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Ecology

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Chapter 29 ... Ecology – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ecology


1
  • Ecology

2
Population
  • Includes all the members of a species found in a
    given area.
  • Ex sunfish in a pond

3
Community
  • Includes all the populations in a given area.
  • Ex all plants, animals, and microorganisms make
    up a pond community

4
Ecosystem
  • Includes all the members of the community plus
    the physical environment in which they live in.

5
Ecological Organization
Population ( or
) Community (
) Ecosystem (
) Biosphere ( )
6
(I) Ecosystem
  • Is the structural and functional unit studied in
    Ecology.

7
(A) Requirements for a Stable Ecosystem
  • The ecosystem involves interactions between
    living and nonliving things. Certain
    requirements must be met for a stable ecosystem
    to exist
  • There must be a constant supply of energy
    (sunlight for photosynthesis).
  • There must be living organisms that can
    incorporate the energy into organic compounds
    (food).
  • There must be a recycling of materials between
    organisms and the environment.

8
(B) Abiotic Factors
  • Nonliving factors.
  • The abiotic factors of an ecosystem include the
    physical and chemical factors that affect the
    capacity of an organism to live and reproduce.
    These factors are
  • 1. Intensity and duration of light
  • 2. Temperature range
  • 3. Amount of moisture
  • 4. Type of substrate
  • 5. Availability of inorganic substances and
    gases
  • 6. pH

9
(C) Biotic Factors
  • Living factors
  • These factors directly or indirectly affect the
    environment.
  • Thus, the organisms, their presence, parts,
    interaction, and wastes all act as biotic
    factors.
  • These interactions include
  • 1. Nutritional relationships
  • 2. Symbiotic relationships

10
(A) Requirements for a Stable Ecosystem
  • The ecosystem involves interactions between
    living and nonliving things. Certain
    requirements must be met for a stable ecosystem
    to exist
  • There must be a constant supply of energy
    (sunlight for photosynthesis).
  • There must be living organisms that can
    incorporate the energy into organic compounds
    (food).
  • There must be a recycling of materials between
    organisms and the environment.

11
Limiting Factors
  • Determines the types of organisms which may exist
    in that environment.
  • Examples are
  • A low temperature common to northern latitudes
    determines in part what species of plants can
    exist in that area.
  • The amount of oxygen dissolved in a body of water
    will help determine which species of fish will
    exist there.

12
1.Nutritional Relationships
  • Involves the transfer of nutrients from one
    organism to another within an ecosystem.
  • In terms of nutrition, organisms are either
    autotrophs or heterotrophs.

13
Types of Heterotrophs
  • Saprophytes- include heterotrophic plants, fungi,
    and bacteria which feed on dead organisms.
  • Ex mushrooms are saprophytes that feed off
    dead plants.
  • 2. Herbivores- animals that feed on plants.
  • Ex deer
  • 3. Carnivores- animals that consume other
    animals. Two types
  • a) predator which kills and consume
    their prey.
  • b) scavenger- which feed on the remains
    of animals they did not kill.
  • 4. Omnivores- animals that consume both plants
    and animals (humans).

14
2. Symbiotic Relationships
  • Different organisms may live together in a close
    association.
  • This is known as symbiosis.
  • There are three types
  • 1. Commensalism 2. Mutualism 3. Parasitism
  • KEY
  • benefits
  • - harmed
  • o not affected

15
Commensalism
  • ( , o)
  • In this relationship, one organism benefits and
    the other is not affected.
  • Ex barnacles on a whale
  • EX Remora on a shark

16
Mutualism ( , )
  • In this relationship both organisms benefit from
    each other.
  • Ex protozoan living in the digestive tract of
    termites.
  • Wood eaten by termites is digested by the
    protozoan. The nutrients released supply both
    organisms.

(Lichen)
17
Parasitism
  • ( , - )
  • In this relationship, the parasite benefits at
    the expense of the host.
  • Ex athletes foot fungus on humans
  • tapeworm and heartworm in dogs.

(Bloodworms Tapeworm Heartworms)
18
(II) Energy Flow Relationships
  • For an ecosystem to be self-sustaining, there
    must be a flow of energy between organisms.
  • The pathway of energy flow through the living
    components of an ecosystem are represented by
    food chains and food webs.

19
(A) Food Chains
  • Green plants and other photosynthetic organisms
    are the organisms in an ecosystem that can
    convert radiant energy from sunlight into food.
  • A food chain involves the transfer of energy from
    green plants through a series of organisms with
    repeated stages of eating and being eaten.

20
(A) Food Chains
21
(B) Food Webs
  • In a natural community, most organisms eat more
    than one species and may be eaten, in turn, by
    more than one species.
  • Thus, the various food chains in a community are
    interconnected forming a food web.

22
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23
There are three basic classes of organisms in a
food web
  1. Producers- include green plants and other
    photosynthetic organisms that synthesize the
    organic nutrients that supply energy to other
    members in the community.
  2. Consumers- include all heterotrophic organisms.
    Organisms that feed on green plants are primary
    consumers, or herbivores. Secondary consumers,
    or carnivores, feed on other consumers.
  3. Decomposers are the organisms (saprophytes)
    that break down wastes and dead organisms so that
    chemical materials are returned to the
    environment for use by other living organisms.

24
(C) Pyramid of Energy
  • The greatest amount of energy in a community is
    present in the organisms that make up the
    producer level.
  • Only a small portion of this energy is passed on
    to primary consumers, and only a smaller portion
    is passed on to secondary consumers.
  • A pyramid of energy can be used to illustrate the
    loss of usable energy at each feeding level.

25
(III) Cycle of Materials
  • In a self-sustaining ecosystem, various materials
    are recycled between organisms and the abiotic
    environment.
  • The recycling process allows materials to be used
    over and over again.
  • Three examples are
  • 1. Carbon-Hydrogen-Oxygen cycle
  • 2. Water cycle
  • 3. Nitrogen cycle

26
Carbon-Hydrogen-Oxygen Cycle
  • Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are recycled through
    the environment by the processes of respiration
    and photosynthesis.

27
Water Cycle
  • Here water moves between the earths surface and
    the atmosphere.
  • Evaporation- liquid water on earths surface
    changes to gas by the process of evaporation and
    enters the atmosphere in the form of water vapor.
  • Condensation- water vapor is returned to liquid
    state and falls as precipitation.
  • Some water vapor is added to the atmosphere by
    aerobic respiration in plants and animals and by
    transpiration in plants.

28
Water Cycle
29
(IV) Ecosystem Formation
  • Ecosystems tend to change over a long period of
    time until a stable ecosystem is formed.
  • Both the living and nonliving parts of an
    ecosystem change.

30
(A) Ecological Succession
  • The replacement of one kind of community with
    another is called ecological succession.
  • The kind of stable ecosystem that develops in a
    particular geographical area depends on climate.
  • Pioneer organisms- are the first plants to
    populate an area. Lichens and algae may be
    pioneer organisms on bare rock.
  • Climax Communities- Succession ends with the
    development of a climax community in which the
    populations of plants and animals exist in
    balance with each other and the environment.

31
(B) Competition
  • Different species living in the same environment,
    or habitat, may require the same resources. When
    the resources are limited, competition occurs
    among the species.
  • Competition- is the struggle between different
    species for the same limited resources. The more
    similar the needs of the species, the more
    intense the competition.

32
(B) Competition (cont)
  • 3. Each species occupies a niche in the
    community. A niche is the role the species plays,
    and includes the type of food it eats, where it
    lives, where it reproduces, and its relationships
    with other species. Ex. catfish and the Asian
    carp
  • 4. When two different species compete for the
    same niche in a community, the weaker species is
    usually eliminated establishing one species per
    niche in a community.

33
(B) Competition
Throw him back!!
Throw him back!!
NO,, I cant compete with that!!!
34
Graphs showing competition between two species of
Paramecium. Since each population alone prospers
(top two graphs), when they are in a competition
situation one species will win, the other will
lose (bottom graph).
35
Biosphere and Humans

Almost two acres of trees disappear every second.
36
Past and Present
  • Humans, in exercising a unique and powerful
    influence on the physical and living world, have
    modified their
  • environment.

37
1. Negative aspects
  • Natural systems have been upset because humans
    have not realized that they not only influence
    other individuals, other species, and the
    nonliving world, but are, in turn, influenced by
    them.
  • Although most ecosystems are capable of
    recovering form the impact of minor disruptions,
    human activities have sometimes increased the
    magnitude of such disruptions so as to bring
    about a more lasting and less desirable change in
    the environment upon which all life depends.
  • Such disruptions will directly affect at least
    one of the components of an ecosystem and this,
    in turn, may affect the remaining components.

38
Examples of Negative Aspects
  • a) Human Population Growth
  • b) Human Activities
  • -Over hunting
  • - Exploitation
  • - Importation of Organism
  • - Poor Land Use Management
  • - Technological
  • Oversight

39
a) Human Population Growth
  • The total population of humans has risen at a
    rapid rate, partly because of the removal of
    natural checks on the population, such as
    disease.
  • This continued increase in the human population
    has far exceeded the food-producing capacities of
    many ecosystems of the world.

40
a) Human Population Growth
41
Population Density
42
Biosphere
  • The portion of the earth in which life exists.
  • The biosphere is composed of many complex
    ecosystems that include water, soil, and air.

43
What is the ecological relevance of this cartoon?
44
Global warming
Global Warming
45
Global warming
  • Gases that trap heat in the atmosphere are often
    called greenhouse gases.

46
Global Warming Greenhouse Effect
  • Some greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide
    occur naturally and are emitted to the atmosphere
    through natural processes.
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Other are created and emitted solely through
    human activities.

47
Greenhouse Gases
  • Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Carbon dioxide enters the
    atmosphere through the burning of fossil fuels
    (oil, natural gas, and coal), solid waste, trees
    and wood products, and also as a result of other
    chemical reactions (e.g., manufacture of cement).
  • Carbon dioxide is also removed from the
    atmosphere as part of the biological carbon
    cycle.
  • Methane (CH4) Methane is emitted during the
    production and transport of coal, natural gas,
    and oil.
  • Methane emissions also result from livestock and
    other agricultural practices and by the decay of
    organic waste in municipal solid waste landfills.
  • Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Nitrous oxide is emitted
    during agricultural and industrial activities, as
    well as during combustion of fossil fuels and
    solid waste.
  • Fluorinated Gases Hydrofluorocarbons,
    fluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride are
    synthetic, powerful greenhouse gases that are
    emitted from a variety of industrial processes.
  • Fluorinated gases are sometimes used as
    substitutes for ozone-depleting substances
  • (i.e., CFCs, HCFCs, and halons).
  • These gases are typically emitted in smaller
    quantities, but because they are potent
    greenhouse gases, they are sometimes referred to
    as High Global Warming Potential gases (High GWP
    gases).

http//epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/index.html
ggo
48
GLOBAL WARMING Early Warning Signs
http//www.climatehotmap.org/
Fingerprints and Harbingers
49
Coral Bleaching Due to Global Warming
50
Examples of Negative Aspects
  • a) Human Population Growth
  • b) Human Activities
  • -Over hunting
  • - Exploitation
  • - Importation of Organism
  • - Poor Land Use Management
  • - Technological
  • Oversight

51
b) Human Activities
  • Some human activities have led to the extinction
    or endangerment of numerous species of plants and
    animals as well as producing less favorable
    living conditions for many species, including
    humans.
  • Ex
  • Over hunting
  • Importation of Organisms
  • Exploitation of Wildlife
  • Poor land use management, ex. deforestation
  • Technical Oversights, ex. pollution

http//www.kodak.com/eknec/PageQuerier.jhtml?pq-pa
th38/492/2017/2033pq-localeen_US
52
1. Overhunting
  • Uncontrolled hunting, trapping, and fishing still
    occur in many parts of the world.
  • The extinction of the dodo bird and the passenger
    pigeon resulted from such activities.

53
2. Importation of Organisms
  • Kudzu smothers native trees and shrubs.
  • Purple Loosestrife Environmental Impacts of
  • replaces native wetland communities
  • eliminates food and shelter for wildlife species
  • reduces biodiversity

54
2. Importation of Organisms
  • Humans have accidentally and/or intentionally
    imported organisms to areas where they have no
    natural enemies leading to the disruption of
    existing ecosystems.
  • Examples include the Japanese beetle and the
    Gypsy moth.

55
3. Exploitation
  • The exploitation of wildlife for their products
    and pet trade has led to threatened populations
    and ecosystem disruptions.
  • Examples include the African elephantivory the
    Colombian parrotpet trade Tropical rain
    forestplywood.

56
3. Exploitation
  • The exploitation of wildlife for their products
    and pet trade has led to threatened populations
    and ecosystem disruptions.
  • Examples include the African elephantivory the
    Colombian parrotpet trade Tropical rain
    forestplywood.

57
3. Exploitation
58
4. Poor Land Use Management
59
4. Poor Land Use Management
  • Increased urbanization/ suburbanization claims
    increasing amounts of agricultural lands
  • modifies watersheds,
  • disrupts natural habitats (including wetlands),
  • Deforestation
  • and threatens the existence of wildlife species.
  • Poor land management practices have led to
    overcropping, overgrazing, and failure to use
    cover crops. This has resulted in the loss of
    valuable soil nutrients and topsoil.

60
4. Poor Land Use Management
61
Deforestation Clearing of tropical forests
across the Earth.
  • Most of the clearing is done for
  • agricultural purposes, planting crops, grazing
    cattle, Commercial logging
  • (In Bolivia, the average earnings per person is
    800.)

62
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63
Deforestation
64
Deforestation
65
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66
5. Environmental Pollution due to Technological
Oversight
  • Have led to unplanned consequences which have
    contributed to the pollution of the water, air,
    and land.
  • Examples are
  • a) Water Pollution
  • b) Air Pollution
  • c) Biocide Use
  • d) Disposal Problems

67
Water Pollution
  • Major water pollutants include heat, sewage, and
    chemicals such as phosphates, heavy metals, and
    PCBs.
  • Oil spills

68
Water Pollution
69
Air Pollution
  • Major air pollutants include carbon monoxide,
    hydrocarbons,
  • and particulates.
  • Nitrogen oxides
  • and sulfur dioxide
  • combine with water vapor creating acid rain
    problems.

70
Air Pollution
71
Biocide Use
  • The use of some biocides (such as pesticides)
    without a complete assessment of their
    environmental impact has contaminated the soil,
    atmosphere, water supply, and has disrupted food
    webs.
  • Ex DDT

http//www.kodak.com/eknec/PageQuerier.jhtml?pq-pa
th38/492/2017/2033pq-localeen_US http//www.kod
ak.com/eknec/PageQuerier.jhtml?pq-path38/492/2017
/2033pq-localeen_US
72
DDT a Banned Insecticide
1939 discovered the effectiveness of
DDT DDT seemed to be the ideal insecticide it
is cheap and of relatively low toxicity to
mammals. Extensive use of DDT began to appear
in the late 1940s.. Linked to the RAPID
decline of Raptors (birds of prey) due to the
thinning of calcium layers of eggs shells. The
use of DDT was banned in the United States in
1973, although it is still in use in some other
parts of the world. The buildup of DDT in
natural waters is a reversible process the EPA
reported a 90 reduction of DDT in Lake Michigan
fish by 1978 as a result of the ban.

73
DDT a Banned Insecticide

http//birdcam.kodak.com/cgi-bin/asCgi.pl?node1a
ppbirdcamlafplayground
74
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75
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76
Land Recourses and Conservation
  • Clean Air Acts 1963
  • Wilderness Act 1964, National Preserves
  • Clean Water Act 1972
  • Safe Drinking Water Act
  • Endangered Species Act, 1973
  • Farm Act 1985, protection of wetlands
  • California Desert Protection Act 1994

77
Disposal Problems
  • The affluent lifestyle of humans currently
    requires increasing supplies of products and
    energy, the production of which produces
    considerable wastes solid, chemical, and nuclear.

78
Eutrification
79
2. Positive Aspects
  • Through increased awareness of ecological
    interactions, humans have attempted to prevent
    continued disruptions of the environment and to
    counteract the results of many of our negative
    practices.

80
Examples of Positive Aspects
  1. Population Control
  2. Conservation of Resources
  3. Pollution Control
  4. Species Preservation
  5. Biological Control
  6. Laws

81
Population Control
  • Methods of controlling the human reproductive
    rate have been, and continue to be developed.

82
Conservation of Resources
  • Soil cover plantings (reforestation and
    covercropping) serve as erosion controls.
  • Water and energy conserving measures are
    currently being implemented.
  • The economic significance of recycling is now
    being realized.

83
Pollution Control
  • Attempts are being made to control air and water
    pollution by laws and by the development of new
    techniques of sanitation.

84
Species Preservation
  • Some efforts to sustain endangered species have
    included habitat protection (wildlife refuges and
    national parks) and wildlife management (game
    lawa and fisheries).
  • Animals which were once endangered are now
    successfully reproducing and increasing their
    numbers.
  • Examples of endangered animals which are
    responding to conservation efforts and beginning
    to make a comeback are the bald eagle and the
    peregrine falcon.

85
Do Now
  • What Cause the ALMOST extinction of these 2 birds?

86
Species Preservation
  • U.S. and Canada, Japan, Mexico and the former
    Soviet Union
  • Establishment of a Federal prohibition, unless
    permitted by regulations, to
  • MIGRATORY BIRD TREATY ACT
  • Endangered Species Act

http//ipl.unm.edu/cwl/fedbook/mbta.html
87
Species Preservation
  • U.S. and Canada, Japan, Mexico and the former
    Soviet Union
  • Establishment of a Federal prohibition, unless
    permitted by regulations, to
  • MIGRATORY BIRD TREATY ACT
  • Endangered Species Act

http//ipl.unm.edu/cwl/fedbook/mbta.html
88
Biological Control
  • Biological control of insect pests continues to
    be encouraged.
  • This method is less likely to affect those
    species which are beneficial to humans, disrupt
    food webs, and contaminate the land.
  • Examples include the use of sex hormones and
    natural parasites.

89
Land Recourses and Conservation
  • There are laws which regulate and guide the use
    of natural habitats.
  • Example State Environmental Quality Review Act
    (SEQR)
  • A New York State law designed to provide the
    opportunity for citizen review and comment of the
    environmental impact of any proposed development
    that has been determined to have significant
    effect on the environment.

90
Land Recourses and Conservation
  • Clean Air Acts 1963
  • Wilderness Act 1964, National Preserves
  • Clean Water Act 1972
  • Safe Drinking Water Act
  • Endangered Species Act, 1973
  • Farm Act 1985, protection of wetlands
  • California Desert Protection Act 1994
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