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Working With Intellectually Disabled Sexual Offenders


Processing speed May take longer for the brain to find meaning to what is being said ... show you what they mean Consider use of visually based exercises Auditory ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Working With Intellectually Disabled Sexual Offenders

Working With Intellectually Disabled Sexual
  • Mick Pykett
  • Dr Fiona Williams

Intellectual disability
  • IQ 70 and below ( as measured by a standardised
    IQ assessment)
  • Deficits in adaptive functioning
  • Evident before 18 years of age
  • (DSM-IV-TR, 2000)

Impaired adaptive functioning
  • Communication and social skills
  • ( Interacting and communicating with others)
  • Independent living skills
  • ( Shopping, self care, budgeting, dressing and
  • Personal care skills
  • ( Eating, hygiene, health and safety, dressing
    and grooming)
  • Employment/work skills
  • (Self direction, use of own time, leisure time,
    following directions, completing tasks and
    getting to places on time)
  • Practical academics
  • ( Reading, computation and telling time)

  • Mental retardation USA
  • Mental handicap - Ireland
  • Learning Disability - UK
  • Intellectual Disability UK 2000 onwards
  • Specifc Learning Disability Average IQ,
    Dyslexia, dyscalculia

Common problems for ID offenders in prison
  • Prisoners are not routinely assessed for ID or
    other learning difficulties so the problem is
  • Staff are not trained to spot or work with these
  • ID prisoners tend to get into trouble for not
    following orders they may forget them, not
    understand them in the first place due to pace of
    conversation, take them literally or have
    problems initiating a behaviour

  • Difficulties with reading and writing and with
    adaptive functioning means they have trouble with
    choosing activities, canteen orders and food
  • May have difficulties putting in applications to
    healthcare or psychology or reading prison rules
    and notices. May be seen as lazy or trouble
  • Tend to mask their behaviours e.g they give an
    an answer which may be incorrect seen as rude
    or cheeky
  • May not respond to offending behaviour treatment
    seen as resistant, not motivated and risky

Psychological impact
  • Fear of failure
  • Sensitivity to disability
  • Not confident to ask for help
  • Frustration/give up easily
  • Desire to please
  • Masking

IQ assessment
  • Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale IV (WAIS IV)
  • Working memory
  • Verbal Comprehension
  • Perceptual reasoning
  • Processing speed

Verbal expression
  • Receptive language problems Difficulty
    understanding long or complex words, decoding
    sentences and understanding the meaning of
  • Expressive language problems- Dont know the
    right words to convey meaning, limited range of
    vocabulary, use words, sayings and clichés

Processing speed
  • May take longer for the brain to find meaning to
    what is being said
  • Responses are slowed because the brain is trying
    to decode
  • May lose track of things because they are trying
    to decode the last sentence
  • Very difficult to multi-task

  • Harder to find and recall memories
  • Difficult to hold information in working memory
    in order to use it
  • Takes longer to record new memories e.g. learn
  • May forget a question asked of them and try to
    mask this by answering unusually. E.g. closed
    answer to an open question, or provide an
    response that doesnt match the question

Perceptual reasoning
  • Using your imagination to think things through
    in pictures, such as map reading, puzzles,
    abstract concepts
  • Hard to adapt to new novel situations as it is
    harder to anticipate what might happen
  • Difficult to categorise concepts might struggle
    with the difference between thoughts and feelings
  • Difficulty with time sequencing and understanding
    time related concepts and words

  • Adapted Treatment Approaches
  • Self management
  • IQ 60 80
  • Motorway vs scenic path
  • ID individuals can learn
  • Its our job to identify the best method to
    facilitate learning
  • You have to change
  • Personalised learning

Introducing VAK
  • Visual
  • Auditory
  • Kinaesthetic

Principles for Working with ID
  • Move away from exclusive use of the
    auditory/verbal style
  • Reduce need for abstract thinking and
    hypothetical situations
  • Reduce load on memory

  • Use pictures, drawings, symbols, posters, photos
  • Ask them to bring in materials e.g. pictures,
    books, writing
  • Keep the visual stimuli simple and clear i.e.
    Use simple words
  • Use timelines to mark out where things happened
  • Visual imagery

  • Try to accompany all your questions with a visual
  • Draw situations you want to discuss
  • Ask them to draw to answer any questions, show
    you what they mean
  • Consider use of visually based exercises

  • One question at a time
  • Short sentences
  • Use simple language - avoid words with 3
    syllables or more
  • No clichés or dry humour
  • Use metaphors to help them describe if your
    feeling was a colour, cartoon character etc
  • Relate size of feelings to size of objects e.g.
    as big as an elephant
  • Adapt to their language needs someone with good
    receptive language may need to be asked questions
    verbally but answer through showing (visually or
    kinaesthetically) and vice versa

  • Encourage group discussions
  • Use of music if appropriate
  • Use sound of voice to alter tone and pace of the
    session slow pace of speech
  • Open questions
  • Repetition of information to aid recall
  • Frequent praise
  • Pair auditory stimuli with visual and kinaesthetic

  • Exercises which help them get into a state to
    work with you icebreakers, brain breaks during
    the interview
  • Explore things in role-plays show me what you
    would do/did do
  • You show them demonstrate points or questions
    by role play or holding positions
  • Have them direct you tell me what I should do
  • Put them in roles to achieve learning e.g.
    perspective taking

  • Using hand gestures to accompany visual and
    auditory material
  • Use movement when appropriate
  • Brain breaks
  • Give each person in the group a specific role to
    keep their attention
  • Games that aid memory and recall

General tips
  • Be aware of suggestibility try to avoid leading
  • Avoid hypothetical situations
  • Check out learning by asking them to tell you
    want they understand
  • Use common anchors to help them describe times
    e.g. meal times, birth days etc

  • Process
  • Is as important as
  • Content