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Hydroelectric Power

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Hydroelectric Power Overview Indirect solar power: rainfall at elevation Largest form of renewable energy in world over 90% of renewable electricity – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Hydroelectric Power


1
Hydroelectric Power
  • Overview
  • Indirect solar power rainfall at elevation
  • Largest form of renewable energy in world over
    90 of renewable electricity
  • Hydro not renewable energy?
  • Virtually 100 of hydro power is for electricity
    generation
  • 16 of global electricity supply in 2002

2
Energy from Biomass
3
Hydroelectric Power
  • Overview
  • Indirect solar power rainfall at elevation
  • Largest form of renewable energy in world over
    90 of renewables
  • Hydro not renewable energy?
  • Virtually 100 of hydro power is for electricity
    generation
  • 16 of global electricity supply in 2002

4
Hydroelectric Power
  • History
  • First hydro power for pumping water and milling
    grain (similar to wind energy) mechanical power
  • Waterwheel power used for shaft work papermills,
    textiles mills, etc.
  • Rittenhouse papermill, Germantown, PA 1690

5
Hydroelectric Power
  • Waterwheels

6
Hydroelectric Power
  • History
  • First known use of hydro for electricity 1881
    in UK -
  • waterwheel power on river River Wey
  • Very fast growth into 20th century public power
    and power grid established
  • Recognized that hydro was tremendous resource for
    electricity generation
  • Key to growth availability of hydraulic turbine
  • Fourneyron (UK) outward flow turbine
  • 80 efficiency
  • Francis (USA) inward flow turbine

7
Hydroelectric Power
  • Fourneyron turbine

8
Hydroelectric Power
  • Francis turbine

9
Hydroelectric Power
  • Hydro Power Fundamentals
  • Based on potential energy (pe) due to elevation
    and effect of gravity
  • For hydro power, need source of flowing water
  • pe (mass water)(height)(gravity) MgH
  • (kg)(m/sec2)(m) (kgm)(m) (Newton)(m) 1
    Joule
  • sec2
  • Power must be a function of volume flow of water
    (Q)
  • Q m3/sec
  • Power (P) Energy per unit time
  • P (?)(Q)(g)(H) (kg/m3)(m3/sec)(m/sec2)(m)
  • N-m/sec Joules/sec watts

10
Hydroelectric Power
  • Hydro Power Fundamentals
  • For water where ? 1000 kg/m3 ,
  • P (1000)(Q)(H)
  • Efficiency (?) electrical output lt 100
  • mechanical input
  • Efficiency 75 95 for hydroelectric
    turbines
  • Effective Power using water (?)(1000)(Q)(H) W
  • Power in kW (?)(10)(Q)(H)

11
Hydroelectric Power
  • Hydro Power Fundamentals
  • Available Head usable height of water in
    reservoir
  • Related to pressure energy of stored water
    (?)(g)(H)
  • Presure Force per unit area, i.e. lb/in2 psi
  • (?)(g)(H) (kg/m3) (m/sec2)(m) N/m2
  • Turbine types and efficiencies vary with head

12
Hydroelectric Power
  1. Hydro Power Fundamentals

13
Hydroelectric Power
  • Hydro Power Fundamentals
  • High Head dam high usable potential energy
  • Does not necessarily need high water flowrates
    (Q) for sufficient power generation
  • High pressures at outflow requires high
    construction costs
  • Low Head dam low usable potential energy
  • Must have high water flowrates for reasonable
    power generation
  • Difference between tidal barrage and low head
    dam
  • variable water head in tidal barrage
  • Causes periodic power spikes as opposed to
    continuous power generation
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