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Renaissance England

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Renaissance England (1485-1660) Raphael s The School of Athens – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Renaissance England


1
Renaissance England
  • (1485-1660)

Raphaels The School of Athens
2
Renaissance
  • Renaissance is French for rebirth.
  • Renewed love of classical learning and how the
    texts survived.
  • A rebirth of the human spirit of curiosity and
    creativity.
  • A Renaissance man

3
The Renaissance in Italy
  • Italys vast wealth from banking and trade help
    it flourish.
  • Famous Italians of this time
  • Painters da Vinci, Michelangelo, etc.
  • Explorers Columbus, Vasco da Gama
  • Scientists Galileo
  • The popes serve as
  • patrons, encouraging
  • further growth.

Michelangelos Sistine Chapel commissioned by
Pope Julius II
4
Humanism
  • Tried to find an answer to what it is to be
    human and lead a good life, using both classical
    and Christian sources as inspiration.
  • Humanism Humanities?
  • Thomas Mores Utopia is a great example of
    humanism it analyzes the current problems of
    England and envisioning an ideal society

5
Religion
  • Numerous Reformations happened at this time,
    which weakened the Catholic Church.
  • Martin Luther (1483-1546) Protestant
    Reformation in Germany
  • Humanists in England were criticizing the
    Catholic Church
  • Henry VIII creates the Church of England
    to get a divorce

6
The War of the Roses
  • 1455-1487
  • Unlike the Hundred Years War, this war took place
    on British soil.
  • King Richard II died without an heir. He had been
    overthrown and murdered by Henry IV who usurped
    the throne.
  • Edward IV gt Henry VI gt Edward IV gt (princes)
    gt Richard III gt Henry VII
  • Lancastrian faction Henry IVs descendants and
    supporters.
  • Yorkist faction descended from Edward IV,
    associated with House of York from North England.
  • Henry Tudor (Henry VII) had won the final battle
    and easily took the throne (most of the
    candidates had died in battle). He also married
    Edward IVs daughter to strengthen his claim to
    the throne.

7
Henry VIII the early years
  • England had never been very wealthy,
  • but thanks to Henry VIIs financial
  • skills, Henry VIII took the throne
  • with a considerable fortune.
  • King at 18, dashing and handsome, Henry
  • married Catherine of Aragorn (his dead older
    brothers wife).
  • Henry showed little interest in politics and
    spent most of his time amusing himself with sport
    and entertainment.
  • But Henry showed an interest in the navy. Swayed
    by Catherines father Ferdinand, and his own
    pride, Henry attacked France in the early part of
    his reign.

8
Henry VIII the marriages
  • With England showing more distaste towards Spain,
    and Catherines constant miscarriages, started
    causing some major changes. Henry showed more
    interest in politics and in his own legacy
  • Catherine (mother of Mary) Anne Boleyn
    pregnant, no male heir, broke from pope to have a
    divorce
  • Anne Boleyn Elizabeth and a miscarriage, Henry
    notices Jane, framed for treason and incest,
    executed
  • Jane Seymour married within a day of Annes
    death, gave birth to Edward and died
  • Anne of Cleves French alliance, Henry notices
    Kathryn, divorce
  • Kathryn Howard thirty years younger,
    infidelity, executed
  • Katherine Parr married as many times as Henry,
    good stepmother, remarried right after Henry died

9
Henry VIII the later years
  • Henrys ego was as enormous as his body, but
    fortunately many of the selfish moves he made for
    himself benefited England.
  • The separation of government from the church
    saved England from religious civil war.
  • His interest in the Navy helped it build up to
    the impressive fleet Elizabeth I needed to defeat
    the Spanish Armada.
  • His forceful attempt at unifying Scotland with
    England was not successful, but it encouraged the
    importance of unity in the British Isles and
    brought structured rule to Ireland.
  • His foundations for Parliament were important for
    the future of England. Henrys desire to not
    perform an illegal act according to law made this
    possible.

10
Elizabeth I (1558-1603)
  • Nothing was expected of Elizabeth. She was
    placed third in line for the throne, behind
    Edward and Mary.
  • Edward VI (1547-1552)
  • Mary I (1553-1557)
  • Elizabeth took over the kingdom during a period
    of fierce religious feuds. She restored law and
    order and reestablished the Church of England.
    The pope excommunicated her.

11
Elizabeth I
  • the Virgin Queen
  • Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots
  • King Philip and the Spanish Armada
  • James VI of Scotland takes the throne

12
Life in Renaissance England
  • Wealth and security throughout England.
  • Catholicism is illegal, more illegal to be a
    Jesuit.
  • Language The educated use thou, the uneducated
    thee thy and thine
  • Servants exist, but they are hopeful.
  • London crowded, smelly, the sign of success
  • Ways to kill time sports, gossip, theatre

13
The Flood of Literature
  • Elizabeth as a muse and literary symbol.
  • Poetry pastorals, love sonnets, carpe diem
  • A philosophical and cultural revolution.
  • Drama
  • Metaphysical poetry intellectual use of
    conceits, paradox, and imagery

14
Pastorals and Pastoral Poets
  • Christopher Marlowe translated love poems by
    Ovid considered too erotic and burned by the
    Bishop of London, became a spy, wrote the play
    Dr. Faustus, was killed(?)
  • Sir Walter Raleigh - handsome, well-dressed, and
    arrogant, captain of Elizabeths guard and fought
    for England in numerous countries, enamored with
    Elizabeth, Spain demanded Raleigh be killed to
    make peace with England (James), noble and
    carefree about death
  • Pastorals depict country life in idyllic,
    idealized terms. The characters in pastoral
    poems are naïve and innocent yet express
    themselves with poetic sophistication.
  • P. 295-298 (1-5 and write two PROPER paragraphs
    in response to The Bait)

15
Metaphysical Poetry
  • John Donne government career, poet in secrecy,
    well-read in the morning and socialite in the
    evening, married a 17 yr old and arrested
  • John Donne,
  • Anne Donne,
  • Undone.
  • Eventually wrote against his first religion
    Catholicism, James made him a clergyman, gave
    brilliant, theatrical sermons until his death.
  • Metaphysical poetry intellectual and abstract,
    noted for its ingenious and obscure imagery,
    philosophical and religious speculations,
    rough-sounding meter, conceits, and witty word
    play.
  • P. 338 (1-5) as a class / p. 342 (1-6) / p. 349
    (1-5, 8)

16
John Milton (1608-1674)
  • Chose to be a poet early in life, Milton came
    from a supportive and financially-capable family
    that could support his aspirations.
  • Milton fought for the Parliament when they
    struggled with King Charles, causing many to
    believe he was a Puritan. Later he became a
    diplomat, translating all correspondence with
    other countries.
  • Milton went blind at the age of forty-four before
    writing his epic.
  • Charles son was put on the throne by the people,
    years later, branding Milton a traitor and
    practically getting him beheaded.

17
John Miltons Paradise Lost
  • Miltons daughters read poetry to their father to
    help his study. They also would write his epic
    for him
  • Milton debated on the subject of his literary
    epic, and he found British folklore like Arthur
    too fictitious and chose the Bible instead as his
    subject.
  • Imitated Greek epic and Shakespeare
  • Milton covered few Bible verses, hoping to answer
    the question of why if God loves us does he also
    allow evil in the world. In the process of
    writing this epic, Milton didnt realize that
    Satan started to become the hero of this epic a
    fierce individual, fighting against immeasurable
    odds again and again.

18
Sir Thomas More 1478-1535
  • Son of a prominent judge, wrote comedies while at
    Oxford, considered being a monk and took up their
    habits
  • Became close with Henry VIII
  • (assisting with uprisings and
  • helping Henry with his writing),
  • made Speaker of the House of
  • Commons and Chancellor of
  • the Duchy of Lancaster
  • Established parliamentary right of free speech
    and wouldnt endorse Henrys divorce, becomes
    Lord Chancellor, beheaded for treason, "The
    King's good servant, but God's First."

19
Mores Utopia
  • Utopia, originally written in Latin and later
    translated into many languages, depicts what its
    narrator, Raphael Hythloday, claimed to be an
    ideal human society, the island of Utopia.
  • There is still a great deal of debate whether
    Utopia is Mores ideal country or merely a
    criticism of Tudor England.
  • There are many ways to analyze the society of
    Utopia. It can be thought of as the culmination
    of rational thought or Humanist beliefs, as an
    alternative to feudalism, a statement in favor of
    communal society, or an effort to promote reform
    according to Christian values.
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