust and small, flying
debris. About one (1) minute later, the
electrical power deenergized on the section. The
foreman and crew think immediately that an
explosion has occurred on the North Mains section
or somewhere outby their section.



38
QUESTION C
What is the first thing that the foreman should
do?
____ 1. Go immediately to the mine telephone,
located at the section loading point, call the
outside man and try to determine what has
happened and where. _____ 2. Account for and
assemble all his crew on the West Mains
section. _____ 3. Go to the mine telephone, after
accounting for all his crew, call the outside
man and instruct him to try to contact the North
Mains section crew and the belt crew. And, also
to contact everyone on the emergency personnel
notification list. _____ 4. Anticipating that an
explosion has occurred and that poisonous mine
gases were created as a result of the explosion,
assemble the crew and start building a barricade
in the 3 entry, face area inby the LOCC because
this will be the best location to barricade with
the largest area of fresh air at this time.
39
QUESTION C - ANSWERS
  • PARTIALLY CORRECT But only after the foreman
    has accounted for all his crew.
  • CORRECT Accounting for all his crew is the
    first thing that the foreman must do following
    any mine emergency.
  • CORRECT Notifying the outside man and reminding
    him to try to contact everyone else in the mine
    and notifying everyone on the emergency personnel
    notification list is the second thing to be done
    following any mine emergency.
  • INCORRECT A crew should barricade ONLY after
    verifying that all means of escape are blocked or
    too hazardous to travel.

40
NORTH MAINS CREW/BELT MAINTENANCE CREW The North
Mains maintenance crew were performing
maintenance and cutting/welding work on the
continuous miner when they also heard a loud
noise that sounded like an enormous roof fall
that lasted 3 to 5 seconds.


The crew felt a sudden inrush of
air, filled with small debris, rock dust and coal
dust. The crew smelled a burned smell. All five
(5) miners were located at the continuous miner.
About one (1) minute later the electrical power
on the section deenergized. The three (3) belt
men were located near crosscut 9 when they felt
a sudden outrush of air, saw coal dust, rock dust
and small debris suspended in the air and
immediately traveled toward the surface. The
North Mains crew does not have a foreman.
41
QUESTION D
What are some of the things that the North Mains
crew should do immediately?
____ 1. Designate one person as a crew
leader. ____ 2. Send two people to the mine
telephone, located at the section loading
point, to call the outside man to try to
determine what has happened and where that it
appears an explosion has occurred outby their
location and that the five of them are O.K. at
this time and that they will try to escape from
the mine out the 4 entry (primary
escapeway). ____ 3. The other three miners
should go to the first aid box to get the
escapeway map and carbon monoxide (CO)
detector. ____ 4. Everyone should get their
readily accessible SCSR (located within 25 feet)
and make preparations to assemble at the
previously established emergency meeting place
(mantrip station). ____ 5. The entire crew
should go get the carbon monoxide (CO) detector
from the first aid box, then go get the
barricade materials located in 5 entry and
barricade themselves in 5 entry face area -
inby the LOCC.
42
QUESTION D - ANSWERS
  • CORRECT Someone needs to step up and volunteer
    or be designated as the leader of the group.
  • CORRECT All these things are very important to
    communicate to the surface as soon as possible
    after any mine emergency.
  • CORRECT Very important. The CO detector and
    escapeway map may be life-saving during any mine
    emergency.
  • CORRECT Seconds may save lives in getting their
    readily accessible SCSRs. Poisonous gases may
    enter any area in the mine very quickly following
    a mine explosion.
  • INCORRECT Barricade ONLY when all escape routes
    are blocked or too hazardous to travel.

43
NORTH MAINS CREW Two of the crew members travel
to the first aid supply box and get the carbon
monoxide (CO) detector, where it is normally
stored. As soon as he activates the detector and
conducts a test, he detects 150 ppm CO at the
mantrip station. A secondary mine telephone is
located at the end of the lifeline in the primary
escapeway.


44
QUESTION E
What are some things that the crew should be
thinking about and/or doing at this time?
____ 1. Barricade themselves inby the LOCC in
5 entry face area. ____ 2. Immediately try to
call the outside man on the secondary mine
telephone to try to determine what has happened
and where and that the five of them are O.K. at
this time. ____ 3. After trying to call the
outside man on the secondary mine telephone,
disconnect the telephone to put on the mantrip to
take with them. ____ 4. Everyone should donn
their SCSR due to 150 ppm CO detected in the
area. ____ 5. Each man should make sure they
have their second SCSR and start evacuation by
crawling down the 3 entry (beltline entry)
alternate escapeway because 150 ppm CO was
detected in 4 entry (primary escapeway).
45
QUESTION E - ANSWERS
  • INCORRECT Barricade ONLY when all means of
    escape are blocked or too hazardous to travel.
  • CORRECT Attempting to contact the outside man
    as soon as possible immediately after any mine
    emergency is very important.
  • CORRECT The secondary mine telephone, located
    at the end of the lifeline in the primary
    escapeway, may not have damaged by the explosion
    and the crew should take a mine telephone with
    them in case they can travel outby where the
    telephone line may not be damaged and could be
    used.
  • INCORRECT Donning SCSRs may not be necessary
    in 150 ppm CO, as this amount of CO can be
    inhaled for several hours without any appreciable
    effect.
  • INCORRECT Never try to escape from any mine
    emergency by walking or crawling any escapeway,
    if you have a means and its safe to ride
    transportation equipment. You can always ride
    much faster than you can walk or crawl,
    especially crawling in low coal seams.

46
NORTH MAINS CREW The five man crew decided to use
the mantrip to attempt escape from the mine out
the 4 entry (primary escapeway). The crew loads
the secondary mine telephone and tether line on
the mantrip. The crew traveled two (2) crosscuts
outby the mantrip station and encountered light
smoke. One of the crew members conducts a gas
test and detects 900 ppm CO.



47
QUESTION F
What should the crew do now?
____ 1. Stop the mantrip and donn their
SCSRs. ____ 2. Retreat back to the section and
barricade themselves inby the LOCC in 5 entry
face area. ____ 3. Retreat back to the section
on the mantrip and attempt escape from the mine
out the 3 beltline entry (alternate escapeway)
or one of the return air entries (1 or
2). ____ 4. Each man should open and activate
both of their SCSRs, just in case one of them
does not operate properly.
48
QUESTION F - ANSWERS
  • CORRECT The presence of smoke, even light
    smoke, and the large increase in CO from 150 to
    900 ppm, tells you that the atmosphere is
    becoming poisonous very quickly. Never wait
    until you go from light smoke to dense smoke or
    into an irrespirable atmosphere before you donn
    your SCSR. Remember the ALMA mine fire and the
    problems that the miners had when they traveled
    through light smoke and entered dense smoke
    before they began to open and donn their SCSRs.
    Also, remember that more than 1500 ppm - CO is
    dangerous to breathe for more than one (1) hour.
  • INCORRECT Barricade only when all means of
    escape are blocked or too hazardous to travel.
  • INCORRECT The crew should remember that the 3
    beltline entry (alternate escapeway) is blocked
    to mantrip travel by the feeder and will be a
    loss of valuable time. The return air entries
    should be the last choices as a means of escape
    and should only be traveled when intake air
    entries are blocked or too hazardous to travel.
    Smoke and/or poisonous gases will be present in
    the return entries following any mine emergency.
  • INCORRECT Only open and donn one (1) SCSR.
    Your secondary SCSR is a spare and should only be
    opened when necessary to transfer to a new SCSR.

49
NORTH MAINS CREW The crew has donned and
activated their SCSRs and are traveling the 4
entry (primary escapeway) in the mantrip. The
crew arrives at the mouth of the section and
observes that the return air overcasts from the
West Mains section in 4 and 5 entries have been
destroyed and are blocking their travel with the
mantrip. The crew observes dense smoke and feel
heat in the 4 and 5 entries at this location.
The crew observes that the lifeline has been
torn into by the explosion forces and destruction
of the overcasts.


50
QUESTION G
What should the crew do now?
____ 1. Retreat back to the section on the
mantrip and attempt to escape out the 3
beltline entry (alternate escapeway) or one of
the return air entries (1 or 2). ____ 2.
Retreat back to the section and barricade
themselves inby the LOCC in 5 entry face
area. ____ 3. Depart the mantrip take the
additional SCSRs, tether line, secondary mine
telephone and escapeway map and retreat inby to
the door located two (2) crosscuts inby the
overcasts travel into the 3 beltline entry
(alternate escapeway) and continue evacuation by
crawling out the beltline entry. Travel in dense
smoke should occur only if other escapeway
entries are blocked or too hazardous to travel.
Escape travel should occur in an entry equipped
with an intact lifeline, if possible. ____ 4.
Get the tether line off the mantrip and attach
to each person before traveling through the door
into the 3 beltline entry, just in case that
they were to encounter dense smoke.
51
QUESTION G - ANSWERS
  • INCORRECT The 3 beltline entry is blocked to
    mantrip travel by the feeder. The crew should
    realize this before returning and attempting
    travel in this entry. The return air entries is
    the last place that you want to be following any
    mine emergency and should be your last choice as
    a means to escape from any mine emergency. In
    this case, it would result in a loss of valuable
    time because all access routes to the return
    entries are blocked by equipment that cannot be
    moved (power is off).
  • INCORRECT Barricading is always the last resort
    as previously discussed.
  • CORRECT An alternate escapeway should be
    traveled at this time. The secondary mine
    telephone, secondary SCSRs and the tether line
    may become valuable during escape from any mine
    emergency. The tether line is critically
    important because you may have to travel in smoke
    in an entry that does not have a lifeline and
    provides a means for the miners to stay together.
  • CORRECT The tether line is critically important
    for the miners to have at all times while
    attempting escape.

52
NORTH MAINS CREW The crew traveled through the
door into the 3 beltline entry. They
encounter dense smoke and feel heat but are able
to maintain contact with the lifeline as they
escape. The crew has arrived at crosscut 10 , in
the 3 belt entry (alternate escapeway), where
the SCSRs are stored. The crew observes that the
telephone line in this entry is destroyed. One
crew member recommends that each of them get two
(2) new SCSRs for each of them from the storage
box.
53
QUESTION H
What should the crew do now?
____ 1. Each crew member should only get one
(1) SCSR from the storage box. ____ 2. Each
crew member should get two (2) SCSRs from the
storage box because everyone else in the mine
was probably killed by the explosion and wont
need SCSRs. ____ 3. The crew should remove the
spare CO detector from the storage box to take
with them as they escape. ____ 4. Each crew
member should transfer to a new SCSR even though
theyre still breathing O.K.
54
QUESTION H - ANSWERS
  • CORRECT You should never get more than one(1)
    new SCSR from a storage box because other miners
    attempting escape may need the additional SCSR.s
  • INCORRECT Never get more than one (1) SCSR from
    any storage box.
  • CORRECT If available, a spare CO detector may
    be invaluable during an escape.
  • INCORRECT You should never transfer to a new
    SCSR just because its available. Transfer only
    when needed.

55
SCENE SHIFTS TO THE SURFACE The outside man
attempted to contact both section crews and the
belt maintenance crew but was unsuccessful. He
also had deenergized all underground electrical
power but left the mine fan circuit
energized. The outside man has also contacted the
mine operator, State and Federal officials, local
sheriff and State Police, EMS and mine rescue
personnel. All officials have been notified and
are enroute to the mine.
56
While reattempting to contact all personnel
underground by the primary mine telephone and the
secondary mine telephone, the mine operator
arrived back at the mine. The three (3) belt men
arrived on the surface just as the mine operator
pulled into the parking lot. The mine operator
could not get much information from the belt men
before they went home. They were really scared
and all they could tell him was that they were
located at crosscut 9 in the belt entry when
they felt a sudden outrush of air with coal dust
and rock dust suspended in the air and they
immediately traveled to the surface.
57
QUESTION I
What are some of the first things that the mine
operator should consider doing?
____ 1. Verify that all necessary officials
have been notified and are enroute to the
mine. ____ 2. Contact the local pastor that has
been pre-arranged and request that he report to
the predetermined location (church) to be with
the families and friends of the missing
miners. ____ 3. Contact the next-of-kin of the
missing miners and provide information/directions
to the predetermined location (family staging
area). ____ 4. Get the five (5) extra SCSRs and
put on the other mantrip donn his SCSR and
travel into the mine - 4 entry (primary
escapeway) to look for the missing miners
because this is most likely the first
choice-escape route that the miners may be
traveling.
58
QUESTION I - ANSWERS
  • CORRECT The mine operator or agent should
    always verify that all necessary officials have
    been notified and are enroute to the mine. The
    mine operator or agent is required to notify
    State and Federal officials as soon as possible,
    not to exceed 15 minutes, if necessary to get to
    a telephone.
  • CORRECT Notifying a pre-arranged pastor and
    requesting that he come to a pre-determined
    location is critical for the families and friends
    of the missing miners.
  • CORRECT Notifying the next-of-kin of the
    missing miners is critically important. The
    next-of-kin should not receive this terrible
    information on the street or from the news.
  • INCORRECT ABSOLUTELY NEVER DO THIS!!!! Never
    donn an SCSR and go into a mine to look for
    missing miners following any mine emergency.
    SCSRs are used for escape purposes only.

59
OFFICIALS ARRIVE AT THE MINE The State and
Federal officials, mine rescue personnel, State
and local police and EMS personnel, have arrived
at the mine. The police establish a security
boundary at the junction of the mine road with
the main road. State and Federal officials, mine
rescue personnel and the mine operator establish
a command center in the mine office where mine
maps , a mine telephone and a public telephone
are located.
60
The mine operator briefs the other officials and
provides the following information
  • 15 men were underground when apparently a mine
    explosion occurred
  • 7 men were assigned to produce coal on the West
    Mains section 5 men were assigned to perform
    maintenance work on the North Mains section and 3
    belt men were assigned to perform routine belt
    work
  • The 3 beltmen exited the mine about 5 minutes
    after they felt a sudden outrush of air, coal
    dust and rock dust they were located at crosscut
    9 when the event occurred they were scared to
    death and have gone home.
  • Dense smoke has been exiting the exhausting mine
    fan housing since about 10 minutes after the
    apparent explosion
  • An old, extremely gassy, abandoned mine is
    located underneath our mine about 140 feet in the
    general area at the 2 belt drive transfer
    point
  • The fan gauge shows a reduced fan pressure just
    about half of what it normally is since the
    incident occurred.

61
State and Federal officials, mine rescue
personnel, and the mine operator develop a rescue
plan that consists of
  1. Initially exploring up the 4 and 5 entries to
    the 6th crosscut and tie across into the 3, 2
    and 1 entries
  2. And then continuing exploring the 4 and 5
    entries to the 10th crosscut and then tie across
    to the 3, 2 and 1 entries.

62
SCENE SHIFTS TO THE WEST MAINS SECTION The crew
realized that most likely a mine explosion had
occurred outby their location. The foreman had
used the mine telephone at the loading point to
try to call the outside man to try to determine
what had happened and where, but had been
unsuccessful. The foreman has accounted for his
crew and have assembled at the mantrip station.
63
QUESTION J
What should the foreman and crew be thinking
about and/or doing at this time?
____ 1. One crew member should attempt to call
the outside man by using the secondary mine
telephone required in the primary escapeway
located near the end of the lifeline. ____ 2.
The foreman should conduct a gas test
immediately to determine the amount of oxygen
carbon monoxide (CO), and methane at this
location. ____ 3. Send a couple men to
retrieve the escapeway map from the first aid
box to take with them during the emergency
evacuation. ____ 4. Take all his crew, travel to
the 3 entry, inby the LOCC in the face area and
barricade.
64
QUESTION J - ANSWERS
  • CORRECT The secondary telephone may not have
    been damaged by the explosion and could be used
    to contact surface personnel.
  • CORRECT VERY IMPORTANT!! The crew needs to
    know the types and amounts of gases that they
    have immediately after any mine emergency,
    especially CO in this apparent explosion
    incident.
  • CORRECT The escapeway map may be invaluable in
    any attempt of emergency escape. This map must
    absolutely be kept up-to-date at all times.
  • INCORRECT Barricading is always the last resort
    as previously discussed.

65
WEST MAINS SECTION The foreman tried to contact
the outside man using the secondary mine
telephone (located near the lifeline in the
primary escapeway) but also was unsuccessful. The
foreman and his crew have retrieved the escapeway
map, tether line and secondary mine telephone and
board the mantrip for evacuation. Electrical
power on the section had deenergized
approximately one minute after hearing the loud
noise and rock/coal dust inundating the working
section. The foreman had conducted a gas test
immediately after feeling the sudden inrush of
air onto the section and had detected 850 ppm
CO and 18 oxygen. The foreman and crew have
boarded the mantrip. The foreman conducts a
second gas test before departing the section,
approximately three (3) minutes later and detects
1150 ppm CO.
66
QUESTION K
What should the foreman and crew be thinking
about and/or doing at this time?
____ 1. Go get the barricade material, retreat
to the face area and barricade inby the LOCC,
in 3 entry in the face area. ____ 2. Realize
the urgency of immediate escape by realizing that
the electrical power is off in the mine, that
the pump located in the 4 entry - primary
escapeway will be inoperative and that water
will accumulate rapidly blocking mantrip travel
through this area. ____ 3. Everyone should donn
their SCSR immediately because the CO is
increasing rapidly and will be approaching the
poisonous level very quickly. ____ 4. Travel
back to the LOCC and wait 30 minutes for the
ventilation to improve and reduce the amount of
CO in the area.
67
QUESTION K - ANSWERS
  • INCORRECT Barricading is the last resort as
    previously discussed.
  • CORRECT The crew must realize that with
    electrical power off in the mine, including the
    pump located in the primary escapeway, that water
    will accumulate rapidly and block their escape in
    the intake escapeway. TIME IS CRITICAL WHEN
    WATER IS NOT BEING PUMPED - MAY BLOCK ESCAPEWAYS
    AND TRAVELWAYS.
  • CORRECT The CO is increasing rapidly. In three
    (3) minutes, the CO increased from 850 ppm to
    1150 ppm. The crew should donn their SCSRs
    immediately because the CO is increasing at a
    rapid rate. CO above 1500 ppm becomes dangerous
    to breathe after one (1) hour.
  • INCORRECT A rapid escape is critical in any
    mine emergency situation. The mine ventilation
    will not improve, because most likely permanent
    stoppings have been destroyed and/or damaged
    causing a short circuit in the ventilation.

68
WEST MAINS CREW The crew travels as quickly as
possible toward the surface in the 4 entry
(primary escapeway). As they approach the No. 2
pump area located (10th crosscut outby the face
area), they smell a burned smell, detect 250 ppm
CO and encounter water roofed in both the 4
and 5 entries.
69
QUESTION L
What should the crew do now?
____ 1. Retreat back to the section and attempt
to escape to the surface out the 3 beltline
entry (alternate escapeway) or one of the return
air entries (1 or 2). ____ 2. Retreat back to
the section and barricade. ____ 3. Try to swim
through the water since the dip is only about 50
feet in length. ____ 4. Everyone should depart
the mantrip get both of their SCSRs get the
tether line and secondary telephone travel
through the door and attempt further escape by
crawling out the 3 entry (beltline entry
alternate escapeway).
70
QUESTION L - ANSWERS
  • INCORRECT The 3 beltline entry is blocked to
    mantrip travel by the feeder. The crew should
    realize this before returning and attempting
    travel in this entry resulting in loss of
    valuable time. Never attempt escape in a return
    air entry unless all intake air entries are
    blocked or too hazardous to travel. Smoke and or
    poisonous gases will be in the return entries,
    especially if the fan is operating and officials
    will be trying to keep the fan operating to
    provide fresh air in the intake entries where
    miners will be attempting escape. In this case,
    it would result in loss of valuable time because
    all access routes to the return entries are
    blocked by equipment that cannot be moved (power
    is off) or the roof fall.
  • INCORRECT Barricading is the last resort as
    previously discussed.
  • INCORRECT Never attempt swimming through water.
  • CORRECT Crawling the 3 beltline entry
    (alternate escapeway) is the only means of
    escape. The crew cant ride the beltline from
    the section because the feeder is blocking the 3
    entry. Miners may consider removing a stopping
    to gain access to the belt entry with the mantrip
    but this would be a waste of valuable time in
    this situation because the overcasts at the mouth
    of the section were destroyed by the explosion
    and has the entry blocked to mantrip travel.

71
WEST MAINS CREW The crew travels to the door
located in the 8th crosscut outby the face area,
between the 3 (beltline entry) and 4 entry
(primary escapeway). The crew forgot to get the
secondary mine telephone off the mantrip. The
foreman opens the door and sees light smoke.
72
QUESTION M
What should the foreman and crew do now?
____ 1. Travel on through the door and evacuate
out the 3 (beltline entry alternate
escapeway). ____ 2. Stop, sit down and
pray. ____ 3. Everyone should attach themselves
to the tether line donn their SCSRs before
traveling on though the door into the 3 entry
(alternate escapeway). ____ 4. Travel back to
the section and barricade inby the LOCC in 3
entry face area.
73
QUESTION M - ANSWERS
  • INCORRECT The light smoke that the foreman
    saw when he opened the door may turn to dense
    smoke very quickly. Never wait to donn SCSRs
    when smoke is encountered. It is much more
    difficult to donn SCSRs in dense smoke.
    REMEMBER the difficulty that the miners at the
    ALMA mine fire had while traveling from light
    smoke into dense smoke before opening/donning
    their SCSRs.
  • CORRECT EXCELLENT IDEA.
  • CORRECT The miners attaching themselves to the
    tether line and donning their SCSRs before going
    through the door may prove to be life-saving in
    this situation.
  • INCORRECT As previously discussed in several
    questions.

74
WEST MAINS CREW The crew has tied themselves to
the tether line, donned their SCSRs and followed
(crawled) the lifeline located in the 3 beltline
entry (alternate escapeway) to the mouth of the
section. The crew encounters dense smoke at the
mouth of the section, which limits visibility to
arms length. The crew had forgot and left their
secondary mine telephone on the mantrip. The
foreman observed that the telephone line was
destroyed by the explosion at the 2 belt drive
transfer area. The crew arrives at cc 10 where
the SCSRs are stored. At this time, four (4)
miners are having problems breathing through
their SCSR.
75
QUESTION N
What should the crew do now?
____ 1. All the miners should transfer to a new
SCSR just because they have become
available. ____ 2. Only the four (4) miners
having breathing problems should transfer to a
new SCSR and the other miners should obtain a new
SCSR to take with them as they continue escaping
from the mine. ____ 3. Disconnect the four (4)
miners having breathing problems from the tether
line and leave them to travel behind at a slower
speed because they probably wont be able to
make it to the surface and will slow the travel
rate of the other miners.
76
QUESTION N - ANSWERS
  • INCORRECT Never transfer to a new SCSR just
    because you have access to it. An additional
    SCSR may become necessary later to safely escape
    from the mine. Every ounce of oxygen may prove
    to be critical in any mine emergency situation.
  • CORRECT Only the miners having problems
    breathing through their SCSR should transfer at
    this time. Dont transfer SCSRs unless you need
    to.
  • INCORRECT Always try to keep all the miners
    tied together with the tether line. A tether
    line with all the miners attached may have saved
    the lives of two miners at the ALMA mine fire.

77
WEST MAINS CREW The crew has arrived at crosscut
10 in the 3 beltline entry (alternate
escapeway) where the SCSRs are stored. The
foreman observed that the telephone line is
virtually destroyed at this location. The four
(4) miners having breathing problems have
transferred to new SCSRs and are breathing O.K.
now. The other miners get one (1) SCSR for each
miner from the storage box. The crew continues
evacuation out the 4 entry (primary
escapeway). The crew arrives at the dip (4th
crosscut in the mine No. 1 pump area) and
joined the North Mains crew where the water in 4
and 5 entries had roofed. The foreman took one
(1) man with him and traveled back to the 6th
crosscut and traveled through the door into the
3 - beltline entry. Then, they traveled outby
in the 3 beltline entry to the dip area and
observed that the beltli
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