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Unit 5

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Title: Unit 5


1
Unit 5 Culture / Immigration
  • Global Studies

2
  • Civics the study of what it means to be a US
    citizen
  • Citizen a legally recognized member of the
    country
  • You are a citizen of both the US and Ohio
  • Government the organization, institutions, and
    individuals who exercise political authority on
    behalf of a group of people
  • Ones rights and responsibilities are determined
    by the government in place in that country

3
American Ideals
  • US Government and way of life is based on ideals
    of freedom and equality
  • Laws protect the rights and freedoms of citizens
  • One must do their part to protect the heritage of
    liberty

4
Freedoms of US citizens other countries?
  • Freedom to learn public education, college
  • Freedom to choose a job or career equal
    opportunity
  • Live as we wish must respect the rights of
    others
  • Own possessions
  • Choose own spiritual belief
  • Travel and live anywhere in the US
  • First Amendment / Bill of Rights Freedoms

5
  • Citizenship you have a personal responsibility
    to be an active participant in a democracy

6
Qualities of a good citizen
  • Behaving in a civil manner
  • Being fiscally responsible
  • Accepting responsibility for the consequences of
    ones actions
  • Practicing civil disclosure
  • Becoming and staying informed on public issues
  • Voting
  • Taking action on public issues
  • Providing a public service
  • Serving on juries

7
Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship
  • Right Responsibility
  • Voting Staying informed on the issues
  • Jury Trial Serving on Juries
  • Having Rights Respecting the Rights of Others

8
Government by the people
  • People rule through the officials they elect
  • Elected officials are responsible to those who
    elected them
  • Can be voted out or impeached

9
Our American Culture
  • How it was formed

10
Early Americans
  • Native Americans came from Siberia
  • 12,000-40,000 year ago
  • Moved across North, Central, South America
    (Nomadic)
  • Vikings
  • North America 1400 AD
  • No permanent settlements
  • Raid and pillage

11
Early Americans
  • Spanish Explorers
  • Present day Florida, Texas, California
  • Early colonists
  • Great Britain 13 colonies
  • Germans PA
  • Dutch Hudson River
  • Swedes Delaware River

12
Early Americans
  • French NY, Mass.
  • Africans forced migrationnot immigrants

13
Immigration
  • Immigrant people who come to a country to
    settle as a permanent resident
  • Immigrant known as in the new country they
    settle
  • Emigrant known as in the country they leave
    behind

14
Effects of Immigration on our Society
  • Music, clothes, foods, ideas, art, literature
    (culture)
  • Example
  • African-American / Latino
  • Their art, music, literature reflects their
    struggles for independence and rights, their
    heritage, and their culture
  • Today many items are in English and Spanish
  • Due to increased immigration from Mexico and
    other Latin American nations

15
Effects of Immigration on our Society
  • Housing Patterns
  • Immigrants lived in communities with other
    immigrants (segregated neighborhoods / ghettos)
  • Felt more comfortable language / customs
  • Made in more difficult to become Americanized
    -- Assimilation
  • Creation of tenements
  • TodayEthnic Neighborhoods in big cities

16
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17
Effects of Immigration on our Society
  • Language
  • First-generation immigrants had the most problems
  • Many words have entered into the mainstream
    vocabulary

18
Effects of Immigration on our Society
  • Educational System
  • Early problems with social and language
    differences
  • Used the Educational system to Americanize
    immigrant children
  • First to learn English language and customs
  • Immigrants brought new educational practices
  • ExGermans K and Music

19
Effects of Immigration on our Society
  • Political Affiliations
  • Immigrants became indebted to local political
    bosses both parties
  • He got them jobs, housing, loans
  • In exchange they voted for who he told them to
  • Early immigrants and today Democrats

20
Effects of Immigration on our Society
  • Religion
  • There are Americans from almost every
  • 1st Amendment
  • After 1800 most immigrants tended to be
    Catholic and Jewish
  • Though of as inferior and could never be pare of
    American society
  • Anti-Semitism - Jews

21
Effects of Immigration on our Society
  • Labor Practices
  • Most worked in unskilled jobs for low pay
  • Took jobs from many native-Americans
  • Led to Nativism
  • Today illegal aliens take jobs
  • Often remained in same job from homeland
  • Brought their skills with them
  • ExGermans ways of making beer

22
Why Immigrants came
  • Population growth in Europe
  • Political/religious freedom
  • Good farmland / jobs in cities (Industrialization)
  • Educational Opportunities
  • To have a say in government
  • Irish to escape the Irish Potato Famine
    (1846-1847)
  • Germans greater economic opportunities
  • Southern and Eastern Europe
  • Came when RR and steamboat prices dropped
  • American Dream hope for a better life

23
Why emigrants leave an area
  • Economic Reasons
  • Govt taking over factories/business, no jobs, no
    money
  • Health concerns
  • Starvation, sickness, lack of health care
  • Racial concerns
  • Prejudice, discrimination, violence
  • Environmental Issues
  • Health care / famine (Ireland)

24
Where Immigrants worked
  • Factories
  • Mines
  • RR
  • Clothing and cigar manufacturing
  • Hauling goods
  • Farming frontier (some)

25
Immigrants
  • Usually stayed in the cities
  • Cheaper / more convenient
  • More jobs to unskilled workers
  • Initially
  • From Western Europe (Ireland, France, Britain)
  • Later
  • From Slavic countries, Italy
  • Red Scare thought to be communists, socialists,
    anarchists
  • Led to Nativism negative reaction to immigrants

26
US Immigration Timeline
  • Early 1800s
  • Few limitations needed ag. workers / factory
    workers
  • Economy expanded and country grew
  • 1880s
  • Some restrictions placed of immigration
  • Worked for lower wages -- Nativism

27
US Immigration Timeline
  • 1920s
  • Immigration Acts of 1921, 1924, 1929
  • Govt establish quotas on immigrants from S and E
    Europe Red Scare / Nativism
  • Set numbers based on ethnic composition

28
US Immigration Timeline
  • Policy today...
  • Set quota 675,000/year
  • Preference given today
  • Kids and spouses of citizens
  • Resident aliens
  • refugees
  • Problem illegal aliensstill nativists beliefs?

29
Nativism
  • A dislike or hatred of foreigners
  • Stemmed from Red Scare, Industrialization,
    Immigration

30
Red Scare what led to it??
  • After WWI adjusting to peace
  • Nativism
  • Soldiers looking for jobs Immigrants had
  • Fearful of a Communist Revolution similar to
    Russia (1917)
  • Rise of Communist Party in US
  • Rise of Immigration from S / E Europe
  • Radicals arrested for attempted overthrows
  • 1919-1920 1000s
  • Anarchists people that do not believe in
    government

31
Sacco and Venzetti
  • Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti (ITL)
  • Immigrants accused of robbery and murder in Mass.
  • were atheists (no belief in God)/Anarchists
  • Limited evidence bust still convicted and
    executed! - because immigrants and Nativism
  • One example of immigrants having their rights
    taken away arrested without just cause, jailed,
    no lawyer, no speedy trial

32
Another effect of Immigration
  • Revival of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
  • Opposed immigrants, blacks, Jew, Catholics
  • Afraid of growing power of these groups
  • 1920s claimed 5 million members
  • Worked by intimidation and fear
  • Burning crosses, hate letters, lyching, pressured
    employees to fire

33
Cultural Diffusion
  • The spreading of ideas, products, technologies,
    and practices from one culture to another
  • Caused by different cultures coming into contact
  • Exfood (lasagna, enchiladas, stir fry,
    sauerkraut)
  • Cultural practices unique ways that different
    groups of people do things

34
Assimilation
  • Process where a minority group becomes adapts
    customs and attitudes of the prevailing culture

35
Melting Pot vs. Salad Bowl
  • Metaphor symbol or something that represents
    something else

36
Melting Pot vs. Salad Bowl?
  • Melting Pot
  • American merged their identities with their
    neighbors to become something new and different
  • Immigrants assimilate into the American culture
  • Salad Bowl
  • Different cultures are tossed together in the
    American society, but they retain their own
    identities

37
Melting Pot vs. Salad Bowl?
  • Melting Pot
  • Each ingredient (culture) loses its identity to
    form a new product (American Culture)
  • The American culture is homogenous (similar)
  • Salad Bowl
  • Each ingredient (culture) retains its own
    identity, but combines into a new appetizing dish
    (American Culture)
  • The American culture is heterogeneous (diverse)

38
Melting Pot vs. Salad Bowl?
  • Extended Response (4 pts)
  • Compare the melting pot and salad bowl
    metaphors for the American culture.
  • Evaluate each metaphor and describe which you
    think best describes our society today.

39
Melting Pot vs. Salad Bowl?
  • Portfolio Assignment Critical Thinking
  • Create your own original metaphor for the
    American culture.
  • Explain the reasoning in a paragraph.
  • Create a poster advertising your metaphor.

40
The World as a global village
  • Due to fast paced cultural diffusion
  • Advances in communications and transportation
  • Jets and Satellites
  • See what happens instantaneously
  • TV, Internet, Telephone, Faxes

41
Effects of technological advances on the world
today
  • 1. Globalization creation of a single world
    economy and culture
  • Business no longer contained by boundaries
  • Growing interdependence of the world
    economically, culturally, and politically
  • ExamplesOlympics, products from all over the
    world

42
Globalization
  • Positive Effects
  • Raised standard of living (especiallymedical
    care)
  • Economic growth
  • Negative Effects
  • Growing gap between the rich and the poor
  • Outsourcing (US jobs overseas)
  • Threat to national cultures
  • Environmental Threats

43
Effects of technological advances on the world
today
  • Cooperation and conflict
  • many nations need to cooperate in order to
    survive
  • Conflicts from nations effect the entire globe
  • Ex September 11th

44
Effects of technological advances on the world
today
  • Environment
  • Negative impact
  • Air quality and water
  • Invasive species
  • Emerald ash bore, zebra mollusk

45
Effects of technological advances on the world
today
  • Collective Security
  • Nations rely on each other for security
  • Join together to enforce mutually accepted rule
  • Alliances and peace organizations develop
  • World peace is the major goal
  • ExamplesNATO / United Nations

46
Effects of technological advances on the world
today
  • Popular Culture
  • Becomes more homogeneous (similar)
  • Because of mass media
  • Examples
  • McDonalds, movies, TV shows, clothes
  • English worlds universal secular language

47
Effects of technological advances on the world
today
  • Political Systems
  • Spreading of Democracy
  • Globalization of Politics
  • Decisions made by groups not countries
  • EU European Union
  • NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement

48
Effects of technological advances on the world
today
  • Religion
  • Helped spread religions around the world
  • US has about every religion
  • Originally Christianity spread, now Islam and
    Buddhism

49
Citizenship
  • Native-Born Citizen
  • Born in a US state or territory(even if your
    parents are citizens of another country)
  • One or both parents are citizens of the US are
    you are born out of the country

50
Citizenship
  • Aliens in the US 20 million
  • People who are citizens of another country living
    in the US
  • All aliens are not illegal (illegal aliens do not
    fill out the proper paperwork and register every
    year)
  • Illegal aliens 10 million?
  • About half from Mexico

51
Rights of citizens vs. rights of resident aliens
  • Aliens are subject to the laws of this country
  • If violated deportation
  • Aliens cannot vote or hold public office
  • Some states prohibit from holding certain jobs

52
Naturalization
  • Legal process by which a resident alien may
    become a citizen
  • Qualifications
  • Resident for 5 yrs. (3 if married to US citizen)
  • 18 yrs old
  • Must prove they can support themselves
  • Read, write, speak English (Interview)
  • Citizenship Test
  • Background Check (drug addiction/criminal)
  • Oath of Allegiance -- ceremony

53
Where do people live in the US?
54
Census
  • Count of US residents done every 10 years
  • Main Purpose
  • Determine each states population
  • House of Representatives
  • Electoral Votes Senators Representatives

55
US Population Growth Summary
  • 1790 (1st census) 4 million
  • Projection 2010 300 million
  • Three ways a county can grow
  • Natural increase birthrate higher than the
    death rate
  • Adding a new territory war, purchase,
    annexation
  • Immigration US 1820-2000 (60 million
    immigrants)

56
US Population Growth Summary
  • How the US grew
  • 1790-1830 (13 million)
  • High birthrate (natural increase)
  • 1830-1920 (106 million)
  • Immigration
  • 1920-2000 (280 million)
  • Natural increase

57
US Population on the move
  • 1790 census had most US citizens living in rural
    (farms and small towns) areas
  • Since.Urbanization
  • Moving from rural areas to urban areas

58
Reasons for Urbanization
  • NOT a decrease in the need for agricultural
    products
  • New farming technologies (steel plow / mechanical
    reaper / barbed wire / irrigation)
  • Modernization of agriculture farming more
    efficient (less workers needed)
  • Industrialization jobs

59
Industrialization
  • A shift from farming to manufacturing
  • Started in Britain in the mid 1800s then came to
    the US

60
US Population on the move
  • Suburbanization
  • overcrowding in the cities and the invention of
    the automobile led to the creation of
  • Suburbs areas on the outskirts of major cities
    (greener and more rural-like)
  • 4/5 of the current population live in
    metropolitan areas
  • Cities and their suburbs

61
Consequences of Urbanization
  • Rapid increase of population in cities
  • Overcrowding tenement buildings
  • Dangerous working conditions (heavy machinery
    children / immigrants / women)
  • Goods available at a lower cost
  • Air, water, noise, light pollution
  • Low incomes poor living conditions
  • Low life expectancy
  • Transportation issues

62
Migration
  • Movement of large numbers of people from region
    to region
  • Why do people migrate(two categories)
  • Push Factors push people out of an old
    location
  • Famine, religious persecution, political conflict
  • Pull Factors attractions that draw people to
    a new location
  • Religious freedom, economic opportunities,
    cultural ties

63
Factors that cause people to migrate
  • Social Factors
  • Religious or ethnic persecution
  • Examples
  • Pilgrims religion
  • Tutsis fled Rwanda from the Hutu ethnic

64
Factors that cause people to migrate
  • Political Factors
  • Attracted to place where they can practice
    political ideas
  • Flee to avoid war
  • Examples
  • Cold War East Ger fled to West Ger to avoid
    Communism
  • Cubans coming to US to avoid Communism
  • Afghanistan people fled after the US attacked
    Tailiban

65
Factors that cause people to migrate
  • Economic Factors
  • People try to escape poverty /
  • Examples
  • Immigration to US in 1800s
  • WWII Turks working in Germany (Military)
  • Slavery forced migration
  • Migrant workers in SW US (Mexicans)
  • Jobs building the Transcontinental RR (Chinese)

66
Factors that cause people to migrate
  • Environmental Factors
  • People leave after environmental disasters
  • Floods, droughts, crop failures, earthquakes,
    hurricanes
  • Examples
  • 1840s Irish Potato Famine (to US)
  • 2000s Sahel, Africa - people leaving because of
    drought
  • Today New Orleans people leaving because of
    hurricane Katrina

67
Examples of Migration from History
  • Hunter and Gatherers (12,000 yrs ago)
  • Came from Asia to the Americas
  • Land bridge / ocean going craft
  • Became what we know as Native Americans
  • Followed food supply
  • Groups would leave large group (overpopulation)
  • Factor??

68
Examples of Migration from History
  • Bantu Speakers in Africa (1000 BC 4th Century)
  • Migrated from West Africa to sub-Saharan Africa
  • searched for better land
  • expanding population
  • Factor??

69
Examples of Migration from History
  • Spanish Colonies
  • Southern North America, Caribbean, Central and
    South America
  • Wealth, lands
  • Culture blended with indigenous peoples
  • Few women migrated Spanish men married native
    women
  • Mestizo mix of Spanish and Native American

70
Examples of Migration from History
  • English Colonies
  • North America
  • Push factors - Religious persecution, lack of
    economic opportunity
  • Pull factors religious freedom and economic
    opportunity
  • ExamplesPilgrims / Quakers / 13 colonies

71
Examples of Migration from History
  • Transatlantic slave trade
  • 1500s 1800s (11 million)
  • Forced Migration
  • Industrial Revolution (late 19th Cent)
  • Pull factor for international migration to US
  • Caused Urbanization in US

72
Examples of Migration from History
  • After WWII from Europe
  • Jewish survivors of the Holocaust to US
  • Refugees fleeing newly formed communist govts in
    E Europe
  • Asia (1947)
  • Former British colony split into India and
    Pakistan
  • India Hindu / Pakistan Islam

73
Examples of Migration from History
  • Great Migration
  • migration of African-Americans from the rural
    South to the urban North
  • Because of WWI jobs
  • Early 20th century
  • Led to the Harlem Renaissance flowering of
    African-American artistic talent in NY
  • contributed to recognition of AA culture

74
Examples of Migration from History
  • 11. Latin America Urbanization
  • Africa Civil Wars
  • Europe Population Growth / Job Shortage

75
Examples of Migration from History
  • 12. Today in the US
  • Rustbelt to Sunbelt
  • NE and MW to SE and W
  • Because of jobs and climate / Technology air
    conditioning
  • Cal large population
  • Ariz / Col / Nev / Tex fastest growing
  • Conn / N. Dak / RI decrease
  • Las Vegas fastest growing city
  • 6 of the 10 largest cities (Sun Belt)
  • LA / SD / Dallas / Houston / SA / Phoenix

76
Changing Families
  • Size of households decreasing
  • People having fewer children or living alone
  • More one-parent households
  • More families have both parents working
  • 60 of married women work
  • Older Population
  • People living longer
  • 1920 54 / today 77 (average American lives)
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