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Regents Review - Ancient Greece

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Title: Regents Review - Ancient Greece


1
Mediterranean Society The Greek Phase
Chapter 10
2
Early "Bronze Age"
3000 - 1400 BCE
3
The Bronze Age Mediterranean Region
4
Bronze Age Greece
5
The Minoans
2200 - 1100 BCE
6
The Minoan World mid-2M B.C.E.
7
Early Development of Greek Society
  • Minoan Society
  • Island of Crete
  • Major city Knossos
  • C. 2200 BCE center of maritime trade
  • Scholars unable to decipher Linear A script

7
8
Artists Recreation of Knossos
9
Aerial View of Knossos
10
Palace of King Minos North Entrance
11
Palace of King Minos Throne Room
12
Minoan Ladies
13
Early GreekGeometrics
14
Palace of King Minos - Interiors
15
Knossos Minoan Civilization
16
Minoan Civilization
17
Decline of Minoan Society
  • Series of natural disasters after 1700 BCE
  • Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tidal waves
  • Foreign invasions
  • Foreign domination by 1100 BCE

17
18
The Mycenaeans
2200 - 800 BCE
19
The Mycenaean World mid-2M B.C.E.
20
Mycenaean Society
  • Indo-European invaders descend through Balkans
    into Peloponnesus, c. 2200 BCE
  • Influenced by Minoan culture
  • Major settlement Mycenae
  • Military expansion throughout region

20
21
Aerial View of Mycenae
22
Mycenae Citadel Reconstuction
23
Lions Gate Entrance to Mycenae
24
Approach to the Lions Gate
25
Mycenaean Writing System Gained From the Minoans
26
The Trojan War
mid-12c BCE
27
Bronze Age Enemies The Trojan War
28
Homer, the Blind Poet
29
Homers Great Epics
30
Chaos in the Eastern Mediterranean
  • Trojan war, c. 1200 BCE
  • Homers The Iliad
  • Sequel The Odyssey
  • Political turmoil, chaos from 1100 to 800 BCE
  • Mycenaean civilization disappears

30
31
Plan of the City of Troy
32
The Mask of Agamemnon
In 1870, German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann
excavated a site in this area which he identified
as Troy this claim is nowadays accepted by most
scholars as evidence for the battle.
33
Original Wall of the City of Troy
34
Triumphant Achilles dragging Hector's lifeless
body in front of the Gates of Troy, 1892
35
The Greek "Dark Ages"
1100 - 750 BCE
36
Migrations in the Aegean Region
(DORIANS
37
"Hellenic" (Classical) Greece 800 BCE - 323 BCE
38
Greek Phoenician Colonization 750-500 BCE
39
The Polis
  • City-state
  • Urban center, dominating surrounding rural areas
  • Highly independent character
  • Monarchies
  • Tyrannies, not necessarily oppressive
  • Early Democracies

39
40
The Rise of the Greek Polis
Eboea
Syracuse
Athens
Larissa
Naxos
Corinth
41
The Athens Acropolis Today
42
The Parthenon
43
The Agora
44
Greek Commonalities
  • Ones polis gave a sense of identity and each
    individual believed they owed loyalty to their
    polis.
  • Greeks shared
  • A common language.
  • The belief that all non-Greek speakers are
    barbarians.
  • Religion.
  • The Olympics.
  • Common non-Greek enemies.

45
Greek Government
  • Until the 8th century BCE, the government of
    Greece was a monarchy, with each polis having its
    own kings.
  • The kings were overthrown by aristocrats, or
    best men, who held power due to their economic
    supremacy due to owning most of the land.

46
Greek Government
  • By the 7th century BCE, tyrants, or ones who
    seize power illegally with the peoples support,
    overthrew the aristocracy. They formed an
    oligarchy, which is government run by a small
    powerful business class elite.
  • In 621 BCE, archon (Greek for ruler) Draco
    created Athens first written laws. The laws were
    harsh and severe with the death penalty given for
    even minor offences.
  • In 594 BCE, archon Solon outlawed slavery for
    debt and freed people who had become slaves to
    pay debts were freed. He began a foundation of
    equality that would soon bring democracy.

47
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48
Sparta
  • Highly militarized society
  • Subjugated peoples helots
  • Serfs, tied to land
  • Outnumbered Spartans 101 by 6th c. BCE
  • Military society developed to control threat of
    rebellion
  • Austerity the norm

48
49
Spartan Hierarchy
50
Spartan Government
  • Two hereditary kings.
  • A Council of Elders 28 male wealthy aristocratic
    citizens over the age of 60. Proposed laws and
    headed criminal court.
  • Assembly of all men over 30. Accepted or rejected
    proposed laws.
  • The five ephors oversaw kings and Spartan
    education.

51
Building the perfect soldiers
  • Ages 7-18, military barracks. Reading, writing,
    music training military training
  • Ages 18-20, focus on military training only
  • Marriage, but no home life until age 30
  • Ages 20-60 served as Spartan soldiers
  • Girls received strict physical training, basic
    education and musical training
  • Some relaxation of discipline by 4th c. CE

52
Athens Sparta
53
Athens
  • Development of early democracy
  • Free, adult males only
  • Women, slaves excluded
  • Athenian style of government differed
    significantly with Spartan militarism

53
54
Athenian Social Hierarchy
55
Athenian Society
  • Maritime trade brings increasing prosperity
    beginning 7th c. BCE
  • Aristocrats dominate smaller landholders
  • Increasing socio-economic tensions
  • Class conflict

55
56
Solon and Athenian Democracy
  • Aristocrat Solon mediates crisis
  • Aristocrats to keep large landholdings
  • But forgive debts, ban debt slavery
  • Removed family restrictions against participating
    in public life
  • Instituted paid civil service

56
57
Athenian Government
  • In 507 BCE, Cleisthenes introduced democracy.
    Called direct democracy because all citizens
    directly participated in the decision making
    process.
  • 10 Tribes gt 50 men each gt Council of 500 gt served
    one year, could not serve twice. Proposed laws to
    the assembly.
  • Introduction of juries in court.

58
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59
Golden Age of Pericles460 BCE 429 BCE
60
Pericles
  • Ruled 461-429 BCE
  • High point of Athenian democracy
  • Aristocratic but popular
  • Massive public works
  • Encouraged cultural development

60
61
Greek Golden Age of the 5th Century BCE
  • Artists Teachers
  • Architecture Parthenon
  • Painting Vases
  • Sculpture Phidias Myron
  • Philosophy
  • Socrates
  • Plato
  • Aristotle

62
Greek Golden Age of the 5th Century BCE
  • Pythagoras
  • Hippocrates
  • Herodotus
  • Theater
  • Dramas
  • Tragedies
  • Comedies

63
Greek Colonization
  • Population expansion and Greek geography drives
    colonization
  • Coastal Mediterranean, Black sea
  • Sicily (Naples neapolis, new city)
  • Southern France (Massalia Marseilles)
  • Anatolia
  • Southern Ukraine

63
64
Greek Colonies (in red)
65
  • Classical Greece and the Mediterranean basin
    800-500 BCE

65
66
Effects of Greek Colonization
  • Trade throughout region
  • Communication of ideas
  • Language, culture
  • Political and social effects

66
67
Persian Wars 490 BCE 470 BCE
68
Persian Wars (500-479 BCE)
  • Revolt against Persian Empire 500 BCE in Ionia
  • Athens supports with ships
  • Greek rebellion crushed by Darius 493 BCE routed
    in 490
  • In 480 BCE, the second wave of the Persian War
    begins as Xerxes arrives with his army at
    Thermopylae.
  • After succeeding, he then burns Athens, only to
    be defeated at the Battle of Salamis weeks later.
  • In 479 BCE, at the Battle of Plataea, the final
    land battle ended with the Greeks driving Xerxes
    back to Persia permanently.

68
69
The Delian League
  • Poleis create Delian League to forestall more
    Persian attacks
  • Led by Athens
  • Massive payments to Athens fuels Periclean
    expansion
  • Resented by other poleis

69
70
Athens vs. Sparta
71
Peloponnesian Wars
72
The Peloponnesian War
  • Civil war in Greece, 431-404 BCE
  • Poleis allied with either Athens or Sparta
  • Athens forced to surrender
  • But conflict continued between Sparta and other
    poleis

72
73
Macedonia Under Philip II
74
Kingdom of Macedon
  • Frontier region to north of Peloponnesus
  • King Philip II (r. 359-336 BCE) builds massive
    military
  • 350 BCE encroaches on Greek poleis to the south,
    controls region by 338 BCE

74
75
"Hellenistic" Greece 336 BCE - 100 BCE
76
Alexander of Macedon
  • the Great, son of Philip II
  • Rapid expansion throughout Mediterranean basin
  • Invasion of Persia successful
  • Turned back in India when exhausted troops
    mutinied

76
77
Alexander the Great
78
Alexander the Greats Empire
79
Alexander the Great in Persia
80
The Hellenization of Asia
81
The Economy of the Hellenistic World
82
Library at Alexandria (333 B.C.E.)
83
Cultural Advancement in the Age of Hellenism
  • Euclid The Elements
  • Archimedes Pi, the Archimedes Screw
  • Herophilus Value of the human brain
  • Aristarchus Heliocentric Theory
  • Eratosthenes Circumference of the Earth

84
The Hellenistic Empires
  • After Alexanders death, competition for empire
  • Divided by generals
  • Antigonus Greece and Macedon
  • Ptolemy Egypt
  • Seleucus Persian Achaemenid Empire
  • Economic integration, Intellectual
    cross-fertilization

84
85
The Breakup of Alexanders Empire
86
The Antigonid Empire
  • Smallest of Hellenistic Empires
  • Local dissent
  • Issue of land distribution
  • Heavy colonizing activity

86
87
The Ptolemaic Empire
  • Wealthiest of the Hellenistic empires
  • Established state monopolies
  • Textiles
  • Salt
  • Beer
  • Capital Alexandria
  • Important port city
  • Major museum, library

87
88
The Seleucid Empire
  • Massive colonization of Greeks
  • Export of Greek culture, values as far east as
    India
  • Bactria
  • Ashoka legislates in Greek and Aramaic

88
89
Trade and Integration of the Mediterranean Basin
  • Greece little grain, but rich in olives and
    grapes
  • Colonies further trade
  • Commerce rather than agriculture as basis of much
    of economy

89
90
Panhellenic Festivals
  • Useful for integrating far-flung colonies
  • Olympic Games begin 776 BCE
  • Sense of collective identity

90
91
The Ancient Olympics
  • The Olympic Games were held in four year
    intervals and they began in 776 BCE in Olympia.
    They were celebrated until 393 AD. The prizes
    were olive wreaths, palm branches and woolen
    ribbons.
  • They were in honor of Zeus, but were a way of
    showing bravery and strength to the gods.

92
Olympia
93
The Ancient OlympicsAthletes Trainers
94
Trophy Vases
95
The Classical Greek Ideal
96
Patriarchal Society
  • Women as goddesses, wives, prostitutes
  • Limited exposure in public sphere
  • Sparta partial exception
  • Sappho
  • Role of infanticide in Greek society and culture

96
97
Slavery
  • Scythians (Ukraine)
  • Nubians (Africa)
  • Chattel
  • Sometimes used in business
  • Opportunity to buy freedom

97
98
The Greek Language
  • Borrowed Phoenician alphabet
  • Added vowels
  • Complex language
  • Allowed for communication of abstract ideas
  • Philosophy

98
99
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100
Socrates (470-399 BCE)
  • The Socratic Method
  • Student Plato
  • Public gadfly, condemned on charges of immorality
  • Forced to drink hemlock

100
101
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102
Socrates (rubbing chin) and Plato (standing
left) Mosaic from Pompeii
103
  • The Death of Socrates, by Jacques-Louis David
    (1787)

104
Plato (430-347 BCE)
  • Systematized Socratic thought
  • The Republic
  • Parable of the Cave
  • Theory of Forms/Ideas

104
105
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106
Aristotle (389-322 BCE)
  • Student of Plato
  • Broke with Theory of Forms/Ideas
  • Emphasis on empirical findings, reason
  • Massive impact on western thought

106
107
Greek Theology
  • Polytheism
  • Zeus principal god
  • Religious cults
  • Eleusinian mysteries
  • The Bacchae
  • Rituals eventually domesticated

107
108
Greek Religion
  • The Greek gods were created to
  • explain nature.
  • explain emotions.
  • Bring the benefits of a long life/good luck
    and/or good harvests.
  • The afterlife consisted of everyone going to the
    underworld ruled by Hades.
  • To explain their world, Greeks created myths,
    which are traditional stories about gods,
    goddesses and heroes.

109
The Twelve Olympian Gods
In Greek mythology, were the principal gods of
the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus.
The classical scheme of the Twelve Olympians
comprises the following gods Zeus, Hera,
Poseidon, Demeter, Ares, Hermes, Hephaestus,
Aphrodite, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Hestia.
110
Tragic Drama
  • Evolution from public presentations of cultic
    rituals
  • Major playwrights (5th c. BCE)
  • Aeschylus
  • Sophocles
  • Euripides
  • Comedy Aristophanes

110
111
Hellenistic Philosophies
  • Epicureans
  • Pleasure, distinct from Hedonists
  • Skeptics
  • Doubted possibility of certainty in anything
  • Stoics
  • Duty, virtue
  • Emphasis on inner peace

111
112
The Incursion of Rome into the Hellenistic World
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