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Fish Culture Systems

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Extensive culture: low intensity aquaculture providing only small increases over natural productivity. Extensive fish culture systems have low stocking densities, don ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fish Culture Systems


1
Fish Culture Systems
Extensive culture low intensity aquaculture
providing only small increases over natural
productivity. Extensive fish culture systems have
low stocking densities, dont use rearing units
specifically engineered for aquaculture, and
dont involve artificial diets Intensive
culture fish culture methods yielding far in
excess of natural productivity levels. Intensive
systems utilize high stocking rates, man-made
rearing units and artificial diets.
2
4 Types of Intensive Culture Systems
1.) Pond culture system based on earthen ponds,
where some or all of the food consumed is from
natural production and there is minimal water
flow. 2.) Raceway Culture system based on
circular or straight raceways (tanks) with high
water flow and minimal water reuse. 3.) Cage
Culture system in which fish are confined to net
pens or cages placed in ponds, rivers, lakes, or
ocean. 4.) Tank Culture Utilizing Water
Recirculation tank culture system where nearly
100 of the water is reused and cleansed by
sophisticated filtration systems.
3
Advantages of Recirculation Systems
1.) Minimum demand on limited water resources.
The limited quantity of high quality water in
aquifers and on the surface is an indication that
water recirculation systems will become
increasingly important as a means of meeting the
demand for fish. 2.) Minimum environmental
impact. Recirculation systems permit the
concentration and removal of fish wastes so that
water pollution can be controlled and
minimized. 3.) Few government permits are
required. Because of limited impact on
environment, and limited withdrawal of waste
water, few permits are required for aquaculture
systems based on water recirculation.
4
4.) Closed circulation systems can be located
near markets. Suitable sites for other systems
are dependent on location of suitable water or
land resources. Recirculation systems can be
located so that transportation costs and time
between harvest can be minimized. 5.) Water
quality and temperature can be maximized. Water
temperature can be maintained at the optimum
level for fast growth and optimum feed
conversion. 6.) Minimize losses from
environmental hazards such as predators,
pollutants, and disease. Fish produced in closed
recirculation systems are safe from environmental
pollutants and many pathogens. 7.) Minimum space
requirements for level of production. In
comparison to other types of systems, protein
production in closed systems require very little
space.
5
Disadvantages
1.) High Capital Costs. Capital costs of
buildings, pumps, tanks, heaters, etc. are higher
than other systems of aquaculture. 2.) High
Operating Costs. Closed systems require pumping
water though tanks and filters. The operating
costs of pumps are significant, and these costs
may be the difference between profitable and
nonprofitable fish farms.
6
3.) Vulnerability to Mechanical Failure. Pumps
make fish farm vulnerable to breakdowns and
blackouts which can result in catastrophic losses
of fish. 4.) Difficulties with Fish Health
Management. Disease outbreaks, once they occur,
are difficult to manage. Pathogens in the system
find refuge in the biological filter and are
difficult to remove. Often the only option is to
treat the fish in the tank, thus killing the
bacteria in the biofilter. 5.) Higher level of
management is required. Unless managed properly,
sub-optimal conditions can occur that will result
in disease outbreaks and increased mortality. A
much higher level of system monitoring is
required than in most other systems.
7
Facilities Needed for Indoor Recirculation
Systems 1.) Electricity ground fault protection
should be provided because of the equipment in
and around water 2.) Electrical circuits should
have at least 2 separate circuits to allow for
the water pump and (if needed) heaters. 3.) Floor
drain in case of water spill or overflow, a
drain is needed (especially for emergency
situations) 4.) Rearing unit filters and rearing
unit require about 7 ½ feet x 5 ½ feet of floor
space. 5.) Storage space needed for equipment
and feed storage 6.) Auxiliary tank space
additional tank space 7.) Operating room enough
space (min. of 3 ft.) around the system to allow
for ample room to feed, harvest,
clean,etc. Additional items to consider lab
space weight of system
8
ASSIGNMENT TO BE COMPLETED BY END OF CLASS 1.)
What are four basic types of intensive fish
culture systems? 2.) What are the advantages of
utilizing a water recirculation system for
raising fish? 3.) What are disadvantages of a
water recirculation system for raising fish? 4.)
Define the following terms net pen, water
quality, capital, extensive culture, intensive
culture
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