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The Age of Napoleon Chapter 19


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Title: The Age of Napoleon Chapter 19

The Age of Napoleon Chapter 19
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The Napoleonic Era (1799-1815) Military
  • Rise To Power
  • Character
  • Military Ability
  • Frances desire for orderly government.
  • Rise To Power Military
  • First Public Recognition (1793-1795)
  • Italian campaign (1796-1797)
  • Egyptian Campaign (1798-1799)
  • Coup d Etat (1799)
  • Proclamation of Empire (1804)

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Late 1790s
  • Property owners want stability.
  • Directory not providing it.
  • Army only entity that can take charge
  • Values of order and revolution.
  • Chief threat to Directory
  • Royalists, emigres returning.

Napoleon Bonaparte
  • Napoleon Bonaparte leads coup detat over the
    Bourbon monarchy
  • restores the republic in the French government

Early Military
  • Napoleons armies take over Italy and Switzerland
    by defeating Austria and Sardinian armies
  • invades Egypt
  • French fleet cut off from France by Englishman
    Horatio Nelson
  • British join Austrians, Ottomans and Russians to
    form Second Coalition

Year VIII Constitution
  • Napoleon pushes one of the Directors Abbe Sieyes
  • Sieyes wrote What is The Third Estate? (1787)
  • Also proposes another new constitution.
  • Constitution of the Year VIII
  • established the rule of one man The First
    Consul Napoleon (1799)
  • Uses the rhetoric of revolution, nationalism and
    backs with military.

The Consulate (1799-1804)
  • In effect ended the Revolution of the Third
  • Third Estate members and peasants (By 1799) had
    achieved their goals so the Consulate was
  • abolishing hereditary privilege (Third Estate)
  • destroyed feudal system (peasants)

Suppression of Opponents by Napoleon
  • Makes peace with all of Frances enemies by 1802
    because warfare had accounted for much of
    Frances internal instability.
  • Generosity, flattery, bribery to win enemies.
  • Suppresses opposition at home
  • has general amnesty to men of all political
    factions as long as they pledge loyalty to him
  • employed the secret police
  • Bourbon Duke of Enghien executed for a royalist
    plot that he was innocent of

Concordat of 1801
  • Napoleon reestablishes Christianity in France
    with agreement with Pope Pius VII.
  • Still state had authority over the church through
    The Organic Articles of 1802.
  • Supremacy of the State over the Church.
  • Rights of French Catholics, however government
    still allowed to nominate bishops and pay clergy.

  • Napoleon establishes himself as Consul For Life.
  • Another Constitutionfull power

The Napoleonic Code Civil Code of 1804
  • Safeguarded all forms of property
  • Conservative attitudes towards women and labor
    remained (full support)
  • Property was distributed among all children
    males and females
  • Women needed husbands consent to dispose of
  • Worker organizations forbidden.
  • Fathers control over children/wives.
  • Divorce very difficult.

Napoleons Dynasty
  • Another new constitution makes Napoleon Emperor
    of the French (1804)
  • Napoleon crowns himself Napoleon I
  • Another Constitution.

Coronation of Napoleon
Napoleons Empire
  • 1804-1815 Napoleon conquers most of Europe.
  • Wars put end to Old Regime.
  • Large army enables Napoleon to be risky, lose,
    and fight again.
  • His army cannot be matched at this point.
  • His own mistakes lead to his defeat.

Napoleons Empire
  • Army gets involved in Haiti, Dutch Republic,
    Italy, Switzerland and the reorganization of
  • French Empire in America? Louisiana (1801) form
    the Spanish.
  • British naval supremacy the British under Lord
    Nelson destroy French and Spanish forces at the
    Battle of Trafalgar (Spanish Coast).
  • This ends the idea of France invading England.
  • Defeats Austria and Russia at Austerlitz
    becomes King of Italy (controls north of Rome)
  • Defeats Russia and Prussia to control all of

Napoleons Empire
Treaty of Tilsit
  • Prussia and Russia make peace with Napoleon and
    become allies
  • Prussia loses half its territory
  • Napoleon gave satellite states to his family

The Continental System
  • Napoleon wanted to cut Britain off from the main
    European continent to cripple them financially.
    Wants to cause domestic unrest.
  • Milan Decree of 1807 attempted to stop neutral
    nations from trading with Britain
  • plan fails because of British control of the
  • Trading with Americas
  • Tariff policies favor France
  • caused resentment of foreign merchants
  • system not enforced leads to smuggling
  • leads eventually to Napoleons downfall.

The Continental System
German Nationalism and Prussian Reform
  • Many German nationalists wanted a united German
    state without Napoleon
  • Prussia abolished serfdom
  • Junker nobility still owns most of the land
  • many landless laborers
  • Attempted to increase military through reforms
  • abolished inhumane military punishments
  • opened officer corps to commoners
  • promotions on basis of merit

Spanish and Austrian Wars of Liberation
  • Spain
  • Napoleons brother, Joseph on throne
  • peasants and clergy rebel
  • Spanish guerrilla forces and English army under
    Duke Wellington hasten Napoleons defeat
  • Austria
  • defeated at Battle of Wagram
  • Napoleon divorces his wife Josephine and marries
    Austrian arch-duchess Marie Louise

The Third of May, 1808
The Third of May, 1808
Disaster for Napoleon in Russia
  • War with Austria, annexation of Holland, and
    marriage to Marie Louise angered Alexander of
  • Napoleon brings army of 600k against 160k
  • Invasion of Russia

Invasion of Russia
  • Russias scorched earth policy destroying
    food and supplies and then retreating erodes
    Napoleons Grand Army.
  • Borodino (1812) costs the French 30,000 60,000
  • Napoleon wanted to take over Russian capital
  • Russians burn down Moscow leaving Napoleon there
    in winter
  • Napoleon losses half a million men

Invasion of Russia
Russian Scorched Earth
European Coalition
  • News of defeat did not mean final end to
    Napoleon able to raise another 350k
  • Combined forces of Russia, Prussia, Austria, and
    Great Britain form allied army
  • Napoleon defeats allies at Dresden
  • Defeated at Leipzig in Battle of Nations
  • Allied armies take over Paris
  • Napoleon abdicates throne in March, 1814 and is
    exiled to island of Elba

New Borders
  • Quadruple Alliance Britain, Austria, Russia,
    and Prussia meet at the Congress of Vienna to
    decide new European borders
  • establishment of kingdom of Netherlands
  • Prussia and Austria gain territory west of France
    and in Italy
  • Alexander of Russia reluctantly gets only part of
  • French Bourbon monarchy restored
  • France joins in discussions under Talleyrand,
    when Russia is upset with the provisions

The Hundred Days
  • Napoleon still with many supporters attempts to
    retake France
  • Napoleon defeated again at Battle of Waterloo
  • exiled for good to tiny island St. Helena
  • Austria, Prussia, Russia form Holy Alliance,
    based on Christian principles, from which England
    does not join
  • Quadruple Alliance reformed in 1815 to maintain
    peace in Europe
  • New Congress of Vienna remains intact for half a
    century and prevents general war for a hundred

The Romantic Movement
  • Romanticism intellectual movement that was a
    reaction against the Enlightenment
  • Urged a revival of Christianity and Mid Ages.
  • Liked art, music, and literature of medieval
    times, unlike philosophes.
  • Imagination replaces reason.
  • Folklore, fairytales, dreams, hallucinations.

Romantic Questioning of Reason
  • Rousseau and education his work Emile (1762)
    stressed the difference between children and
  • children should raised with maximum freedom
  • adults should allow children to reason
  • Kant and reason in his works The Critique of
    Pure Reason (1781) and The Critique of Practical
    Reason (1788)
  • sought rationalism of Enlightenment
  • humans have categorical imperative an innate
    sense of moral duty or awarenessnatural freedom

English Romantic Writers
  • Samuel Taylor Coleridge wrote Gothic poems of
    the supernatural
  • William Wordsworth wrote, sometimes with
    Coleridge about how humans lose their childlike
    imagination as they get older
  • Lord Byron rebel Romanticist, who wrote about
    personal liberty and mocked his own beliefs in
    famous works such as Don Juan (1819)

German Romantic Writers
  • Friedrich Schlegel Progressive who attacked
    prejudices against women in novels such as
    Lucinde (1799)
  • Johann Wolfgang von Goethe writings were part
    Romantic mode/ part criticism of Romantic excess
  • Faust Part I (1808) long dramatic poem
    about man who makes a pact with the devil
  • Faust Part II (1832) taken through many
    mythological adventures, man dedicates his life
    to humankind

Romantic Art
  • Neo-Gothicism
  • Supported the church and saw liberalism as evil
  • style of art seen in architecture and paintings
  • Nature
  • sublime subjects from nature arouse strong
    emotions and raise questions about how much we
    control our lives
  • famous naturalists include Caspar David Friedrich
    and Joseph Malord William Turner

John Constable Salisbury Cathedral for the Meadows
Neuschwanstein (Bavaria) Built between 1869-1886
Neuschwanstein (Bavaria) Built between 1869-1886
Romantic Religion
  • Methodism revolt against deism and rationalism,
    stressed inward, heartfelt religion / its leader
    was John Wesley
  • Continental Religion religious developments
    based on feeling
  • Chateaubriand The Genius of Christianity (1802)
    essence if religion is passion / foundation of
    faith is emotion
  • Scleiermacher Speeches on Religion on its
    Cultured Despisers (1799) religion as an
    intuition or feeling of absolute dependence on an
    infinite reality

Romantic Views of Nationalism and History
  • Johann Gottfried Herder German Romantic
  • critic of European colonialism
  • human beings develop organically
  • famous fairy tale writers Grimm Brothers were his
  • Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel German Romantic
  • believed a predominant set of ideas -thesis, are
    at odds with another set of ideas antithesis,
    the patterns clash resulting in a new synthesis
    emerges as the new thesis in a viscous cycle.
  • all cultures valuable because they are all part
    of this clash

Islam and Romanticism
  • Islam seen in a more positive light than the
  • Under Napoleon, learning about Islam became an
    important part of French intellectual life
  • Rosetta Stone found on one of Napoleons
    expeditions became the key to unlocking Egyptian

Rosetta Stone