Stem Cells: Scientific Potential and Alternatives - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Stem Cells: Scientific Potential and Alternatives PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6df2be-Y2E3M



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Stem Cells: Scientific Potential and Alternatives

Description:

Title: Stem Cells Author: Fairfield University Last modified by: Zach Created Date: 11/6/2001 9:52:40 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:17
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 23
Provided by: Fairfi4
Learn more at: http://www.npsd.k12.nj.us
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Stem Cells: Scientific Potential and Alternatives


1
Stem Cells Scientific Potential and Alternatives
2
Review of Terminology
  • DNA -
  • Gene - functional unit of heredity, a segment of
    DNA located at a specific site on a chromosome
    genes direct the formation of proteins.
  • Nucleus
  • Cell - the basic unit of life, all living
    organisms are made up of cells
  • somatic cell -
  • germ cell -

3
Differentiation of Human Tissues
  • Early embryonic cells unspecialized
  • Three primary tissue layers
  • All tissues develop from here

4
(No Transcript)
5
Adult Stem Cells
  • Stem cells cells that have the ability to
    divide for indefinite periods and
  • Remember
  • Progenitor cells partially specialized cells
    that can give rise

6
Stem Cells of the Bone Marrow
7
The Problem of Cell Potency
  • Multipotent
  • Pluripotent
  • Totipotent -

8
Derivation of hES Cells
  • Excess frozen blastocysts donated from
    fertility clinics
  • Inner cell mass (embryo) separated from
    trophoblast (placenta)
  • Cells dissociated and cultured in laboratory
  • Can be made to differentiate using chemical
    signals

9
Blastocyst Diagram
10
(No Transcript)
11
(No Transcript)
12
(No Transcript)
13
Applications of Pluripotent Stem Cells
  • decision-making genes (birth defects, cancer)
  • human cell lines for all cell types
  • replacement tissue for degenerative conditions
    (Parkinsons and Alzheimers disease, diabetes,
    heart disease, stroke, arthritis)

14
Example Diabetes
  • Insufficient insulin production in
  • Insulin needed for
  • cells derived from stem
    cells produce insulin
  • Eliminates need for insulin injections

15
Scientific Challenges Remaining
  • Understanding of cellular events that lead to
    and
  • - Can stem
    cells be modified to minimize tissue
    incompatibility?
  • Time of development and expense of treatments

16
Rejection Possible Solutions
  • Genetic engineering
  • Somatic cell nuclear transfer (
    )
  • develops into a
  • Dolly the sheep

17
Alternatives to hES Cells
  • Umbilical cord blood
  • Contains and
    stem cells (lower potency than
    hES)
  • Patient specific
  • Cord blood banks
  • 2000 collection and 125/year storage fees
  • Some public banks for donated cells

18
Alternatives to hES Cells
  • Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPS)

19
Alternatives to hES Cells
  • Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPS)
  • Show potency than cord
    cells
  • Low efficiency (recent improvements)
  • Other problems

20
Alternatives to hES Cells
  • Direct Cell Reprogramming - 2011
  • Turns one cell
  • (ex. Skin cell ? Neuron)
  • Uses RNA, no virus DNA needed
  • Eliminates need for
  • Potential and problems are uncertain

21
Autologous Stem Cell Therapies
  • Self-donation of
  • Injected (with or without chemical treatment)
    into
  • Not FDA approved
  • Clinical trials underway (heart attack, spinal
    cord injury, etc.)
  • Many Americans seek overseas options

22
Questions?
  • The United States has been criticized by some for
    being too restrictive to stem cell-based research
    and therapies. Should U.S. laws be relaxed to be
    more accommodating to those wishing treatment?
  • A recent study by Duke University predicted that
    by the year 2050, regenerative procedures based
    on stem cell and other biotechnologies could
    extend an average human life span by up to 100
    years. Is this a desirable goal?
  • Many biotechnologies are vastly expensive, yet
    much of the basic research supporting these
    developments is paid for by taxpayers. Who
    should benefit?
About PowerShow.com