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Business Research Methods


Business Research Methods * The Marketing Information System This CTR corresponds to Figure 5-1 on p. 147 and relates to the material on pp. 147-155. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Business Research Methods

Business Research Methods
Lecture Overview
  • Course overview
  • Information the Management Information System
  • Business research what is it?
  • Characteristics of scientific research
  • Types of Business research
  • Philosophical bases of research
  • Key research terms
  • Research process the main steps
  • Research brief
  • Current issues
  • Research Ethics

Course Overview Research Methods
Why is information needed?
Market/ Environment
Business managers need information on
Customers needs
Strategic planning
The Management Information System
Research the management process
  • Research is a fundamental component of the
    process of management and the management decision
  • Research is key element of the management
    information system
  • Can be used to analyse and monitor market
  • Can be helpful in providing insight into
    organisational and individual behaviour

Where is the Research function located within an
organisation if at all?
  • Marketing Department (Mkt Info System)
  • Research Department that undertakes research
    work for the Mkt dept and other research on
    both internal and external customers
  • Engage an independent Research Company to conduct

What is business research?
  • Systematic and organised effort to investigate a
    specific problem or opportunity with the goal of
    finding answers to the issues
  • Marketing/Tourism research and business research
    should be considered one and the same
  • Marketing / Tourism research is different in the
    focus but not in the process or outcomes from
    developing rigor and balance in the research

Business Research
Business research is an organised, systematic,
data-based, critical, objective, scientific
inquiry or investigation into a specific problem
or issue with the purpose of finding solutions to
it or clarifying it.
Characteristics of scientific research Factors
to evaluate research
  • Research must be conducted with
  • Clear purpose
  • Relevance
  • Timely
  • Efficiency
  • Quality Accurate, Reliable Valid
  • Objectivity
  • Ethical
  • Limitations of scientific research in behavioural

Types of Business Research
Applied done with the intention of applying
results to specific problems in the
business Basic/Pure to enhance the
understanding of problems that commonly occur
across a range of organisations. Undertaken to
extend knowledge
Why study Business research
  • A tool that can be used in any discipline
  • Foundation of both business and academic best
  • If you are not a researcher in the future chances
    are that you will be a user of research allows
    use it in more sophisticated and creative ways
  • Allows you to sift for reliable information
  • Allows you to evaluate other peoples research.

Philosophical bases of research
  • Paradigm reflects a basic set of philosophical
    beliefs about the nature of the world.
  • Give guidelines and principles in the way
    research is conducted within a paradigm
  • Research methods and techniques should be in
    sympathy with the paradigm
  • Research Paradigms Positivist Interpretative
    Critical Feminist Postmodern
  • Paradigm a set of beliefs
  • Ontology the nature of reality
  • Epistemology relationship between researcher
    and the subject/object/respondent
  • Methodology set of guidelines for conducting
    research tools for data collection analysis

Key Research Terms
  • Observations - perceptions of reality
  • Fact universal truth supported by measurable
  • Opinion persons belief
  • Concepts general representations of ideas to be
    studied ie service value service quality
  • Variables concepts that are operationalised so
    it can be observed measured

Quantitative Res Qualitative Res
  • Reality is objective singular apart from
  • Researcher is independent of that being
  • Concepts are in the form of distinct variables
  • Measures are systematically created before data
    collection are standardised
  • Reality is subjective multiple, as seen by
  • Researcher interacts with that being researched
  • Concepts are in the form of themes,
  • Measures are open ended questions created for the
    specific research setting

Quantitative Res Qualitative Res
  • Data are in the form of numbers from precise
  • There are many subjects or respondents
  • Procedures are standard - replication
  • Analysis use statistics
  • Methods Survey, Experiment
  • Triangulation mixed method approach both qual
    quant methods are used will be a predominant
    use of one method.
  • Data are in the form of words from documents,
  • Generally few subjects or participants
  • Procedures not easily replicated
  • Analysis extract themes from evidence present
    a coherent picture
  • Methods indepth interviews focus groups
    observations panels case studies

Key Research Terms
  • Secondary research researcher uses previously
    collected data
  • Primary research collection of original data by
  • Research Design- framework or blueprint for
    conducting the research.
  • Exploratory
  • Descriptive
  • Causal (hypothesis testing)
  • Should note that researchers my use a singular,
    dual or multiple research design

Why should management not automatically
commission a research study?
  • Identify a number of situations when research may
    be inappropriate.

Possible reasons
  • Information is already available
  • There is insufficient time for research (tight
  • Resources are not available (insufficient
  • Costs outweigh the value of the research

Stages in the Research Process
Research process
  • Step One
  • Problem definition
  • Management problem
  • Research problem (in the form of a question s)
  • Research objectives
  • Estimate the value of the information

Research process
  • Step two
  • Research design plan or blueprint for gathering
    the data
  • Linked to next 2 steps in research process
  • Techniques to be used
  • Who will be involved - respondents
  • How the data will be gathered
  • How it will be analysed

Research process
  • Step three
  • Sampling / representation
  • How will we group people, objects, things
  • How will we select them
  • Why will we select them
  • Note even for qualitative research we need to
    identify the participants/respondents and justify

Research process
  • Step Four
  • Data collection, Data Preparation/Processing and
  • How data is collected
  • How it is recorded
  • How data is analysed
  • Interpretation of findings to arrive at

Research process
  • Step five
  • Recommendations and reporting
  • Analysing data is not enough, it is important to
    be able to interpret your finding and include
    them in a report that the client can understand,
    interpret and apply to the management problem
  • Oral presentation of the research results to

Report writing and presentation
  • Permanent record of the entire project
  • Quality of work is usually judged by the final
    report and presentation
  • Should influence the action taken by management
  • Needed if you are doing the course - Research

Research Brief
  • A document provided by the client to the research
    agency that describes the business decision
    problem and the expectations of a research study
    design to collect information to make the
  • Includes purpose, background, any previous
    research, need for research, research objectives,
    target audience, level of reporting, budget,
    timeline, expectations of proposal/selection
    criteria, professional membership/quality
    assurance information, contact details

Current issues
  • Privacy Act was enacted on the 21st December
    2001, changed the procedures for conducting
    primary research
  • Growth of sugging (selling under the guise of a
    survey), frugging (fund raising under the guise
    of a survey), dugging (developing a database
    under the guise research) and telemarketing
  • These practices violate the respondents trust
    and erode willingness to support legitimate
  • Misuse of research and reporting of findings by
    the media

Ethical Research
  • Ethical Research Practices those practices and
    procedures that lead to
  • protection of human non-human subjects
  • appropriate methodology
  • inferences, conclusions recom. based on actual
  • complete accurate research reports

  • Ethics Interaction of Rights and Obligations

Subjects Rights
Clients Rights
Researchers Obligation
Researchers Obligation
Researchers Rights
Researchers Rights
Subjects Obligation
Clients Obligation
Subjects Rights
Clients Obligations
  • Most research involves three parties
  • Researcher
  • Client and
  • Respondent/ subject/ participant
  • the public at large
  • Rights and responsibilities of the above
    stakeholders will be explored in the tutorial.
    Visit the MRSA website and SR 1.1

Scientific Misconduct
  • Research fraud - falsifies or distorts the data
    or the methods of data collection
  • Plagiarism - steals the ideas writings of
    others without citing the source.
  • Unethical but Legal - behaviour may be unethical
    but not break the law

  • Research and the MIS
  • What is research? the main characteristics
  • Applied Basic/pure research
  • Research paradigm positivist, interpretative
  • Key research terms concept variable
    qualitative quantitative research design
    exploratory, descriptive, causal primary
    secondary research
  • Research process steps
  • Research brief
  • Research ethics researcher, respondent, client
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