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Chapter 6 Personality and Lifestyles


Chapter 6 Personality and Lifestyles CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 8e Michael Solomon Chapter Objectives When you finish this chapter you should understand why: A consumer s ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 6 Personality and Lifestyles

Chapter 6Personality and Lifestyles
CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 8eMichael Solomon
Chapter Objectives
  • When you finish this chapter you should
    understand why
  • A consumers personality influences the way he
    responds to marketing stimuli, but efforts to use
    this information in marketing contexts meet with
    mixed results.
  • Consumers lifestyles are key to many marketing
  • Psychographics go beyond simple demographics in
    helping marketers understand and reach different
    consumer segments.

Chapter Objectives (cont.)
  • Identifying patterns of consumption can be
    superior to knowledge of individual purchases
    when crafting a lifestyle marketing strategy.

  • Personality a persons unique psychological
    makeup and how it consistently influences the way
    a person responds to his/her environment

Freudian Systems
  • Personality conflict between gratification and
  • Id pleasure principle
  • Superego our conscience
  • Ego mediates between id and superego
  • Reality principle ego gratifies the id in such a
    way that the outside world will find acceptable

Freudian Systems (cont.)
  • Marketing Implications
  • Unconscious motives underlying purchases
  • Symbolism in products to compromise id and
  • Sports car as sexual gratification for men
  • Phallic symbols, such as cigars

Motivational Research
  • Freudian ideas unlock deeper product and
    advertisement meanings
  • Consumer depth interviews
  • Latent motives for purchases
  • Examples of Dichters motives (Table 6.1)
  • Bowling, electric trains, power tools power
  • Ice cream, beauty products social acceptance

Dichters Consumption Motives
Motive Associated Products
Power-masculinity-virility Power tools, hot rods, coffee, red meat, razors
Security Ice cream, home baking, hospital care
Eroticism Sweets, gloves
Moral purity-cleanliness White bread, cotton fabrics, bathing, oatmeal
Social acceptance Toys, sugar, honey, soap, beauty products
Individuality Gourmet foods, foreign cars, vodka, perfume
Status Scotch, carpets
Femininity Cakes, dolls, silk, tea, household curios
Reward Cigarettes, candy, alcohol, ice cream, cookies
Mastery over environment Kitchen appliances, boats, sporting goods
Disalienation Home decorating, skiing, morning radio broadcasts
Magic-mystery Soups, paints, carbonated drinks, vodka
Table 6.1 (abridged)
Motivational Research (cont.)
  • Criticisms
  • Invalid or works too well
  • Too sexually-based
  • Appeal
  • Less expensive than large-scale surveys
  • Powerful hook for promotional strategy
  • Intuitively plausible findings (after the fact)
  • Enhanced validity with other techniques

Neo-Freudian Theories
  • Karen Horney
  • Compliant versus detached versus aggressive
  • Alfred Adler
  • Motivation to overcome inferiority
  • Harry Stack Sullivan
  • Personality evolves to reduce anxiety

Neo-Freudian Theories Jung
  • Carl Jung analytical psychology
  • Collective unconscious
  • Archetypes in advertising (see Figure 6.1 old
    wise man, earth mother, etc.)
  • BrandAsset Archetypes model
  • BAV Brand Health measures

BrandAsset Valuator Archetypes
Figure 6.1 (part 1 of 2)
BrandAsset Valuator Archetypes (cont.)
Figure 6.1 (part 2 of 2)
BrandAsset Archetypes BAV Brand Health
  • Archetypes across cultures and time
  • Archetypes telegraph instantly
  • Strong evidence of achieving business objectives
    with this model
  • Early warning signal of brand trouble

Trait Theory
  • Personality traits identifiable characteristics
    that define a person
  • Traits relevant to consumer behavior
  • Innovativeness
  • Materialism
  • Self-consciousness
  • Need for cognition
  • Frugality

Are You an Innie or an Outie?
Idiocentrics (individualist orientation) Allocentrics (group orientation)
Contentment More satisfied with current life Less satisfied with current life
Health Consciousness Less likely to avoid unhealthy foods More likely to avoid unhealthy foods
Food Preparation Spend less time preparing food Love kitchen spend more time preparing food
Workaholics More likely to work hard and stay late at work Less likely to work hard
Travel and Entertainment More interested in traveling to other cultures Visit library and read more
Problems with Trait Theory
  • Prediction of product choices using traits of
    consumers is mixed at best
  • Scales not valid/reliable
  • Tests borrow scales used for the mentally ill
  • Inappropriate testing conditions
  • Ad hoc instrument changes
  • Use of global measures to predict specific brand
  • Shotgun approach (no thought of scale

Brand Personality
  • Brand personality set of traits people attribute
    to a product as if it were a person
  • Brand equity extent to which a consumer holds
    strong, favorable, and unique associations with a
    brand in memoryand the extent to which s/he is
    willing to pay more for the branded version of a
    product than for a nonbranded (generic) version
  • Extensive consumer research goes into brand

Brand Behaviors and Personality Trait Inferences
Brand Action Trait Inference
Brand is repositioned several times or changes slogan repeatedly Flighty, schizophrenic
Brand uses continuing character in advertising Familiar, comfortable
Brand charges high prices and uses exclusive distribution Snobbish, sophisticated
Brand frequently available on deal Cheap, uncultured
Brand offers many line extensions Versatile, adaptable
Table 6.2 (abridged)
  • Lifestyle patterns of consumption reflecting a
    persons choices of how one spends time and money
  • Lifestyle marketing perspective people sort
    themselves into groups on the basis of
  • What they like to do
  • How they spend leisure time
  • How they spend disposable income
  • Example Magazines targeting specific lifestyles
    WWF Magazine, 4 Wheel Off Road, Readers Digest

Lifestyles as Group Identities
  • Forms of expressive symbolism
  • Self-definition of group members common symbol
  • Terms include lifestyle, taste public, consumer
    group, symbolic community, status culture
  • Each person provides a unique twist to be an
  • Tastes/preferences evolve over time

Building Blocks of Lifestyles
  • Product usage in desirable social settings
  • Consumption style
  • Patterns of behavior
  • Co-branding strategies brands team up with other
    companies to promote their products understand
  • Product complementarity symbolic meanings of
    different products relate to one another
  • Consumption constellations define, communicate,
    and perform social roles

Linking Products to Lifestyles
Figure 6.2
  • What consumption constellation might characterize
    you and your friends today?

  • Psychographics use of psychological,
    sociological, and anthropological factors to
  • Determine market segments
  • Determine their reasons for choosing products
  • Fine-tune offerings to meet needs of different
  • Consumers can share the same demographics and
    still be very different!

Best Buy Psychographic Segments
  • Jill busy suburban mom who buys electronics
    for family
  • Buzz focused, active younger male interested
    in buying latest gadgets
  • Ray family man who likes his technology
  • BB4B (Best Buy for Business) small employer
  • Barry affluent professional male wholl drop
    tens of thousands of dollars on a home theater

Lifestyle/Personality Variables for Soup
Lifestyle Personality
Active Lifestyle (Vegetable) I am outdoorsy, physically fit, workaholic, socially active Mentally Alert (Clam Chowder) I am intellectual, sophisticated, creative, detail-oriented, witty, nutrition conscious
Family Spirited (Chicken Noodle) I am family-oriented, churchgoer, traditional Social (Chili) I am fun at parties, outgoing, spontaneous, trendsetter
Homebody (Tomato) I am a homebody, good cook, pet lover I enjoy spending time alone Athletic (Cream Soups) I am athletic, competitive, adventurous
Intellectually Stimulated Pastimes (French Onion) I am a technology whiz, world traveler, book lover Carefree (Minestrone) I am down-to-earth, affectionate, fun loving, optimistic
Table 6.3
Doing a Psychographic Analysis
  • Lifestyle profile differentiates between users
    and nonusers of a product
  • Product-specific profile identifies a target
    group and profiles consumers based on
    product-related dimensions
  • General lifestyle segmentation places a large
    sample of respondents into homogeneous groups
    based on similarities of preferences
  • Product-specific segmentation tailors questions
    to a product category

  • Grouping consumers according to
  • Activities
  • Interests
  • Opinions
  • 80/20 Rule lifestyle segments that produce the
    bulk of customers
  • Heavy users and the benefits they derive from

Lifestyle Dimensions
Activities Interests Opinions Demographics
Work Family Themselves Age
Hobbies Home Social issues Education
Social events Job Politics Income
Vacation Community Business Occupation
Entertainment Recreation Economics Family size
Club membership Fashion Education Dwelling
Community Food Products Geography
Shopping Media Future City size
Sports Achievements Culture Stage in life cycle
Table 6.4
Psychographic Segmentation Uses
  • To define target market
  • To create new view of market
  • To position product
  • To better communicate product attributes
  • To develop overall strategy
  • To market social/political issues

  • Click to take the
  • VALS2 survey

Figure 6.3
  • Construct separate advertising executions for a
    cosmetics product targeted to the Belonger,
    Achiever, Experiencer, and Maker VALS types.
  • How would the basic appeal differ for each group?

Global Psychographic Typologies
  • Global MOSAIC
  • Identifies segments across 19 countries
  • RISC
  • Lifestyles/sociocultural change in 40 countries
  • Divides population into 10 segments using 3 axis
  • Exploration/Stability
  • Social/Individual
  • Global/Local
  • 40 measured trends (e.g., spirituality)

  • Extreme sports. Day trading. Blogging.
    Vegetarianism. Can you predict what will be hot
    in the near future?
  • Identify a lifestyle trend that is just surfacing
    in your universe.
  • Describe this trend in detail, and justify your
  • What specific styles and/or products are part of
    this trend?

Ten Risk Segments
Figure 6.4
  • Consumer expenditures/socioeconomic factors
    geographic information
  • Birds of a feature flock together
  • Can be reached more economically (e.g., 90277 zip
    code in Redondo Beach, CA)

  • Geodemographic techniques assume that people who
    live in the same neighborhood have other things
    in common as well.
  • Why do they make this assumption, and how
    accurate is it?

Food Cultures
  • Food culture pattern of food and beverage
    consumption that reflects the values of a social
  • Differences in international food cultures
  • In China, milk chocolate has less milk
  • In United States, Campbells soup is saltier than
    in Mexico
  • In Germany, food must be healthier

PRIZM by Claritas, Inc.
  • 66 clusters of U.S. zip codes
  • Example Young Influential, Money and Brains,
    Kids and Cul-de-Sacs
  • Ranked by income, home value, and occupation
  • Maximize effectiveness, cost-efficiency, and
    impact of marketing communications

?Click to access
Comparison of Two PRIZM Clusters
Furs and Station Wagons Furs and Station Wagons
New money, parents in 40s and 50s Newly built subdivisions with tennis courts, swimming pools, gardens New money, parents in 40s and 50s Newly built subdivisions with tennis courts, swimming pools, gardens
High Usage Country clubs Wine by the case Lawn furniture Gourmet magazine BMW 5 Series Rye bread Natural cold cereal Low Usage Motorcycles Laxatives Nonfilter cigarettes Chewing tobacco Hunting magazine Chevrolet Chevette Canned stews
Tobacco Roads Tobacco Roads
Racially mixed farm town in South Small downtowns with thrift shops, diners, and laundromats shanty-type homes without indoor plumbing Racially mixed farm town in South Small downtowns with thrift shops, diners, and laundromats shanty-type homes without indoor plumbing
High Usage Travel by bus Asthma medicine Malt liquors Grit magazine Pregnancy tests Pontiac Bonneville Shortening Low Usage Knitting Live theater Smoke detectors Ms. Magazine Ferraris Whole-wheat bread Mexican foods
Table 6.5