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The United States Becomes an


Title: The United States Becomes an Author: Edrene S. McKay Last modified by: dflinchu Created Date: 12/18/2008 9:53:26 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The United States Becomes an

The Rise of American Imperialism
Hawaii, Cuba, the Philippines, and Latin America
Major Presidents During Imperialism
William McKinley 1897-1901
Theodore Roosevelt 1901-1909
William H. Taft 1909-1913
Anti-Imperial Sentiment
  • From the Civil War until the 1890s, most
    Americans had little interest in territorial
  • Imperial rule seemed inconsistent with America's
    republican principles.
  • The US did not welcome people with different
    cultures, languages, and religions.

Acquisition of Alaska
  • An exception to the rule was Alaska. In 1867,
    Sec. of State William Seward arranged to buy
    Alaska from the Russians for 7.2 million. Rich
    in natural resources (timber, minerals, and oil),
    Alaska was a bargain at two cents per acre.

European Imperialism
  • By the mid-1890s, a shift had taken place in
    American attitudes toward expansion. Why? Between
    1870 and 1900, the European powers seized 10
    million square miles of territory in Africa and
    Asia. About 150 million people were subjected to
    colonial rule.

Fear of Competition
  • In the United States, a growing number of policy
    makers, bankers, manufacturers, and trade unions
    grew fearful that the country might be closed out
    in the struggle for global markets and raw

Belief in Darwinian Struggle
  • A belief that the world's nations were engaged in
    a Darwinian struggle for survival, and that
    countries that failed to compete were doomed to
    decline, also contributed to a new assertiveness
    on the part of the United States.

The White Mans Burden
  • During the late 19th century, the idea that the
    United States had a special mission to uplift
    "backward" people around the world also commanded
    growing support.

Dependency on Foreign Trade
  • By the late 19th Century, the American economy
    was increasingly dependent on foreign trade. A
    quarter of the nation's farm products and half
    its petroleum were sold overseas.

A New Assertiveness
  • During the late 1880s, American foreign policy
    makers began to display more assertiveness on the
    world stage.

A Desire for Sea Power
  • Alfred Thayer Mahan, a naval strategist and the
    author of The Influence of Sea Power Upon
    History, argued that national prosperity and
    power depended on control of the world's
    sea-lanes. "Whoever rules the waves rules the
    world," Mahan wrote.

Commodore Perry and the Opening of Japan
To facilitate trade with Asia, four black ships
commanded by Commodore Matthew Perry anchored at
Edo (Tokyo) Bay in 1853. Never before had the
Japanese seen ships steaming with smoke and so
heavily armed. The Japanese government, in no
position to defend itself against a foreign
power, signed a trade treaty with the U.S. that
opened up two ports to American vessels, and
allowed American ships to buy coal and other
necessary supplies in Japanese ports. No
longer allowed to be isolationist, Japan began to
westernize. By 1890s, Japan had built a
powerful navy and set out to build their own
empire in the East.
The Annexation of Hawaii
  • In 1893, a small group of sugar and
    pineapple-growing businessmen, backed by the U.S.
    military, deposed Hawaii's queen, seized 1.75
    million acres of land, and conspired for U.S.
    annexation of the islands (achieved in 1898.)
    Hawaii became a state in 1959.

Origins of Spanish American War
  • The Tariff of 1894, which put restrictions on
    sugar imports to the United States, severely hurt
    the economy of Cuba, which was then a Spanish
    colony. Angry nationalists began a revolt against
    the Spanish colonial regime.

The USS Maine
  • The US, which had many businessmen with
    investment interests in Cuba, became concerned
    and dispatched the USS Maine to rescue US
    citizens who might be endangered by the conflict.

The Effects of Yellow Journalism
  • On February 15, 1898, the Maine mysteriously blew
    up and the US blamed a Spanish mine.
  • When the American public was stirred into an
    anti-Spain frenzy by the yellow journalism of
    newspaper men like Hearst and Pulitzer, President
    McKinley gave the OK for war.

Effects of Yellow Journalism
  • Yellow journalism is exaggerated or biased
    writing disguised as news, often used for
    political, social, or economic gain.
  • You furnish the pictures, Ill furnish the war.
    William Randolph Hearst

Teller Amendment
  • Congress agreed to war, but only after adopting
    the Teller Amendment that made it clear that the
    United States did not harbor imperialist
    ambitions and would not acquire Cuba.

Manila Bay
  • What Happened at Manila Bay?
  • Surprise naval attack sunk the crumbling Spanish
    Navy in the Philippines
  • Made Americans feel very superior

Rough Riders
  • Who were the Rough Riders?
  • Teddy Roosevelt resigns as Asst. Sec. of the Navy
    to lead a Cowboy Calvary
  • Brought his own photographer
  • TRs popularity from this leads to his becoming
    V.P. and President

Rough Riders
  • What famous Battle did they participate in?
  • San Juan Hill
  • African Americans also helped but get no credit

Teddy Roosevelt
A Splendid Little War John Hay, Secretary of
State, 1898Results
  • US defeats Spain after 144 days and 3,300 deaths
    to become a world power.
  • Teddy Roosevelt elected Vice President in 1900
    and becomes President in 1901 when McKinley is
  • Treaty of Paris Cuba is granted independence,
    but it becomes an American protectorate. The U.S.
    acquires former Spanish possessions of Puerto
    Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.

The Platt Amendment
  • After the US defeated Spain, it passed the Platt
    Amendment, which gave the US the right to
    intervene in Cuba to protect "life, property, and
    individual liberties.

The Philippine-American War
  • As a result of the Philippine-American War, a
    sequel to the Spanish American War, Spain ceded
    the Philippines to the United States for 20

American Atrocities
  • To suppress Filipino insurgency, the American
    military forcibly relocated or burned villages,
    imprisoned or killed non-combatant civilians, and
    used vicious torture techniques (including the
    water cure) on suspected insurgents.

Philippine Independence
  • During the war, more than 4,000 American
    soldiers, about 20,000 Filipino fighters, and an
    estimated 200,000 Filipino civilians died. After
    a long struggle, the Filipinos received their
    independence in 1946.

China Open Door Policy
  • Spheres of Influence European nations had
    divided up China for trading purposes
  • 1899 John Hay (Sec. of State) called for
  • 1. open access to all of Chinas coastal ports
    to all countries
  • 2. elimination of special privileges for any
    trading nations
  • 3. maintenance of Chinas independence

3 American Beliefs reflected in Open Door Policy
  • 1. Growth of American economy depended on
  • 2. America had the right to intervene abroad to
    keep foreign markets open
  • 3. A fear that closing of an area to American
    products, citizens, or ideas threatened U.S.

The Roosevelt Corollary
  • In 1904, when Germany demanded a port in the
    Dominican Republic as compensation for an unpaid
    loan, Theodore Roosevelt announced the Roosevelt
    Corollary to the Monroe
  • Doctrine, declaring that the United States would
    be the policeman of the Caribbean and Central

America As World Power
  • Panama Canal
  • Built to connect Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
  • Cut travel time of U.S. ships by half
  • Panama was province of Colombia, but TR helped
    Panama get its Independence to get Canal built
  • Teddy Roosevelt got credit

America As World Power
  • Great White Fleet
  • New all-steel fleet of 16 battleships that TR
    sent around the world to show U.S. dominance.
  • Painted white

Great Whites World Wide Tour, 1907
Roosevelt and Latin America
  • Gunboat Diplomacy
  • Use force to accomplish goals in world,
    especially Latin America.
  • Speak softly and carry a big stick you will go
  • (Big-stick Diplomacy)

Taft and Latin America
  • Dollar Diplomacy
  • Invest money into a country to help strengthen
    that countrys economy in hopes of preventing
  • By investing money, it normally meant U.S.
    corporations in Latin American countries

Interventions in Western Hemisphere
  • To enforce order, forestall foreign intervention,
    and protect economic interests, the United States
    intervened in the Caribbean and in Central
    America some twenty times over the next quarter
    century (in Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti,
    Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama.)

American Support of Dictators
  • Each intervention put into power a dictator
    supportive of American interests (Somoza in
    Nicaragua, Trujillo in the Dominican Republic,
    and Duvalier in Haiti).

Protection of American Interests
  • On the whole, the United States actions in Latin
    America protected US commercial and strategic
    interests, but the goal of spreading democracy
    went mostly unfulfilled. The frequent use of
    military force also engendered widespread
    resentment in the region.