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European Imperialism in Africa

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European Imperialism in Africa 1st European Contact North Africa existed for centuries along the Mediterranean Sea Sub-Saharan African contact began in the 1400 s ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: European Imperialism in Africa


1
European Imperialism in Africa
2
1st European Contact
  • North Africa existed for centuries along the
    Mediterranean Sea
  • Sub-Saharan African contact began in the 1400s
    with Portuguese sailors

3
WHY GO TO AFRICA?
  • Europe wanted easier access to West Africa gold
  • Needed to find a shorter route to India
  • Convert people to Christianity
  • After the Portuguesethe Dutch, French and
    British followed.

4
SLAVE TRADE
  • The slave trade was as old as civilization
  • Common in ancient China, Greece, Rome and
    elsewhere BEFORE the Europeans come to Africa
  • Arabs and Egyptians held slaves
  • Slave caravans were common
  • in W. Africa and Sahara

5
NUMBERS OF SLAVES
  • 10-20 MILLION slaves left Africa during the
    Trans-Atlantic slave trade in the 15th 19th
    centuries.

6
HOW THE SLAVE TRADE WORKED
  • Obtaining slaves
  • Traders organized their own slave raids
  • Bought slaves from African kings and chiefs
    (captured during war or tribal raids without
    concern for family ties)

FACT Europeans mainly stayed near the coasts
until the late 1800s with little knowledge of
interior African kingdoms.
7
PARTITIONING OF AFRICA
  • 1884 Berlin Conference held to set rules to
    divide Africa between European nations to create
    colonies.
  • FACT European conquest for African lands was
    not smooth, battles and struggles continued until
    the early 20th century.

8
Outcome of the Conference
9
COLONIAL RULEWHY?
  • Acquire power
  • Exploit resources (GOLD)
  • Convert people to Christianity and civilize
    them
  • Have a market for European products

10
4 METHODS OF COLONIAL RULE
  • 1. Private Companies Given large areas and
    allowed to set up administrative system and local
    populations were used as labor force.
  • 2. Direct Rule
  • Divided into districts governed by Europeans
  • GOAL to civilize them and to discourage
    backward customs.
  • PROBLEM Not enough Europeans, hard to control
    remote areas, lack of understanding for customs
    and language

British East Africa Company and British South
Africa Company
11
  • Assimilation
  • Idea for people to have same rights as the
    Europeans
  • (ex. France and Portugal)
  • Indirect Rule
  • Use of local chiefs who reported back to colonial
    government (ex. Britain and Spain)

FACT No matter what type of rule that was used,
the political and economic development of the
colony was NOT a priority!
12
PHASES OF COLONIAL DEVELOPMENT
13
PHASE ONE (start to 1920s)
  • Improve transportation and communication to gain
    resources and improve the life for EUROPEANS
    there. Health, housing and education only came
    from missionaries and companies to help the
    businesses

German missionaries in Africa
14
(No Transcript)
15
PHASE TWO (1920s to WWII)
  • SLOOOOOW recognition of responsibility to help
    the people of Africa

16
PHASE 3 (after WWII)
  • Colonial development policies began
  • Small industries
  • Limited number of hospitals and schools

17
SUMMARY
  • Europeans ruled for over 70 years
  • Exploited wealth to their advantage with little
    concerns for Africans
  • Many were Christianized but few were educated.

18
INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS
19
The Empires crumble
  • Wars drained Europe - by 1945 Africans realized
    Europeans lacked the resources to hold on.
  • Transition of power went smoothly.
  • Creation of independent self-sufficient nations
    was a difficult process
  • Since independence-coups (govt taken over by
    force), internal disagreements, dictatorships
    created.

20
RESULT
Very little political stability
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