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Biology and Anatomy of Mouse

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Biology and Anatomy of Mouse ... nuisance animals fancy breeds Human ... He recognized that inbreeding mice eliminated the genetic diversity in unrelated animals and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Biology and Anatomy of Mouse


1
Biology and Anatomy of Mouse
2
A brief history of rodent welfare
  • The word mouse in the English language can be
    traced back to the Latin mus, then to the Greek
    mys,and finally to the ancient Sanskrit mush
    meaning "to steal.

3
Taxonomy
Order Rodentia Sub-Order Myomorpha Family
Muridae Sub-Family Murinae Genus Mus
Species Mus musculus
4
21st century rodents pets or pests?
  • nuisance animals
  • fancy breeds

5
Human values determine animal welfare
  • When a mouse is being used for research on
    cancer, it is highly valued and a range of
    standards and legislation governs its care and
    management.
  • Once a mouse escapes from its cage, invades
    human space or presents a threat to economically
    important crops, its status changes and it
    becomes a pest that can be trapped or poisoned
    with little concern for its welfare.
  • The value of the animal determines the way in
    which people treat animals, and what constitutes
    an acceptable level of welfare.

6
Animal value factors
  • Factors about animals that may affect how people
    regard them
  • A species that gets high media coverage,
    publicity
  • Cute and cuddly
  • Similar to humans, so that we relate to it
  • Of use to us
  • A danger to us or to other animals
  • A species that is endangered or near extinction

7
Animal values mice in research
  • Today, the mouse is recognized by the scientific
    community as the most important model for human
    diseases and disorders
  • Mice account for the majority (98) of procedures
    involving genetically modified animals.

8
Reasons for use
  • Inexpensive
  • Small size
  • Short life span (2-3 years
  • Can study many generations in short time period

9
Reasons for use
  • Rapid Reproduction (G.P. 19-21 days)
  • Large litter size

10
Mice uses
  • Genetic Research
  • Breeding research
  • Cancer
  • Drug testing
  • Cosmetics
  • Virology
  • Histocompatability (tissue transfer)
  • Congenital defects
  • Aging
  • Radiobiology
  • Diabetis
  • Behavior

These mice are glowing because scientists
inserted a gene found in certain bioluminescent
jellyfish into their DNA
11
Physiology
  • Life span
  • 2 to 3 years
  • Adult weight
  • 20 to 40 gm
  • Birth weight/condition
  • 1 to 5 gm
  • blind
  • naked
  • Weaning age
  • 21 to 28 days
  • Temperature
  • 97.5 100.4 ?F
  • HR
  • 325-780 beats/min
  • RR
  • 60-220/min

Urine pH is 7.3-8.5, with a mean specific gravity
of 1.08 highly concentrated
12
Reproduction
  • Puberty
  • 6-8 weeks
  • Estrous cycle
  • 4-5 days
  • Spontaneous ovulation
  • polyestrus
  • Gestation
  • 19-21 days
  • Litter size
  • 1-20 (average is 6-12)
  • Eyes open
  • 12-13 days

Vaginal plugs persist for 18-24 hours
13
Reproduction cont.
  • Breeding duration 7-9 months
  • Breeding onset
  • Male 50 days
  • Female 50-60 days

14
Breeds
15
Mus musculus
  • The laboratory strains of mice used today are
    descendants of the western European house mouse
    (Mus domesticus), with some genes from
    Asianspecies.
  • The taxonomic designation Mus musculus, as
    commonly applied, is a composite designation for
    several interbreeding species.

16
  • As early as the 17th and 18th centuries, mice
    were already being used in studies of anatomy and
    respiration.
  • The breeders and fanciers of 19th century Europe
    developed the albino and color mutants, and they
    began the investigations of varietal
    characteristics and inheritance that provided
    stocks for later research.
  • This yellow mutant is used in studies of
    pigmentation, implantation, obesity, and
    sterility.

17
Rex (Frizzie)
18
Spotted
19
Inbred mouse strains
  • From left to right in this photograph are the
    BALB/c, DBA/2, and C3H strains. In 1907 Clarence
    Cook Little, then a Harvard undergraduate, began
    studying the inheritance of coat color in mice.
  • Two years later he began inbreeding mice. Little
    was also interested in studying neoplastic
    diseases. He recognized that inbreeding mice
    eliminated the genetic diversity in unrelated
    animals and facilitated his study of tumors.

20
Mouse strains (inbred, mutant, and genetically
engineered mice)
  • http//www.informatics.jax.org/external/festing/mo
    use/STRAINS.shtml
  • A genetically defined strain is any strain in
    which the genetic background is known, is similar
    or identical from one mouse to another, and can
    be faithfully reproduced over time (Davisson,
    1999)
  • Where previously there were only 140,000
    variations in DNA sequence described, it turns
    out there are 8.3 million.

inbred animal used for experimental purposes
21
Albino mouse
  • This image shows a Swiss mouse. In 1926 Dr. Clara
    Lynch of the Rockefeller Institute obtained two
    male and seven female albino mice from a
    colleague in Switzerland. These were the
    ancestors of the so-called Swiss mice widely
    used today in research.

22
Anatomy
23
ExternalVibrissae.
24
Harderian Gland behind eye
25
Left forepaw
26
Right hind paw.
27
Genitalia
  • External genitalia.Female
  • External genitalia.Male.

28
Skull.
29
Right mandible
Dental formula is 2(I 1/1, M 3/3) 16. The
incisors are open-rooted and grow continuously.
Mice will bite or "pinch" with their sharp
incisors if mishandled
30
Viscera - Neck dissected
31
Ventralaspect of female.
Mammary tissuein situ
32
  • Thoracic Cavity Abdominal Cavity

33
Sexing
  • Ano-genital distance
  • Females closer than male
  • Adult male testes below tail but retractable

Female
Male
34
Female
  • Male
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