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Ever Closer The Marianas Islands

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Ever Closer The Marianas Islands The Battle for Saipan Guam Taking Tinian – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ever Closer The Marianas Islands


1
Ever Closer The Marianas Islands
  • The Battle for Saipan
  • Guam
  • Taking Tinian

2
Moving Towards The Japanese Homeland
  • American war strategy in the western Pacific was
    developed around the premise that Japan would
    never surrender and that the nation would fight
    to the last man particularly if the home islands
    were invaded.
  • After the fall of the Marshall Islands the US
    would not use ground forces until SAIPAN
  • US needed Saipan and nearby Tinian for the New
    B-29 Bombers

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4
SAIPAN JUNE 15, 1944
  • An armada of 535 ships carrying 127,570 U. S.
    military personnel of which 2/3 were Marines of
    the 2nd and 4th Divisions converged on Saipan.
  • 40,000 different items supporting the assault-
  • everything from toilet paper to government
    issued coffins

5
POUNDING SAIPAN
  • 15 BATTLESHIPS
  • 165,000 SHELLS

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  • Joined by 8 more battleships US Navy completely
    rings the islands
  • They poured HELL ONTO THAT ISLAND
  • Caves provided the only shelter for the
    islanders against this death rain
  • 1 supply ship carried enough food to feed
    90,000-month
  • 7 US battleships 11 destroyers shelled Saipan
    Tinian for 2 days before the landings.
  • 15,000 16 and 5 inch shells fired at the islands
    along with 165,000 other shells of different
    caliber

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Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo
11
  • Main invasion force landed along 4 miles of beach
    at Chalan Kanoa
  • Japanese positioned colored flags in the lagoon
    to mark the range of landing force register
    their howitzers on the landing force from behind
    Mt. Fina Susu
  • They destroy 28 US tanks on day 1
  • Japanese shell fire rained down on the advancing
    force every 15 seconds in a deadly cauldron of
    exploding steel.

July 7, 3,000 Japanese charged in the largest
suicide rush of the war.
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  • 31,629 Japanese on Saipan roughly 29,500
    Japanese died as a result of the fighting.
  • 2,100 Japanese prisoners survived
  • 2,000 casualties 1st day for 2nd Marines
  • This type of fighting would go own daily until
    July 9th when organized resistance on Saipan
    ceased
  • American loses on Saipan were double those
    suffered on Guadalcanal.
  • 3,100 were killed, 13,100 wounded or missing in
    action

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  • One of the most lamentable events of the battle
    for Saipan involved the suicide of hundreds of
    families, many of whom jumped to their deaths
    from the high cliffs at the island's most
    northern point. This tragic event continued
    despite efforts by Americans and Saipanese using
    loudspeakers to try to convince many Japanese
    that surrender would be shameless and harmless
  • WHY????????

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The civilian population was indoctrinated that
the Americans would rape the women, kill the
children and leave no one alive
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Tojo stunned by the fall of Saipan
  • Most who had the whole picture of Japan's war
    efforts realized that the war was lost it was
    only a matter of time before the Japanese home
    islands come under attack

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The WindTalkers
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June 5 - 1st mission by b-29 Super fortress77
bomb Japanese railways in Bangkok, Thailand
  • June 15/16 1st US bombings of Japan since
    Doolittle

29
The Great Marianas Turkey Shoot
  • Last great aircraft carrier battle  just off of
    the Marianas on June 19, 1944 
  • 15 U. S. carriers 950 planes struck a Japanese
    force of 5 carriers and 550 Aircraft
  • Before the day was over the Battle For The
    Philippine Sea, saw the Japanese lose 240 planes
    and 2 carriers the Taiho and Shokaku
  • US 29 planes battleship South Dakota is damaged
    .

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UNLUCKY SEVEN
Commander David McCampbell
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  • Part of Task Force 58 protecting the Marianas
    landings, Fighting Squadron 16 was expecting an
    attack from the 400-plane Japanese carrier force
  • 12 Hellcats were launched from the USS Lexington
    to intercept the Japanese force
  • Alex Vraciu ACE 19 kills
  • Task Force 58 Hellcats destroyed over 300
    Japanese aircraft

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36
GUAM
37
On December 10, 1941, the 400-man garrison on
Guam was overwhelmed by 5,000 Naval Marines of
the Japanese Navy in a few hours of fighting.
Guam would not be the scene of fighting again
until 1944
38
Invasion Tactics
  • 1ST carrier aircraft and planes from the Marshall
    Islands to the east, then once air superiority
    was gained, close bombardment by battleships
  • Guam is perfect for operations
  • Deep Harbors, large fields
  • A Great Base for the B-29s

39
POUNDING GUAM
40
July 21, 1944
  • A combined Army and Marine force invaded the
    Island
  • Fighting was savage
  • The Americans fought for every inch
  • July 25-26 5000 Japanese Soldiers launched a
    Banzai Charge at the US Soldiers
  • FEW SURVIVED
  • Seabees Building the airfields
  • These Airfields will be used to BURN UP THE
    JAPANESE MAINLAND
  • The last Japanese soldier on Guam did not
    surrender until 1972 Sergeant Shoichi Yokoi was
    discovered by hunters. He had lived alone in a
    cave for 27 years.

41
TINIAN A SMALL ISLAND WITH A HUGE DESTINY
42
JULY 24TH-AUGUST 1ST
  • 2ND AND 4TH Marine Divisions landed supported by
    naval bombardment and artillery firing across the
    strait from Saipan.
  • Japanese as on Saipan retreated during the day
    and attacked at night
  • By 31 July US forces were facing Banzai Charges
  • Japanese forces under Lieuitenant Kinichi Yamada
    held out until the end of the war

43
  • The battle of Tinian saw the first use of NAPALM
    in battle
  • Carried by P-47 Thunderbolts
  • FIRE BOMBING
  • Camps were built for 50,000 troops. 15,000
    SEABEES turned the island into the busiest
    airfield of the war, with six 2,400 m runways for
    attacks by B-29 Superfortress bombers
  • The Island that changes history

44
By 8 August the Marianas Island belonged to the US
45
Peleliu
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Peleliu
  • Sept 15, 1944-November 1944
  • Protect Macs flank
  • A maze of coral caves and cliffs
  • Bloody Peleliu
  • 1st Marine Division 81st Army ID
  • 9,500 casualties
  • NOT NECESSARY

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51
BATTLE OF LEYTE GULF
  • Invasion of Leyte in the Philippines with forces
    under Douglas MacArthur
  • 20 October -31 December 1944-45
  • Japanese commander Tomoyuki Yamashita saw the
    landings on Leyte as an opportunity to fight a
    decisive battle
  • 2nd bloodiest of the Pacific campaign

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Battle Of Leyte Gulf 4 PART BATTLE
  • General Walter Krueger-6th Army faced roughly
    54,000 Japanese Soldiers
  • The battle on the sea was the largest naval
    battle in History THE LAST
  • It rages from 23 Oct until 26 Oct

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The Battle of Leyte Gulf destroyed Japanese naval
power and opened the way for the advance to the
Ryukyu Islands in 1945
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Kamikaze
  • As the war became obviously a losing cause
    Japanese commanders began to launch Kamikaze
    raids
  • The honorable death was one many Japanese pilots
    accepted freely

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The only weapon I feared in the War, Adm. Halsey
64
2,257 Kamikazes
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