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Transport biofuels in Ireland

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Title: Transport biofuels in Ireland


1
Transport biofuels in Ireland
Bernard Rice
2
Medium-term transport biofuel options
  • Pure plant oil (rape-seed oil in modified
    engines)
  • Biodiesel from vegetable oils, animal fats
  • Ethanol from sugar/starch
  • Biogas from animal manures, other organic
    wastes, energy crops (to CNG standard
  • for vehicle use)

3
Alternative fuels for I.C. engines
  • What defines a good fuel?
  • How does the fuel affect engine performance?
  • What aspects of engine performance does it affect?

4
Important fuel properties
  • Calorific value
  • Combustion properties (Cetane, octane)
  • Viscosity
  • Lubricating properties of fuel
  • Effects on engine oil
  • Low-temperature behaviour
  • Emissions - particulates, NOx, CO, HC etc
  • Other environmental issues
  • Storage stability

5
Pure plant oil
  • Four plants in Ireland
  • Few quality problems
  • Good demand from hauliers
  • But limited uptake due to
  • Rape-seed price and supply
  • Oil price fluctuations
  • Lack of acceptance by most car makers
  • Need to modify engine

6
Engine modification for veg oil
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Draft DIN 51605Oil quality for engine use
  • Suspended solids (lt24 mg/kg)
  • Water content (lt 0.075)
  • Acid value (lt2.0 mg KOH/g)
  • P content (lt12 mg/kg)
  • Ash content (lt0.01)
  • Oxidation stability (lt6 hours)

13
Uses of pure plant oil
  • Rape-seed oil only (no other oil)
  • Up to 100 blends in suitably modified engines
  • Use of lt50 blends in unmodified engines
    practiced, but not recommended by anyone
  • No acceptance by vehicle industry

14
Biogreen pure plant oil crushing/filtering unit
15
Glanbia plant, Gorey
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19
Fuel economy with biodiesel in routine work
Vehicle Fuel Distance travelled Fuel
economy (km) (km/l) Peugeot
306 100 biodiesel 5,753
16.3 100 Mineral 16,268
16.9 Isuzu Trooper 100 biodiesel
7,037 11.0 100 Mineral
8,915 11.2
4 reduction with biodiesel
2 reduction with biodiesel
20
Biodiesel
  • Green Biofuels Ireland, New Ross
  • Capacity 30M litres/year
  • One year in operation
  • Producing high quality biodiesel
  • Three other small producers from RVO
  • Other developers on hold

21
GREEN BIOFUELS biodiesel plant, New Ross
  • Feedstocks
  • Rape-seed oil
  • Beef tallow
  • Recovered veg oil

Capacity 30 million litres/annum
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25
Pure plant oil vs biodiesel
  • Biodiesel
  • Some acceptance by vehicle industry
  • Wider feedstock range
  • No engine mods needed
  • More expensive process
  • Pure plant oil
  • Smaller scale
  • Lower start-up capital
  • More local involvement
  • No official acceptance by vehicle industry

26
Ethanol
Carbery Milk Processors 10,000 t/year from
whey Cooley Clearpower excess capacity for
potable alcohol Two more projects under study
27
2. BIO-ETHANOL from starch/sugar Fuel
extender/octane booster for petrol engines
  • Current Irish possibilities
  • Produce from cereals or beet
  • Add 5 to petrol (no engine mods)
  • Replace MTBE or lead
  • Add up to 80 in FFV engines

28
Outline of multi-feedstock ethanol plant
Distillation
Preparation
Fermentation
29
Ethanol yields
  • From wheat
  • 350 litres per tonne
  • 3000 litres per ha
  • From sugar beet
  • 90 litres per tonne
  • 4500 litres per ha

30
Ethanol from wheat, beet
  • For 2 substitution
  • 15,300 ha beet
  • or
  • 23,000 ha wheat
  • Needs
  • Large scale
  • Excise relief
  • Investor/promoter interest
  • Involvement of feedstock suppliers, oil importers

31
Wheat-ethanol plant proposal, Waterford
32
The Irish cereals market
  • Future threatened by
  • Low and fluctuating prices
  • Fall in cattle numbers?
  • Declining poultry industry?
  • Threats to pig industry?
  • Ethanol plant needed to sustain, rather than
    increase cereal production

33
Biogas for transport, CHP or big boilers
Electricity
Heat
Animal manure ( food wastes?) ( energy
crops?) ( grass?)
Fuel cell
Upgrade
Biogas
Gas grid
Digestate
34
Biogas as vehicle fuel
Neue Nutzungsmöglichkeiten, hohe Effizienz
In the future, up to 200,000 km/ha will be
attainable from biogas,with higher-yielding crops
and more efficient conversion
Biodiesel 11.885 kWh/ha
23.770 km
Bioethanol 14.825 kWh/ha
29.650 km
BTL (Biomass-to-Liquid) 30.252 kWh/ha
60.500 km
Biomethan 47.000 kWh/ha
94.000 km
Kraftstofferträge in kWh / ha
km-Umrechnung in Bezug auf Diesel-äquivalent
rund 10 kWh/l und 5 l/100 km
35
Medium-term production potential(1st-gen
biofuels)
Diesel Pure plant oil 10-30,000
t Biodiesel 40-60,000 t Petrol From
whey 10-15,000 t From cereals 100,000
t Total 200,000 t Substitution 3
36
Motor Oil Tax Relief (2007) allocations
Fuel No. of producers 5-year volume (million litres)
Bioethanol 4 306
Blended biodiesel 4 290
Biodiesel (captive fleets) 5 48
Pure plant oil 3 21
Most is being imported
37
What next!
  • Obligation system to replace excise relief
  • National Bio-energy Action Plan

38
How would it work?
Change to a biofuel obligation system
  • Fuel suppliers given biofuel substitution target
  • Certificates issued for biofuel sales
  • Biofuel producers can sell certificates
  • Fuel suppliers can either sell biofuels, buy
    certificates or pay buy-out penalty

39
Next-generation transport biofuels
  • Ethanol from cellulosic biomass (e.g. wood)
  • 2. Thermo-chemical biomass conversion (BtL)
  • 3. Biogas from manures, food wastes, energy
    crops, municipal/industrial sludges
  • 4. Bio-hydrogen use in engines, fuel cells
  • 5. Bio-refineries (fuel other non-food
    products)

Still in development, potential in Ireland not
clear
40
Renewable Energy Directive
  • By 2020 -
  • 20 of consumed energy renewable
  • 10 of transport energy renewable
  • National Action Plans by June 2010, to include
  • Sector targets
  • Measures to achieve targets
  • National policies for existing and new resources
  • Not a re-hash of existing schemes

41
Conclusions (1)
  • We should aim to
  • expand liquid ppo and biodiesel production to
    maximum agronomic extent
  • Promote native ethanol production from arable
    crops
  • Develop biogas production from animal manure,
    food wastes and energy crops
  • Expand cellulose crop production, initially for
    heat/electricity, later for liquid biofuels or
    bio-refineries

42
Conclusions (2)
  • To achieve these targets, and to maximise home
    production of biofuels, we need
  • Long-term policies and support programmes to
    reassure farmers and investors
  • Transport biofuel supports sensitive to the needs
    of small-scale producers
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