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Targeted (Tier 2) Interventions

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Targeted (Tier 2) Interventions Summary Statement Based on several observations Identifies predictable relationships between environmental variables and behavior ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Targeted (Tier 2) Interventions


1
Targeted (Tier 2) Interventions
2
Intensive Individual Interventions Specialized
Individualized Systems for Students with
High-Risk Behaviour
CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL
POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT
5
15
Targeted Group Interventions Specialized
Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behaviour
Universal Interventions School-/Classroom- Wide
Systems for All Students, Staff, Settings
80 of Students
3
What is a Tier 2/ Targeted Intervention
  • An intervention that
  • Serves multiple students at one time
  • Students can get started with almost immediately
    upon referral
  • Requires almost no legwork from referring staff
    to begin implementation of the intervention with
    a student
  • All school staff know about, understand their
    roll with, and know the referral process for
  • Matches school needs by effectively supporting a
    significant proportion of students at-risk for
    challenging behavior in the school
  • If program is not self-sufficient and requires
    significant organization by referring staff its
    not a targeted intervention

4
Check In/Check Out
  • AKA
  • Check-n-Connect, HUGs, Behavior Education Program

5
Basic Cycle
  • Morning check-in (Get Daily Progress Report)
  • Give form to each teacher prior to each period.
    (can also be used in cafeteria or playground
    anywhere there is a supervisor)
  • End of day check-out
  • Points tallied
  • Reward
  • Daily Progress form copy taken home and signed.
  • Return signed copy next morning.

6
Check In/Check Out
7
Example Middle School Point Card
8
Example Point Card - Elementary
9
SWIS-CICO

What do you think? Any actions needed?
Support Plan Change Description
10/06/2009 Check out with Joe Binder
10
SWIS-CICO
11
SWIS-CICO Report
What do you think? Any actions needed?
Support Plan Change Description
09/10/2008 Check out with Joe Binder


12
SWIS-CICO
13
SWIS-CICO
What do you think? Any actions needed?
Support Plan Change Description
09/16/2009 Can earn get out of class early time
14
SWIS-CICO
15
SWIS-CICO
What do you think? Any actions needed?
16
SWIS-CICO
17
Tier 3 PBIS
18
The Basic FBA to BSP Process
1. Define the Problem Behavior
2. Conduct assessment for behavior support
planning a. Functional Behavioral
Assessment Defining behavior in observable
measureable terms Ask staff and student about
where, when, why behavior occurs See the
behavior during specified routines Hypothesize
a final summary of where, when, why behavior
occurs
3. Design an individualized behavior support plan
(BSP) Ensure technical adequacy
Ensure contextual fit
4. Ensure Fidelity of Implementation
5. Monitor Plan Impact on Student Behavior
Adapt BSP and implementation as needed based on
on-going monitoring
Adapted from Horner, Albin, Todd, Newton
Sprague, 2011
19
Basic vs. Complex FBA/BSP
Basic Complex
For Students with mild to moderate problem behaviors (behaviors that are NOT dangerous or occurring in many settings) Students with moderate to severe behavioral problems may be dangerous and/or occurring in many settings
What Relatively Simple and Efficient process for behavior support planning based on practical FBA data Time-intensive process that involves emergency planning, family-centered planning, and collaboration with outside agencies
Developed by whom Team of school-based professionals (e.g., PBS team members whose job responsibilities include FBA and behavior support planning) School-based team including professionals trained to develop and implement intensive interventions for students with severe problem behaviors (e.g., behavior specialist)
19
20
Behavioral or Learning Theory
  • Assumptions of Behavioral Theory
  • Behavior is Learned
  • Focus on the observable and measurable
  • Behavior is related to the environment in which
    it occurs
  • Behavior serves a purpose
  • Focus on how environmental variables can be
    manipulated to effect changes in behavior
    learning
  • Measure student outcomes learning
  • Educational approaches that have emerged from
    behaviorism include
  • applied behavior analysis
  • Functional assessment
  • curriculum based measurement and progress
    monitoring, and
  • Direct instruction have emerged from this model
  • Discrete Trial Training
  • Modeling, shaping, fading, reinforcement,
    contract, extinction, etc.

21
Behavior
  • Identify the Target Behavior
  • Desired Behavior or Non-desired Behavior
  • Behavior must be identified so that it is
    observable measurable
  • Define the behavior so that someone else could go
    into the room and both of you could measure the
    behavior without question

22
Operational Definition
Behavioral Definition Observable Measurable
definition
EXAMPLES What the Behavior Looks Like NON-EXAMPLES What the Behavior Does NOT Look Like
Provide a range of examples try to provide examples that delineate the boundaries of what the behavior looks like Provide a range of non-examples try to provide examples that delineate the boundaries of what the behavior does not looks like
23
Operational Definition
Hands, Feet and Objects to Self Student does not
touch other students with their hands, feet or
objects, with intent to hurt, bother or get peers
attention at inappropriate times
EXAMPLES What the Behavior Looks Like NON-EXAMPLES What the Behavior Does NOT Look Like
Student is Sitting at desk working with feet on floor and hands on work Standing in line with hands at side and without bumping into other students Sitting on floor and gently nudges another student by accident Teacher asks students to hand out books to class Playing tag at recess and gently tags another person to be it Student is Kicking peer under the desk or poking the peer to get their attention Hold on to another students arm so they cant get away from them in line Purposefully run into or push a student sitting next to you on the floor Throws a pencil at another student when the student needs a pencil Chases a peer during recess and touches them after the peer asks you to stop
24
ABCs of Understanding BehaviorOperant
Conditioning
  • What happens before (A or antecedent) the
    behavior occurs?
  • Trigger
  • What is the behavior (B)?
  • What happens after (C or consequence) the
    behavior occurs?
  • Response or Outcome of the Behavior
  • A ? B ? C

25
Antecedents What triggers the behavior?
  • What happens immediately preceding the
    problem/target behavior?
  • What triggers the behavior, be specific...
  • What activity?
  • What peers?
  • What tasks?
  • Describe in detail
  • If you wanted to set up the student to engage in
    the problem behavior, what would you have do?

26
Consequence What is the response to the
behavior?
  • What happens immediately following the behavior?
  • How do peers respond?
  • How do the adults respond?
  • What are the consequences for the student?
  • How many times out of 10 do each of these
    responses occur following the problem behavior?
  • What is the student gaining as a result of
    engaging in the behavior?
  • How is it paying off for the student?

27
Learning
  • A ? B ? C
  • Student Learns through repeated experience, that
    under these specific Antecedent conditions, if I
    engage in this Behavior, I can expect this
    Consequence

28
Learning A?B?C
A B C
Student is asked to do a math problem in front of the class Student tries to do the problem at the board, but struggles Peers laugh at student and one says aloud, that one is so easy
NEXT DAY NEXT DAY NEXT DAY
Student is asked to do a math problem in front of the class What happens today???
29
Reinforcing Consequence
  • A?B ?C
  • If the consequence is rewarding/desired, the
    subject learns the behavior is functional for
    getting what they want
  • Behavior Increases in the Future

Rewarding or Desired Consequence
30
Punishing Consequence
  • A ? B ? C
  • If the consequence is punishing/undesired, the
    subject learns the behavior is not functional for
    getting what they want
  • Behavior Decreases in the Future

Punishing or Undesired Consequence
31
ABCs of InstructionAcross the Continuum of
Learners
Antecedent Behavior Consequence
Instruction Prompt Student Response Teacher Feedback
Mainstream What is the capital of Sweden?. Bueller, Bueller Student thinks Stockholm Sporadic verbal praise Student self reinforcement I got it right!
Direct Instruction Reading Showing card with word cat saying this word is cat, what word? cat c-ar Yes that word is cat No, this word is cat
Significant Disabilities Choosing food at lunch Most to least prompting -physical guidance (hand over hand) -Physical -Gestural -verbal Student Response Reinforce response -tangible reinforcer -verbal praise -access to natural reinforcer get lunch
DIFFERENCES across Continuum - of trials to
mastery - explicitness of instruction
32
Reinforcing Consequence
  • A?B ?C
  • If the consequence is rewarding/desired, the
    subject learns the behavior is functional for
    getting what they want
  • Behavior Increases in the Future

Rewarding or Desired Consequence
33
Summary Statement
  • Based on several observations
  • Identifies predictable relationships between
    environmental variables and behavior
  • During
  • When
  • student will
  • because
  • therefore the function of the behavior is to
    access /escape/avoid
  • (choose one)

(some routine)
(some Antecedent condition occurs)
(engage in a specific Behavior)
(a predictable outCome will occur)
(something in the environment)
34
Summary Statement
  • Based on several observations
  • Identifies predictable relationships between
    environmental variables and behavior
  • During
  • When
  • student will
  • because
  • therefore the function of the behavior is to
    access /escape/avoid
  • (choose one)

(some routine)
Science or Social Studies
(some Antecedent condition occurs)
asked to read out loud in class
(engage in a specific Behavior)
Verbally refuses, disrespects teacher
(a predictable outCome will occur)
his teacher calls on someone else
oral reading
(something in the environment)
35
Most Common Functions of Behavior
  • To Avoid/ Escape
  • difficult task
  • non-preferred activity
  • peer
  • staff
  • To Obtain
  • peer attention
  • adult attention
  • desired activity
  • desired item
  • desired peer

36
Why is Function so Important?
37
Filter Horner, 2009
38
Ingram, Lewis-Palmer Sugai, 2005
39
Newcomer Lewis, 2004
40
Proactive v. ReactivePBS v. Aversive approach
41
PBS v. Aversive Model (ABC)
A B C
PBS (Positive Behavior Support) Proactive PBS (Positive Behavior Support) Proactive PBS (Positive Behavior Support) Proactive
Emphasis on Interventions to prevent problem behavior Emphasis on explicitly Teaching Alternate, Desired Behavior Emphasis on Positive Reinforcement of desired behavior

Traditional Aversive/Punitive Model - Reactive approach Traditional Aversive/Punitive Model - Reactive approach Traditional Aversive/Punitive Model - Reactive approach
Limited focus on Antecedent Interventions Little focus on teaching behavior Emphasis on punitive response to negative behavior
42
Traditional / Punitive Approach (ABC)
A B C
Student Situation what the student has learned Student Situation what the student has learned Student Situation what the student has learned
Asked to do math problem at the board in front of class of peers 1st time tried to do problem Peers laughed and said that ones easy
Asked to do math problem at the board in front of class of peers Ever since students acts out behaviorally Teacher usually calls on other student to do problem, peers laugh

Traditional Aversive Model - Reactive approach Traditional Aversive Model - Reactive approach Traditional Aversive Model - Reactive approach
No intervention ask students to do problem on board as usual should be able to do it just like everyone else No focus on teaching student would have learned it if he was paying attention in class Emphasis on punishing response send student to Behavior Intervention Center or office
43
PBS Approach (ABC)
A B C
Student Situation what the student has learned Student Situation what the student has learned Student Situation what the student has learned
Asked to do math problem at the board in front of class of peers 1st time tried to do problem Peers laughed and said that ones easy
Asked to do math problem at the board in front of class of peers Ever since students acts out behaviorally Teacher usually calls on other student to do problem, peers laugh

PBS (Positive Behavior Support) Proactive approach PBS (Positive Behavior Support) Proactive approach PBS (Positive Behavior Support) Proactive approach
Give student a problem they can be more successful by practicing problem ahead of time w/ student Teach Practice a. to more politely refuse problem b. Math skills needed to problem Reward student for a. Refusing politely, instead of w/ negative behavior b. Trying success w/ math problem
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