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Special Topics in Computer Science Computational Modeling for Snake-Based Robots Introduction Week 1, Lecture 1

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Title: Special Topics in Computer Science Computational Modeling for Snake-Based Robots Introduction Week 1, Lecture 1


1
Special Topics in Computer ScienceComputational
Modeling for Snake-Based RobotsIntroductionWee
k 1, Lecture 1
  • William Regli
  • Geometric and Intelligent Computing Laboratory
  • Department of Computer Science
  • Drexel University
  • http//gicl.cs.drexel.edu

2
Team 1
  • Lead Institution Drexel University
  • PI William Regli, co-PI Michael Piasecki
  • University of Maryland _at_ College Park
  • SK Gupta
  • University of North Carolina _at_ Chapel Hill
  • Ming Lin and Dinesh Manocha
  • University of Wisconsin _at_ Madison
  • Nicola Ferrier, Vadim Shapiro, Krishnan Suresh

3
About the Team
  • W. Regli
  • CS, ECE and Mech E
  • 1997 NSF CAREER
  • M. Piasecki
  • Civil
  • SK Gupta
  • Mech E
  • PECASE, CAREER, and ONR YIP
  • M. Lin
  • CS
  • CAREER
  • D. Manocha
  • CS
  • PYI, ONR YIP, Sloan Fellow
  • N. Ferrier
  • Mech E
  • NSF CAREER
  • V. Shapiro
  • Mech E, Math CS
  • NSF CAREER
  • K. Suresh
  • Mech E

4
Goals and Objectives
  • Build and play with robots
  • Course is fundamentally about modeling
  • Mathematically model robot kinematics and
    dynamics
  • Geometrically model robot design
  • Virtually simulate robot behavior and performance
  • Document experiences in GICL Wiki for
  • Use by future generations of students
  • Development of outreach materials (I.e. K-12)
  • Development of demonstration materials
  • Illustrate comprehensive, multidisciplinary,
    engineering modeling

5
Course Outcomes
  • The goal of this class is to build comprehensive
    engineering models of biologically-inspired
    robotic systems. Students completing this class
    will
  • be able to identify problems resulting from the
    interdisciplinary interactions in bio-inspired
    robots
  • perform system engineering to design, test and
    build bio-bots
  • be able to apply informatics principles to
    bio-bot design and testing
  • gain experience using a variety of pedagogically
    appropriate hardware (i.e. Lego Mindstorms,
    Roombas, etc) and software tools (see above) for
    robot design/analysis.

6
Hardware Available
  • Lego MindStorms Robot Kits, V1
  • Note I will buy V2 or other modules as needed
  • IRobot Roomba
  • Sony Aibo
  • ERS 7M3
  • HP iPAQs
  • 3800 and 5400 series

7
Lego Mindstorms Kits
  • 12 1st generation kits
  • Motors, sensors, handyboards, etc
  • Many examples on the web of bio-lego designs

http//www.bea.hi-ho.ne.jp/meeco/index_e.html
8
iRobot Roomba
  • Basic vacuum cleaner robot, but
  • Has USB port
  • Hacker guides
  • http//www.roombareview.com/hack/
  • Issues
  • Not particularly bio-inspired

9
Sony Aibo
  • Sadly, discontinued
  • Happily, we have 2
  • Fully programmable
  • Quadruped motion
  • Internal wifi, cameras, etc
  • Lots of tools on the internet for hacking Aibos

10
Also available HP iPaqs
  • More interesting behaviors might require more
    computational power
  • Several late-model HP iPaqs can be made available
    to the class

11
Given the hardware, What do we mean by modeling?
12
What do we mean by modeling?
  • There are several kinds we care about in this
    class
  • System modeling
  • Software, hardware, power, sensors and their
    interactions
  • CAD/3D/Assembly Modeling
  • Geometry, topology, constraints, joints and
    features
  • Functional Modeling
  • Intended use (or function) for the device (note,
    device may have other unintended functions or
    uses)
  • Behavioral Modeling
  • System inputs/outputs, motion characteristic, etc
    that achieve the function
  • Physics-based modeling
  • Statics, kinematics, dynamics and laws of physics
  • Information Modeling
  • Data, relationships, semantics (meaning)

13
Basic Engineering for CS Students
  • Statics The branch of physics concerned with the
    analysis of loads (force, moment, torque) on a
    physical systems in static equilibrium, that is,
    in a state where the relative positions of
    subsystems do not vary over time, or where
    components and structures are at rest under the
    action of external forces of equilibrium.
  • Kinematics The branch of mechanics (physics)
    concerned with the motions of objects without
    being concerned with the forces that cause the
    motion.
  • Inverse Kinematics The process of determining
    the parameters of a jointed flexible object in
    order to achieve a desired pose.
  • Dynamics The branch of classical mechanics
    (physics) that is concerned with the effects of
    forces on the motion of objects.

14
Physics-Based Modeling
  • The creation of computational representations and
    models whose behaviors are governed by the laws
    of the physical world
  • In the context of bio-inspired robots create an
    virtual environment for creation, testing and
    simulation of virtual robot design

15
An example of a multi-disciplinary engineering
model
16
Designing a Windshield Wiper
  • From D. Macaulay, How Things Work
  • What are the models?
  • Functional
  • Behavioral

17
Models (1)
  • Functional model
  • The function of a windshield wiper is to remove
    dirt from the surface of a cars windshield
  • Behavioral model
  • Input motor rapidly rotating around the z axis
  • Output oscillation in the yz plane with low
    frequency

18
Models (2)
  • CAD Models
  • 3D models with joints and constraints
  • Typically consist of
  • Part models
  • Assembly model(s)
  • Formats can be 3D solid or 3D wireframe

3 Lego models of a wiper assembly
19
Models (3) Information
20
Models (3) Information
  • Information modeling representations
  • XML, OWL, FOL, UML
  • Information modeling tools
  • Protégé, Ontobuilder, Rational, etc
  • Information modeling tasks
  • Knowledge engineering, ontology building,
    creating a knowledge base, functional modeling,
    etc.

21
Physics-based Models
  • Kinematics (i.e. Animation)
  • Just move the parts based on joints constraints
  • Dynamics
  • Incorporate forces, motor torques, power
    consumption, friction, etc
  • Other issues
  • collision detection algorithms that check for
    intersection, calculate trajectories, impact
    times and impact points in a physical simulation

22
End Result of this Class
  • 10-to-12 comprehensive engineering models of
    bio-inspired robot designs
  • Individuals, teams (1-to-2 people)
  • All documentation in the Wiki
  • README.TXT-like instructions so as to make work
    reproducible
  • Your audience Projects could be accessible to
    K-12 students or Frosh design

23
Grading
  • Three duties
  • 15, Weekly scribe everyone will get a turn
    scribing notes and discussion from each weeks
    class into the Wiki. The more details the better
    (i.e. scribe is encouraged to back-fill
    discussion with links and references and to-do
    items).
  • 35 Weekly progress each person/group will set
    up a project space in the Wiki to document
    complete design and modeling project
  • Instructor will use the discussion mechanism to
    post feedback and monitor progress students
    welcome to comment on the work of other students
    vandalism harshly punished
  • 50 Final project due on or before finals week.
    Includes walking robot, mathematical and physical
    models, and Wiki pages.

24
Bio-Inspired Robot Locomotion Topics
  • Explain motivation for bio-inspiration in mobile
    robot design
  • What ideas can nature offer engineers?
  • Can bio-inspired designs outperform traditional
    technology?
  • Identify important design parameters in nature
  • How can we quantify and evaluate nature?
  • How can we measure maneuverability and the
    ability to navigate various terrain?
  • Show successful implementation of bio-inspiration
    in mobile robot design
  • How is the source for bio-inspiration chosen?
  • How is the bio-inspiration implemented into the
    design?
  • What advantages does the bio-inspired robot offer
    over the traditional robot alternatives?

25
Some Concepts from Nature
???
???
  • Cockroach
  • Stick Insect
  • Spider
  • Scorpion
  • Crab
  • Lobster

26
Some Concepts from Nature
  • Dog
  • Gorilla
  • Human

???
???
  • Snake
  • Gecko
  • Dinosaur

27
Example Snake Robot Applications
  • Search and Rescue
  • Urban environments
  • Natural environments
  • Planetary surface exploration
  • Minimally invasive surgery / examination
  • Pipe inspection / cable routing

28
Example Snake Robot Applications
  • Snakes are also being used as inspiration for
    stationary robots that are capable of complex
    manipulations.
  • Bridge inspection
  • Disarming bombs
  • Construction/repair in space

http//voronoi.sbp.ri.cmu.edu/serpentine/serpentin
e.html
29
Design Problem
  • Design requirements
  • Small body diameter
  • Small area required for locomotion
  • High maneuverability
  • Ability to navigate obstacles
  • Locomotion through various environments
  • Dirt
  • Rocks
  • Water
  • Obstacles
  • Application Search and rescue
  • Motivation
  • Hazardous environments
  • Further collapse
  • Fire and toxic gases
  • Narrow spaces
  • Obstacles may be densely packed
  • People, devices, or conventional robots may not
    fit

30
Conventional Robots
  • Require large cross sectional areas for passage
    due to wheels or legs
  • Cannot navigate through narrow spaces
  • Have limited maneuverability
  • Limited by terrain and obstacle height

31
Where do we start?
  • Projects should focus on robot locomotion and
    gait
  • Wheels are not allowed
  • Identify bio-mimetic behaviors
  • i.e. 4 legs, make a mathematical model of
    movement for each leg, how many joints does each
    leg need, etc
  • Build some bots
  • Legos are probably easiest to start with
  • Iterate between working in the physical world and
    enhancing the virtual world
  • Objective create as complete and high-fidelity
    model as possible!
  • When in the virtual world, youll need to learn
    about and teach yourself a number of tools
  • CAD/CAE, 3D, etc.

32
Project Examples
  • 1-to-10 legged robot
  • Turtle, ant, spider, etc.
  • Snake that lifts its head
  • i.e. climb up a stair step
  • Jumping robot
  • How high can you jump? How far (Frog)?
  • Tumbling robot
  • i.e. Star Wars
  • Whatever your imagination can think up!

33
Software to Investigate
  • Anything is fair game! Part of this classes
    goals is to explore what works best in the
    classroom
  • Software is needed for
  • Design
  • Modeling
  • Simulation

34
Modeling Software
  • CAD Systems
  • Pro/ENGINEER
  • SDRC/UG I-DEAS
  • AutoCAD, MicroStation, SolidWorks
  • Lower level
  • Models OpenCascade, ACIS, Parasolid
  • Rendering OpenGL, DirectX

35
Simulation Software
  • OpenSource
  • Open Dynamics Engine
  • Open Source dynamics collision detection
  • Game engines
  • Havoc
  • CAD
  • Pro/MECHANICA, Adams,
  • Other
  • Matlab, maple

36
Initial Data
  • Lego Models
  • http//gicl.cs.drexel.edu/repository/datasets

37
Discussion Topics
  • Engineering Datatypes
  • 2D/3D, standards, proprietary
  • How to represent an assembly
  • Role of the Wiki
  • Expectations of the scribe
  • Help spend money!

38
Other Events This Term
  • Two talks sponsored by GRASP Lab
  • Fridays at 11am
  • THIS FRIDAY Daniella Rus, MIT
  • Oct 13 Dinesh Manocha, UNC

39
END
40
Issues in Physics-Based Modeling of Bio-Robots
  • One needs to algorithmically and

41
Engineering Design
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