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The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom

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Chapter 7 The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom Outline Light Atomic Spectra Bohr s Model of the Atom Wave-Particle Duality de Broglie Wavelength – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom


1
The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom
  • Chapter 7
  • Outline
  • Light
  • Atomic Spectra
  • Bohrs Model of the Atom
  • Wave-Particle Duality
  • de Broglie Wavelength
  • Uncertainty Principle
  • Quantum Mechanical Atom
  • Schrodinger Equation
  • Quantum Numbers, n, l, ml, ms
  • Orbitals

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Wave - A vibrational disturbance which transmits
energy.
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Chapter 7 Examples EMR
  • Radioastronomers use 1,420 MHz waves to look at
    interstellar clouds of hydrogen atoms.
  • What is the wavelength of this radiation?
  • What is the wavenumber?

8
Types of Electromagnetic Radiation
  • Electromagnetic waves are classified by their
    wavelength
  • Radiowaves l gt 0.01 m
  • Microwaves 10-4 lt l lt 10-2 m
  • Infrared (IR)
  • far 10-5 lt l lt 10-4 m
  • middle 2 x 10-6 lt l lt 10-5 m
  • near 8 x 10-7lt l lt 2 x 10-6 m
  • Visible 4 x 10-7 lt l lt 8 x 10-7 m
  • ROYGBIV
  • Ultraviolet (UV)
  • near 2 x 10-7 lt l lt 4 x 10-7 m
  • far 1 x 10-8 lt l lt 2 x 10-7 m
  • X-rays 10-10 lt l lt 10-8m
  • Gamma rays l lt 10-10

Tro Chemistry A Molecular Approach, 2/e
9
Light and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
10
Chapter 7 Examples EMR
  • A stop light has a red (700 nm), yellow (580 nm)
    and green (530 nm) lights. Which has the highest
    frequency?

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Can you see interference patterns generated by
the diffraction of light between your fingers?
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2-Slit Interference
Tro Chemistry A Molecular Approach, 2/e
15
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck
16
Blackbody Radiation
17
Quantization of energy
  • Energies in atoms are quantized, not continuous.
  • Quantized means only certain energies allowed.

18
Chapter 7 Examples EMR
  • Calculate the energy of one quantum of red light
    (700 nm).

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Chapter 7 Examples EMR
  • A certain lamp produces 5.0 J/s of energy in the
    blue region of the spectrum. How many photons of
    blue (470 nm) light would it generate if it were
    left on for 8.5 s?

21
Chapter 7 Examples EMR
  • If a light with a wavelength of 200 nm shines on
    sodium atoms with an ionization energy of 496
    kJ/mol, what will be the speed of the electrons
    emitted?

22
Experiment 1
  • Add an elemental gas to a cathode ray tube and
    get ----- colors
  • Hydrogen (H2) purple blue
  • Neon (Ne) red orange
  • Helium (He) yellow pink
  • Argon (Ar) lavender
  • Xenon (Xe) blue

23
Experiment 2
  • Shine white light through a prism -- rainbow
  • A prism separates light of different wavelength,
    each color represents a different wavelength.

Sundog caused by ice acting as a prism.
24
Experiment 3
  • Shine the colored light from our gas discharge
    tubes through a prism ?? get distinct bands of
    color (light).

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Examples of Spectra
Tro Chemistry A Molecular Approach, 2/e
30
Emission vs. Absorption Spectra
Spectra of Mercury
Tro Chemistry A Molecular Approach, 2/e
31
Chapter 7 Examples EMR
  • Calculate the wavelength of a photon emitted by
    a hydrogen atom when an electron makes a
    transition between the third and second principle
    quantum level.

32
John Dalton
p124
33
J. J. Thomson and Ernest Rutherford
p126
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Wolfgang Pauli and Neils Bohr
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Quantized Energy
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Chapter 7 Examples Energy Quantization
  • A stream of laser photons has a frequency of
    7.57 x 1014 Hz.
  • What is its energy?
  • What level can it get to?

42
Chapter 7 Examples de Broglie
  1. What is the wavelength in nm associated with a
    0.080 kg ball moving at 70.0 km/hr?
  2. How fast must the ball travel to have a
    wavelength of 0.0500 nm?

43
Trajectory vs. Probability
Tro Chemistry A Molecular Approach, 2/e
44
How are n, l, and ml related?
45
Quantum Numbers
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Electron Spin Experiment
48
Spin quantum number (ms)
  •   equal to 1/2 or ?1/2
  •   necessary because each orbital contains 2
    electrons and each electron needs its own space.

49
Chapter 7 Examples Quantum Numbers
  • If n 4, l 2, ml 2, what type of orbital
    is the electron located?

50
Chapter 7 Examples Quantum Numbers
  • Give the possible combination of quantum numbers
    for a 3s1 orbital.

51
Where are the nodes?
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p orbitals
  •    dumbbell shaped
  •    three different spatial orientations (ml 1,
    0, ?1,)

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d orbitals
  •  cloverleaf shaped one dumbbell in a doughnut
  •  five different spatial orientations (ml 2, 1,
    0, ?1, ?2)

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f orbitals
  •  complex shape (8 lobes)
  •  seven different spatial orientations (ml 3,
    2, 1, 0, ?1, ?2, ?3)

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Phases
Tro Chemistry A Molecular Approach, 2/e
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