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Cancer

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Cancer is unregulated growth of a ... is no longer under normal control Bio 130 Human Biology Cancer Characteristics loss of ... Biology Cancer Treatments ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cancer


1
Cancer
  • Normal cells have regulation that keeps their
    rates of cell division in check.
  • Normal cells generally remain in one location
  • Cancer is unregulated growth of a cell population

2
Characteristics of Benign Tumors and Cancers
Table 18.1
3
Terms
  • Hyperplasia increased formation
  • Tumor new growth
  • Benign tumors- have defined characteristics
  • Dysplasia- cells change form
  • Cancer- at least some cells loose organization.

4
Tumors
  • Benign
  • Remain in one location
  • Single, well-defined mass
  • May be surrounded by connective tissue
  • Cancerous
  • Abnormal cell structure, may appear
    undifferentiated
  • May spread
  • Edge of tumor not clearly defined

5
Malignant Tumor Development
Figure 18.2
6
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7
How cancers develop
  • Is genetic in character
  • Proto-oncogenes
  • Oncogenes
  • Tumor suppressor genes
  • p53

8
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9
How Cancer Develops
  • Mutated or damaged genes
  • Proto-oncogenes normal regulatory genes
  • Oncogenes mutated or damaged proto-oncogenes
  • Tumor suppressor genes regulatory genes repress
    cell growth, division, differentiation, adhesion
  • May be turned off, damaged, or mutated in cancers
  • Mutator genes genes of DNA repair, when they are
    damages the cell is more likely to make a mistake.

10
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11
Indicated cause of cancer
  • Carcinogens
  • Inherited susceptibility
  • Viruses and bacteria
  • Starts with a single cell that is no longer under
    normal control

12
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13
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14
Cancer Characteristics
  • loss of contact inhibition
  • Cancer cells do not self-destruct when their DNA
    is damaged
  • Cancer cells divide indefinitely
  • Cancer cells attract a blood supply
  • Cancer cells do not adhere to neighboring cells

15
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17
The immune system plays an important role
  • If your immune system recognizes a cell as being
    cancerous then it will be destroyed

18
Progredssion of cancer requires multiple genetic
changes in regulatory genes.
19
Testing for Cancer
  • Tumor Imagine
  • X rays
  • Positron emis temography
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Genetic testing
  • Enzyme markers
  • PET and MRI focus on metabolic differences
  • Ethaical problems withgenetic testing?
  • Large scale testing.

20
Cancer Treatments
  • Conventional treatments surgery, radiation, and
    chemotherapy
  • Delivery mechanisms coated metal beads,
    light-sensitive drugs
  • Immunotherapy promotes the immune response
  • Starving cancers inhibits angiogenesis
  • Molecular treatments target oncogenes

21
Treatment of cancer
  • Surgery
  • Radiation
  • Chemotherapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Inhibiting angiogenesis

22
Surgery, Radiation, and Chemotherapy Are
Conventional Ways to Treat Cancer
  • Surgery is used to remove tumors
  • Radiation therapy is used to kill localized
    cancer cells
  • Chemotherapy is used to kill cancer cells
    throughout the body
  • Immunotherapy boosts the immune responses against
    cancer cells
  • Inhibition of blood vessel formation may slow the
    spread of cancer cells
  • Gene therapy may someday help fight cancer in
    several ways

23
Some common cancers
  • Skin
  • Breast
  • Prostate
  • Lung
  • Colon rectum

24
Ten Most Common Cancers
Table 18.3
25
Prevention
  • Best way to beat cancer is to not get it.

26
Most Cancers Are Preventable
  • Know family history
  • Get regular medical screenings
  • Learn self-examination techniques
  • Avoid direct sunlight 10 a.m. to 4 p.m., avoid
    sunlamps and tanning salons
  • Watch diet and weight
  • Dont smoke
  • Drink in moderation, if at all
  • Be informed
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