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Awareness-Level Lesson 5 Presentation

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Awareness-Level Lesson 5 Presentation Hazardous Materials for First Responders, 3rd Ed. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Awareness-Level Lesson 5 Presentation


1
Awareness-Level Lesson 5 Presentation
  • Hazardous Materials for First Responders, 3rd
    Ed.

2
Definition of Terrorism
  • The U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
    defines terrorism as
  • The unlawful use of force against persons or
    property to intimidate or coerce a government,
    the civilian population, or any segment thereof,
    in the furtherance of political or social
    objectives.

3
Elements of Terrorism
  • Terrorist activities are illegal and involve the
    use of force
  • Actions intend to intimidate or coerce
  • Actions are committed in support of political or
    social objectives

4
Domestic Terrorism
  • Involves groups or individuals whose activities,
    conducted without foreign influence, are directed
    at elements of a government or population

5
International Terrorism
  • Involves activities committed by foreign-based
    groups or individuals who are either directed by
    countries or groups outside a country or whose
    activities transcend national boundaries

6
Goals of Terrorism
  • Recognition
  • Coercion
  • Intimidation
  • Provocation

7
Potential Terrorist Targets
  • Public assembly occupancies and locations
  • Public buildings
  • Mass transit systems
  • Places with high economic significance
  • Telecommunications facilities
  • Places with historical or symbolic significance
  • Military installations
  • Airports
  • Industrial facilities

8
Categories of Terrorist Incidents
  • Biological
  • Nuclear
  • Incendiary
  • Chemical
  • Explosive

9
Weapon of Mass Destruction
  • According to the U.S. Government a weapon of mass
    destruction is any weapon or device that is
    intended or has the capability to cause death or
    serious bodily injury to a significant number of
    people through the release, dissemination, or
    impact of one of the following means
  • Toxic or poisonous chemicals or their precursors
  • A disease organism
  • Radiation or radioactivity

10
Biological Terrorism
  • The CDC defines biological terrorism as an
    intentional release of viruses, bacteria, or
    their toxins for the purpose of harming or
    killing citizens.

11
Types of Biological Agents
  • Viral agents
  • Bacterial agents
  • Rickettsias
  • Biological toxins

12
Biological Attack Indicators
  • Numerous sick or dead animals, fish, or birds
  • Unscheduled spraying
  • Absence of crops, wildlife, or insects that are
    common for the area, time of day, or time of year
  • Materials or equipment that are unusual for the
    area

(1 of 2)
13
Biological Attack Indicators
  • Multiple casualties without obvious signs of
    trauma
  • Multiple victims who are exhibiting similar
    symptoms
  • Large numbers of persons seeking medical attention

(2 of 2)
14
Chemical vs. Biological Incidents
  • Chemical incident
  • Symptoms are noticeable either within minutes or
    hours
  • May have a unique odor and color
  • Biological incident
  • Symptoms may take days or even weeks to appear
  • No odor or color
  • May spread beyond the initial contamination

15
Chemical Terrorism
  • Chemical attack The deliberate release of a
    toxic gas, liquid or solid that can poison people
    and the environment

16
Chemical Warfare Agents
  • Chemical substances that are intended for use in
    warfare or terrorist activities to kill,
    seriously injure, or seriously incapacitate
    people through their physiological effects

17
Toxic Industrial Materials
  • Particularly poisonous hazardous materials that
    are normally used for industrial purposes, but
    could be used by terrorists to deliberately kill,
    injure or incapacitate people

18
Chemical Incident Indicators
  • Numerous sick or dead animals, fish, or birds
  • Unscheduled spraying
  • Vapor clouds or mists
  • Absence of crops, wildlife, or insects that are
    common for the area, time of day, or time of year
  • Out of place and unattended packages, boxes, or
    vehicles

(1 of 3)
19
Chemical Incident Indicators
  • Packages that are leaking
  • Materials or equipment that are unusual for the
    area
  • Small explosions that disperse liquids, mists, or
    gases
  • Unusual odors or tastes

(2 of 3)
20
Chemical Incident Indicators
  • Multiple casualties without obvious signs of
    trauma
  • Multiple victims who are exhibiting similar
    symptoms
  • Large numbers of persons seeking medical attention

(3 of 3)
21
SLUDGEM
  • The acronym SLUDGEM is used to remember health
    problems
  • Salivation (drooling)
  • Lacrimation (tearing)
  • Urination
  • Defecation
  • Gastrointestinal upset/aggravation (cramping)
  • Emesis (vomiting)
  • Miosis (pinpointed pupils) or Muscular
    twitching/spasms

22
Criminal and Terrorist Incident Response
  • Essentially the same as other haz mat incidents
  • Law enforcement
  • Must be notified
  • Must be included
  • Use predetermined procedures
  • Summon help
  • Communicate with media and public

23
Basic Principles of Response
  • Incident priorities
  • Life safety
  • Incident stabilization
  • Protection of property and the environment
  • Establish an incident command or management
    system
  • Call for additional help

24
Additional Actions at Terrorist or Criminal
Incidents
  • Notify authorities
  • Preserve crime scene evidence
  • Isolate exposed people and animals
  • Secure the scene

(1 of 2)
25
Additional Actions at Terrorist or Criminal
Incidents
  • Take precautions against the possibility of
    secondary devices
  • Exercise caution concerning other potential
    hazards associated with terrorist and criminal
    activities

(2 of 2)
26
Awareness Actions at Criminal or Terrorist
Incidents
  • Protect yourself and other first responders
  • Report the suspicion to the appropriate
    authorities and document your initial observation
  • Isolate people or animals that may have been
    exposed
  • Avoid actions that may disturb potential evidence

(1 of 2)
27
Awareness Actions at Criminal or Terrorist
Incidents
  • Do not touch any item that may indicate a
    criminal or terrorist activity and be aware of
    the potential for secondary devices
  • Set up control zones
  • Take steps to prevent secondary contamination

(2 of 2)
28
  • WARNING
  • First responders must know their limitations at
    criminal and terrorist incidents. Incidents, such
    as those involving meth labs, require training
    above Awareness Level.

29
Guidelines for Preserving Evidence
  • Do not touch anything unless it is necessary
  • Avoid disturbing areas not directly involved in
    rescue activities
  • Remember what the scene looked like upon first
    arrival
  • Document observations as quickly as possible
  • Take photographs and videos of the scene as soon
    as possible

(1 of 3)
30
Guidelines for Preserving Evidence
  • Remember and document when something was touched
    or moved
  • Minimize the number of people working in the
    area, if possible
  • Leave fatalities and their surroundings
    undisturbed
  • Identify witnesses, victims, and the presence of
    evidence

(2 of 3)
31
Guidelines for Preserving Evidence
  • Preserve potentially transient physical evidence
  • Follow departmental procedures for establishing
    chain of custody, documentation, and security
    measures to store crime scene evidence

(3 of 3)
32
Summary
  • First responders must be prepared to respond to
    incidents that may involve criminal or terrorist
    activity. These incidents pose an additional
    danger to responders that must be taken into
    account.
  • Terrorism can be domestic or international and
    uses actions that involve force. Potential
    terrorist targets include those that are highly
    visible and are public places.

(1 of 3)
33
Summary
  • Categories of terrorist incidents include
    biological, nuclear, incendiary, chemical, and
    explosive. The term weapon of mass destruction is
    often used in connection with potential terrorism
    incidents.
  • Biological and chemical terrorism both have
    unique characteristics and indicators. Knowing
    these characteristics and indicators are
    important.

(2 of 3)
34
Summary
  • When responding to an incident involving criminal
    or terrorist activity first responders must take
    additional actions. Other agencies must be
    involved and precautions regarding safety taken.
  • The preservation of evidence is important at
    crime scenes and first responders must be aware
    of and follow guidelines for preserving evidence.

(3 of 3)
35
Homework
  • 1. Which of the following is an element of
    terrorism?
  • A. Terrorist actions adhere to international war
    regulations.
  • B. Terrorist actions use legitimate means to
    promote their cause.
  • C. Terrorist actions seek to gain sympathy for
    their cause.
  • D. Terrorist activities are illegal and involve
    the use of force.
  • 2. Which of the following is not a category of
    terrorist incidents?
  • A. Inorganic B. Biological C. Chemical D.
    Nuclear
  • 3. Which of the following refers to a weapon or
    device that has the capability to cause death
    through the dissemination of toxic or poisonous
    chemicals?
  • A. Warhead B.
    Nonconventional ammunition
  • C. Weapon of mass destruction D. Weapon of
    total devastation
  • 4. Which of the following refers to an
    intentional release of viruses, bacteria, or
    their toxins for the purpose of harming or
    killing citizens?
  • A. Chemical terrorism B. Biological terrorism
  • C. Organic terrorism D. Medical terrorism

36
Homework
  • 5. Which of the following incidents can encompass
    a greater area because of contagious agents being
    passed to other individuals?
  • A. Explosive incident B. Nuclear incident
  • C. Chemical incident D. Biological incident
  • 6. Which of the following refers to a deliberate
    release of a toxic gas, liquid or solid that can
    poison people and the environment?
  • A. Incendiary attack B. Chemical attack
  • C. Biological attack D. Nuclear attack
  • 7. Which of the following actions should a first
    responder at the Awareness Level take when
    criminal or terrorist activity is suspected?
  • A. Leave the area immediately.
  • B. Attempt to apprehend the suspects.
  • C. Begin offensive actions if hazardous materials
    are involved.
  • D. Report the suspicion to the appropriate
    authorities.

37
Homework
  • 8. Which of the following would not be a
    significant potential terrorist target?
  • A. Public buildings B. Military installations
  • C. Private clubs D. Mass transit
    systems
  • 9. Which of the following is a guideline for
    preserving evidence at crime scenes?
  • A. Document your observations as quickly as
    possible.
  • B. Remove fatalities as quickly as possible.
  • C. Tag all items in the incident area.
  • D. Leave the area as soon as another agency
    responds.
  • 10. Which of the following refers to chemical
    substances that are intended for use in warfare
    or terrorist activities to kill people through
    their physiological effects?
  • A. Level A chemical substances B. Chemical
    warfare agents
  • C. Primary chemical toxins D. Toxic
    industrial materials

38
Awareness-Level Lesson 5 Presentation
  • Hazardous Materials for First Responders, 3rd
    Ed.
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