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Early Latin America


... musician Brazil: ... by labor draft Used European mining techniques 1/5 profit went to crown Mining stimulated other parts of the economy Haciendas and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Early Latin America

Early Latin America
Spaniards and Portuguese From Reconquest to
  • Geographic location of Iberian peninsula meant
    conflict and thus a strong military tradition
  • Mid-15th century Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella
    of Castile unified kingdoms and got rid of
    religious and ethnic diversity in their kingdoms
  • 1492 Fall of Granada and economic support to

Iberian Society and Tradition
  • Traditionally, Spanish and Portuguese lived in
    cities- they transported this to the American
    Indian countryside
  • Use of African slaves already common on Iberian
    peninsula-- merchants use of slaves
  • Political centralization of Portugal and Castile
    with well-trained bureaucracy similar to China
  • Heavy influence of religion and church

The Chronology of Conquest
  • 1492-1570-  conquest-  administration and economy
    set up
  • 1570-1700 consolidation
  • 18th century- reform and reorganization that
    intensified the colonial relationship

The Caribbean Crucible
  • Conquest of Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Panama
  • Arrival of Spanish women and African slaves
    represented a shift from an area of conquest to
    one of settlement
  • Agricultural Taino people provided enough surplus
    labor so began the encomienda system-
  • But native population quickly decimated and for
    200 years a backwater until sugar and slaves
    allowed it to surge again
  • Disease and conquest-  Bartolome de Las Casas
    struggle for justice

The Paths of Conquest
  • Conquests usually done by an individual or small
    group with government support
  • Conquest directed at Mexico and South America
  • Hernan Cortes -conquest of the Aztec in
    Tenochtitlan in 1521 (defeat of Montezuma II)-
    won partly because of help from Aztec enemies and
    also from disease, starvation, and battle
  • 1535- New Spain
  • Franciso Pizarro and the Inca-  1533 Cuzco fell. 
    By 1540 most of Peru under Spanish control
    although active resistance continued
  • Spanish expeditions spread out then to North
    America and South America  Francisco Vazquez de
    Coronado in N. America and Pedro de Valdivia in
  • By 1570 there were 192 Spanish cities

The Conquerors
  • Crown received 1/5 of treasure
  • Conquerors came from all walks of life and were
    hoping to better themselves and serve God
  • Technological edge (horses, firearms, steel
    weapons) gave them great advantage

Conquest and Morality
  • Justification of Spanish rule and destruction by
    Juan Gines de Sepulveda versus Las Casas
  • Huge population declines due to epidemics and
    mistreatment disrupted American societies

Exploitation of the Indians
  • No interference with aspects that served colonial
    goals or conflict with Spanish authority or
    religion.  Indian nobility in Mexico and Peru,
    for example, remained middlemen between the tax
    and labor demands.
  • By mid-16th century enslavement of Indians
  • Colonial governments increasingly extracted labor
    and taxes from native peoples 

Colonial Economies and Governments
  • Spanish America an agrarian society- 80 of the
    people worked on land
  • Mining was the essential activity and the basis
    of Spains rule in West Indies-  silver formed
    the basis of Spains wealth in America

The Silver Heart of Empire
  • 1545-1565 major silver discoveries and mining
    towns developed.  Potosi in Peru and Zacatecas in
  • Labor first provided by slaves and encomienda
    workers and then replaced by labor draft
  • Used European mining techniques
  • 1/5 profit went to crown
  • Mining stimulated other parts of the economy

Haciendas and Villages
  • Family-owned rural estates developed (haciendas)
  • Labor force came from Native Americans and
  • Haciendas became basis of wealth for local

Industry and Commerce
  • Small textile workshops- produced cloth and
    colonies no longer depended on Europe for basic
  • Spain tightly controlled the silver trade-  Board
    of Trade in Seville.  Worked with merchant guild-
  • Galleons- large heavily armed ships- carried the
    silver belonging to the crown
  • Problems-  inflation and cost of keeping up the

Ruling an Empire State and Church
  • Sovereignty of colonies rested on papal grant-
    Treaty of Tordesillas (1494), which awarded lands
    to the east to Spain and to the west to Portugal
  • Spanish empire became great bureaucratic system
    built on a juridical core and staffed by lawyers
  • King ruled through the Council of the Indies
  • 16th century- Spain created 2 viceroyalties- one
    in Mexico and one in Peru.
  • Clergy formed another branch of state apparatus
  • Cultural life around religion- architecture,
    books, schools
  • Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz- author, poet,

Brazil The First Plantation Colony
  • 1500 Pedro Alvares Cabral landed in Brazil, but
    Portugal didnt pay attention to it until 1532
  • Portuguese nobles given land to colonize and
  • Sugar plantations- key to economic success- 
    worked on by African slaves
  • 1549 Portuguese king sent an official to create a
    royal capital at Salvador

Sugar and Slavery
  • Brazil became the leader in sugar production in
    17th century
  • 150,000 slaves by the end of the 17th century
    (1/2 of population)
  • Brazils social hierarchy reflected its
    plantation and slave origins
  • Run similarly to the Spanish colonies
  • Portugal was different because it had important
    colonies in Asia and Africa
  • Portuguese colonies more dependent on Portugal
    b/c lack of intellectual life in Brazil

Brazils Age of Gold
  • Slowly international competition would increase
    other colonies sugar production and push the
    price down
  • 1695 Gold strikes-  slaves provided labor-  this
    opened the interior of the country to settlement
  • 1735-1760 reached its height and made Brazil the
    greatest source of gold
  • Rio de Janeiro became capital of the colony in

Multiracial Societies
  • Society of Castas
  • Miscegenation
  • Mestizos- Indian/European mix- had higher status
    than the Indians
  • Growth of mestizo and mulatto population to about
  • Development of peninsulares and Creoles
  • Women in subordinate positions

18th Century Reforms
  • Colonies gained new importance with population
    growth in Europe and revived strength of Spain
    and Portugal
  • Shifting Balances of Politics and Trade
  • Spain weakened by wars, poor rulers, economic
  • France, Britain, Holland taking islands in the
  • War of Spanish Succession and Treaty of Utrecht-
    recognized the Bourbon family

Bourbon Reforms
  • Charles III worked to strengthen Spain- using
    some French models
  • Colonies- new viceroyalties created in New
    Granada and Rio de la Plata
  • Spain involved in the Anglo-French wars, where it
    lost Florida and Havana, California was settled
  • Growing dissatisfaction among colonial elite

Pombal and Brazil
  • Marquis of Pombal directed Portuguese affairs
    from 1755-1776- authoritarian leader
  • Developed the interior of Brazil
  • Rio de Janeiro became capital

Reforms, Reactions, Revolt
  • Mid-18th century boom in population and
  • Comunero revolt 1871, Tupac Amaru rising-
    increased dissatisfaction with imperial policies
  • Social divisions hindered effective revolt until
    Spain and Portugal were weakened by internal
    European politics
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