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The Civil War

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The Civil War A Country Divided Life in the North Based on industry Factories and shipping Few family farms (small, not for cash) No need for slaves On the issue of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Civil War


1
The Civil War
  • A Country Divided

2
Life in the North
  • Based on industry
  • Factories and shipping
  • Few family farms (small, not for cash)
  • No need for slaves
  • On the issue of slavery
  • Slavery was illegal in the North by the 1800s
  • Many abolitionists in the North
  • Gave speeches, wrote newspapers and books
  • Overall, tolerated slavery in the South, but did
    not want newly added states to allow slavery
  • Discriminated against African Americans
  • Not allowed to vote
  • sent to unequal schools
  • not allowed to own property

3
Life in the South
  • Many southern plantations
  • A few wealthy plantation owners owned most of the
    slaves in the South
  • Few average families owned 1 or 2 slaves
  • Yet southerners supported the idea of slavery
  • Cotton gin
  • Invented by Eli Whitney
  • Invention that took seeds out of cotton
  • Now cotton could be cleaned much faster
  • Cotton became a popular fabric
  • Higher demand for cotton meant higher demand for
    slaves
  • cotton gin animation

4
Abolitionists
  • Abolitionists
  • Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad
  • The Moses of her people
  • Frederick Douglass
  • One of the greatest speakers
  • Sojourner Truth
  • Former slave, abolitionist, preacher, and womens
    advocate

5
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6
Causes of the Civil War
  • As territories become states, Congress fights
    over the slavery issue
  • Missouri Compromise
  • Maine is made a free state, Missouri made a slave
    state
  • Number of free and slave states remains equal

7
Causes of the Civil War, cont.
  • Compromise of 1850
  • California is admitted as a free state
  • In exchange, the southern states demand that the
    Fugitive Slave Act is enforced
  • Runaway slaves must be returned to South

8
Causes of the Civil War, cont.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act
  • Newly added states would get to decide for
    themselves if they would become a free or slave
    state (not Congress)
  • Called popular soveignty

9
Abraham Lincoln Elected
  • South feared Lincoln would try to end slavery in
    the U.S.
  • Even though he had promised not to
  • Lincoln did say he did not want any new states to
    allow slavery

10
The Reaction to Lincoln
  • South Carolina secedes from the Union
  • 10 other states follow
  • Form the Confederate States of America
  • A.K.A. Confederacy
  • North called them the South, Rebels

11
The Confederacy
  • The Confederates are seen by the Union (U.S.) as
    rebels, traitors
  • Just as the Americans were seen by the British
    when they declared independence
  • Acted as an independent country
  • Own currency (money)
  • Flag
  • Jefferson Davis as president
  • constitution

12
The Civil War Begins
  • Fort Sumter is held by U.S. troops, but is in
    Confederate territory
  • Shots are fired, the war begins
  • U.S. troops are forced to surrender the fort
  • President Lincoln fights with one purpose in mind
  • To reunite the country

13
Border States
  • Slave states that remained with the Union
  • Delaware
  • Maryland
  • West Virginia
  • Kentucky
  • Missouri

14
Generals
  • Union General Ulysses S. Grant
  • Proved himself worthy during the war
  • Promoted to General-in-Chief in 1864
  • Confederacy Robert E. Lee
  • From Virginia (a southern state)
  • Was a loyal American
  • Chose to fight alongside Confederates because he
    did not want to fight against his family and
    friends in Virginia

15
Advantages for the Union
  • Factories to make weapons
  • More railroads
  • More people (to become soldiers)
  • More money from taxes

16
Advantages for the South
  • Many good generals
  • Many brave soldiers
  • Dedicated to freedom

17
Emancipation Proclamation
  • Issued by Lincoln about halfway through the war
  • Stated that all southern slaves were free
  • African Americans were now accepted into the
    Union military
  • Changed the reason for fighting the war
  • From reuniting the Union to ending slavery
  • This made European countries allies of the Union

18
Battle of Gettysburg
  • Located at border of Pennsylvania and Maryland
  • 3 day battle in 1863
  • North and South accidentally collided
  • North wins turning point of the war
  • 3rd day Picketts Charge
  • South charged Union lines, but each row of men
    was shot down
  • 10,000 dead in 50 minutes
  • Town of Gettysburg had population of 2,400
    after battle there were 51,000 casualties
  • 172,000 men fought
  • 634 cannons over 25 sq. miles
  • 569 tons of ammo used
  • 5,000 dead horses

19
Gettysburg Address
  • Lincoln comes to Gettysburg
  • Dedicates the battlefield to those who died in
    battle
  • Encourages country to keep fighting the war

20
The Civil War Ends
  • South surrenders in 1865 at Appomattox Courthouse
  • President Lincoln is shot 5 days later
  • By John Wilkes Booth at Fords Theater
  • 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments are soon added to
    the Constitution
  • 13th ends slavery
  • 14th gives citizenship to all born in the US
  • 15th gives right to vote to all adult men
  • Jim Crow laws and Black Codes keep inequality of
    blacks in the South
  • policy of segregation and separation

21
Review
  • What caused the Civil War?
  • How did the Civil War end?
  • How would the U.S. be different if the South had
    won the war?
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