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Title: Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication Subject: Chapter 10 Author: Dr. Dana Loewy, California State University, Fullerton – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: NOTE: This slide provides information for only the instructor. If you use the F5 key to switch to slide show view, this slide will not be displayed.


1
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2
CHAPTER 10
  • Proposals and Formal Reports

3
Understanding Business Proposals
Definition A proposal is a persuasive document
designed to motivate the reader to spend, make,
or save money.
  • Kinds
  • Internal May take the form of
    justification/recommendation report
  • External Solicited (responding to RFP) or
    unsolicited (prospecting for business)
  • Formal long, many parts
  • Informal shorter, six main parts

4
Informal Proposals
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Proposal
  • Staffing
  • Budget
  • Authorization request

Click icon to see model
5
Informal Proposals
  • Introduction should provide hook to capture
    readers interest.
  • Background section identifies problems and goals
    of project.
  • Proposal discusses plan and schedule for solving
    existing problem.
  • Staffing section describes credentials and
    expertise of project leaders.
  • Budget indicates project costs.
  • Authorization asks for approval to proceed.

6
Formal Proposals
  • Formal proposals include all the basic parts of
    informal proposals but may have additional parts.
  • Possible additional parts
  • Copy of RFP
  • Letter or memo of transmittal
  • Abstract and/or executive summary
  • Title page
  • Table of contents
  • List of figures
  • Appendix

7
Parts of Formal and Informal Proposals
Appendix
Authorization
Budget
Staffing
Schedule
Background, problem, purpose
Introduction
List of figures
Table of contents
Title Page
Abstract or summary
Letter of transmittal
Copy of RFP (optional)
Generally appear in both formal and informal
proposals
Optional in informal proposals
8
Research secondary data
Present the final report
Formal Reports
Generate primary data
Illustrate report data
Organize report data
Document data
9
Researching Secondary Data
  • Electronic Databases
  • Collections of magazine, newspaper, journal
    articles
  • Examples
  • EBSCO Business Source Premier
  • Factiva
  • ABI/Inform
  • LexisNexis
  • Print Resources
  • Books
  • Periodicals
  • Bibliographic indexes such as Readers Guide

10
Researching Secondary Data
  • The Web
  • Product data
  • Mission statements
  • Staff directories
  • Press releases
  • Company news
  • Article reprints
  • Employment information
  • Facts of all kinds
  • Blogs (weblogs) for consumer reviews and opinions

11
Web Search Tips and Techniques
  • Use two or three search tools.
  • Know your search tool.
  • Understand case sensitivity in keyword searches.
  • Use nouns as search words and as many as eight
    words in a query.
  • Use quotation marks.
  • Omit articles and prepositions.
  • Proofread your search words.
  • Save the best.
  • Keep trying.
  • Consider searching blogs, wikis, and social
    networks.

12
Generating Primary Data
13
Generating Primary Data
  • Surveying
  • Develop questions, conduct trial.
  • Work in person or online.
  • Interviewing
  • Locate an expert.
  • Consider posting an inquiry to an Internet
    newsgroup.
  • Prepare for the interview.
  • Maintain a professional attitude.
  • Prepare objective, friendly questions.
  • Watch the time.
  • End graciously.

14
Generating Primary Data
  • Observing
  • Be objective.
  • Quantify observations.
  • Experimenting
  • Develop rigorous research design.
  • Pay careful attention to matching experimental
    and control groups.

15
Documenting Data
  • What to document
  • Another person's ideas, opinions, examples, or
    theory
  • Any facts, statistics, and graphics that are not
    common knowledge
  • Quotations of another person's actual spoken or
    written words
  • Paraphrases of another person's spoken or written
    words

16
Organizing Report Data
17
Organizing Report Data
18
Levels of Headings in Reports
  • The main points used to outline a report often
    become the main headings of the written report.
  • Major headings are centered and typed in bold
    font.
  • Second-level headings start at the left margin.
  • Third-level headings are indented and become part
    of the paragraph
  • Click the icon to view a document with headings.

19
Illustrating Report Data
  • Reasons to use visual aids
  • To clarify data
  • To summarize important ideas
  • To emphasize facts and provide focus
  • To add visual interest

20
Illustrating Report Data
  • Most common types of visual aids
  • Tables
  • Charts
  • Photographs, maps,and illustrations

21
Matching Visual Aids With Objectives
  • Table
  • To show exact figures and values

22
Matching Visual Aids With Objectives
  • Bar Chart
  • To compare one item with others

23
Matching Visual Aids With Objectives
  • Line Chart
  • To demonstrate changes in quantitative data
    over time

24
Matching Visual Aids With Objectives
  • Pie Chart
  • To visualize a whole unit and the proportions
    of its components

25
Matching Visual Aids With Objectives
  • Flow Chart
  • To display a process or procedure

26
Matching Visual Aids With Objectives
  • Organization Chart
  • To define a hierarchy of elements or a set of
    relationships.

27
Matching Visual Aids With Objectives
  • Photograph, Map, Illustration
  • To achieve authenticity, to spotlight a
    location, or to show an item in use.


28
Tips for Effective Use of Visual Aids
  • Evaluate the audience. Consider the reader, the
    content, your schedule, and your budget.
  • Use restraint. Dont overdo the color or design.
  • Be accurate and ethical. Double-check your
    graphics dont distort the visuals. Cite sources
    when using someone elses facts and data.
  • Introduce graphs. Place the graphic close to
    where it is mentioned. Explain its significance.
  • Choose an appropriate caption or heading. Use
    functional or talking headings. (See Chapter 9.)

29
Parts of a Formal Report
  • Prefatory Parts
  • Title page
  • Letter of transmittal
  • Table of contents
  • List of figures
  • Executive summary

30
Parts of a Formal Report
  • Body of Report
  • Introduction or background
  • Discussion of findings
  • Summary, conclusions, recommendations
  • Supplementary Parts of a Formal Report
  • Footnotes or endnotes
  • Works cited, references, or bibliography
  • Appendix

31
Parts of Formal Reports
Bibliography
Appendix
Recommendations
Conclusions
Body
Introduction
Executive summary
List of figures
Table of contents
Letter of transmittal
Title page
Cover
Generally appear in both formal and informal
reports
Optional in informal reports
32
  • END
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