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TOOLS OF THE TRADE FOR EVALUATING INDOOR AIR

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Title: SAMPLING OPTIONS FOR INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS Author: Debbie Dietrich Last modified by: mlf Created Date: 9/2/2005 2:08:38 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: TOOLS OF THE TRADE FOR EVALUATING INDOOR AIR


1
TOOLS OF THE TRADE FOR EVALUATING INDOOR AIR
  • WITH A SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON
  • DATA INTERPRETATION

2
INDOOR AIR QUALITY (IAQ)
  • A Global Concern in
  • Workplaces
  • Homes
  • Schools
  • Commercial Buildings

3
FACTORS AFFECTING IAQ
  • Building materials and furnishings
  • Chemicals used in the building
  • Activities done inside
  • Hobbies and work
  • Equipment used inside the building
  • Level of housekeeping, maintenance, and
    ventilation
  • Contaminants underground that may permeate into
    the overlying structure

4
SPOTLIGHT ON RECOGNITION AND EVALUATION OF
INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS
5
SPOTLIGHT ON MOLD
6
MOLD A MOISTURE PROBLEM
  • Mold can grow on any substance including wood,
    paper, carpet, and foods providing moisture is
    present.
  • Most microorganisms can thrive in the temperature
    range and on the nutrient sources in buildings.

7
MOISTURE INDICATORS
  • Water marks on ceiling tiles and other surfaces
  • Visual presence of mold
  • Musty smell of microbial VOCs
  • White, powdery, or crystalline substance on the
    surface of concrete, plaster, and masonry which
    are soluble salts dissolved from the building
    materials

8
TOOLS OF THE TRADE
  • FOR MOLD INVESTIGATIONS

9
MOISTURE METERS
  • Used to survey moisture in any non-conductive
    porous material to which the probes can be
    applied
  • Ceiling Tiles
  • Gypsum Board
  • Carpeting
  • Wood
  • Plaster
  • Concrete (special meter required)

10
MOISTURE METERS
  • ECONOMY MODEL
  • Operates by measuring the electrical conductance
    between two probes inserted into the test
    material

SKC Cat. No. 753-006
11
MOISTURE METERS
  • PINLESS MODELS
  • Measures resistance between two low-frequency
    signals transmitted from conductive pads without
    the need for insertion into the test material
  • Several models are available.

SKC Cat. No. 759-101
12
DATA INTERPRETATION MOISTURE METERS
  • Moisture in lumber may contribute to mold growth
    even while the building is being constructed.
  • The best protection against mold growth is to
    keep the moisture content of lumber low.
  • The Western Wood Products Association recommends
    that moisture in lumber be kept below 20.
  • See www.wwpa.org/moldff2.htm for a Fact Sheet on
    this subject.

13
DATA INTERPRETATION MOISTURE METERS
  • Moisture levels can be compared from wall to wall
    to determine where moisture intrusion is
    occurring.
  • Once the location of the moisture is found, an
    investigation can be made as to the cause and a
    control strategy can be developed.

14
SAMPLING FOR MOLD
  • A more thorough evaluation will be necessary to
    positively confirm the presence of mold, to
    identify the genus/species of the spores, and to
    confirm the absence of mold following
    decontamination.
  • This evaluation will involve the collection of
    bulk, surface, or air samples followed by
    analysis at a qualified environmental
    microbiology laboratory.
  • See a list of commercial labs at
    www.skcinc.com/links.asplabs.

15
SURFACE SAMPLING
  • TYPICAL APPLICATIONS
  • To confirm the presence or absence of mold on
    test surfaces
  • To determine whether fungal levels in test areas
    are greater than background levels
  • To identify the types of mold present
  • To determine possible sources of fungal
    contaminants

16
SURFACE SAMPLING ON CARPET
  • MICROVACUUM CASSETTES
  • Carpeting can serve as a reservoir for fungal
    spores and be a source of exposure for crawling
    infants.
  • To sample fungal spores in carpeting, a
    vacuum-style cassette is available with a 0.45 µm
    polycarbonate filter loaded into a 3-piece
    styrene cassette with 2-inch tubing nozzle.
    Sample at flows up to 16 L/min.
  • Work the inlet tube as deep as possible into the
    carpeting to collect a good sample of the dust.

17
CARPET SAMPLING KIT
SKC Cat. No. 225-9540
18
DATA INTERPRETATION CARPET SAMPLES
  • A 2003 AIHCE paper by MidWest Microbiology
  • gave some numerical guidelines for fungal spores
  • in settled dust from porous surfaces, like
    carpet,
  • using microvacuum cassettes
  • Normal - lt 5000/1000 cm2 or lt 50,000/g
  • Borderline - 25,000/1000 cm2 or 200,000/g
  • Elevated - 75,000/1000 cm2 or 1,000,000/g

19
SURFACE SAMPLING
  • STERILE WIPES
  • A swab or filter wetted with sterile water or
    wash solution is used to wipe a specified area.
  • Typically, the swab is then used to inoculate a
    culture plate.

SKC Cat. No. 225-2402
20
DATA INTERPRETATION SWAB SAMPLES
  • The November 2001 AIHA Synergist guidelines
  • for fungal spores in swab samples
  • Normal lt 10,000 cfu/in2 or lt 1500 cfu/cm2
  • Probable Contamination gt 10,000 cfu/in2 or gt
    1500 cfu/cm2

21
SURFACE SAMPLING
  • LIFT TAPE
  • Collected by placing clear adhesive or packing
    tape or commercially available sampling strips
    onto a surface and removing it with slow, steady
    force
  • Following collection, the tape is attached to
    glass slides and examined using light microscopy.

22
SURFACE SAMPLING
  • LIFT TAPE ON A SLIDE
  • Flexible plastic microscopic slides with a sticky
    adhesive sample area can be used like lift tape.
  • Press on the test surface, place the slide in the
    provided mailer, and send to a qualified
    laboratory.


Stick-to-it Slides SKC Cat. Nos. 225-9808/9
23
DATA INTERPRETATION LIFT TAPE SAMPLES
  • The November 2001 AIHA Synergist guidelines for
  • fungal spores in tape samples
  • Normal No significant fungal material or
    biomass 1 to 5 spores
  • Probable Contamination 25 to 100 spores

24
SURVEY METERS TOTAL MOLD (VIABLE NON-VIABLE)
  • LASER PARTICLE COUNTERS
  • The instrument reads in particles/ft3 or
    particles/m3 of air.
  • The particle counter can be used like a Geiger
    counter to guide the user closer to the source of
    mold contamination.

SKC Cat. No. 745-3886
25
DATA INTERPRETATION PARTICLE COUNTERS
  • Particle counters sold by SKC have 5 channels,
    which mean they count 5 sizes of particles.
  • If the particle count is high in the 2 to 10
    micron range, mold contamination is often
    present.
  • Data interpretation is done by comparing the
  • particle counts inside, outside, and in various
    test zones.

26
AIR SAMPLING TOTAL MOLD (VIABLE NON-VIABLE)
  • SPORE TRAP CASSETTES
  • Easy, inexpensive screening device
  • Use with a pump at 15-30 L/min for up to 10
    minutes.
  • Spores impact onto a microscopic slide with a
    sticky surface.
  • Slide is stained and analyzed microscopically.

27
VERSATRAP CASSETTES
SKC Cat. Nos. 225-9820/1
28
SKC VERSATRAP CASSETTES
  • At 15 L/min, the performance of VersaTrap is
    equivalent to other spore traps.
  • The size of spore that is collected with a 50
    efficiency is
  • 2.3 µm.
  • The VersaTrap offers users the advantage of
    minimal particle bounce at flows from 25 to 30
    L/min.
  • Smaller spores can be collected at these higher
    flows
  • -1.7 µm at 25 L/min
  • -1.5 µm at 30 L/min

29
AIR SAMPLING PUMPS FOR USE WITH SPORETRAPS
  • Constant flows from 10 to 30 L/min
  • User selectable sampling times
  • Lithium-ion battery powered up to 4 hours
  • Indefinite run time from AC adapter
  • Optional sampling wand

SKC Cat. No. 228-9530
30
DATA INTERPRETATION SPORE TRAPS
  • Spore trap analysis will provide the total number
    of spores and the genus of the spores found.
  • This information can be used to compare the test
    area to control areas of the building and to the
    outdoors.
  • The genus of the spores should be similar inside
    and out.
  • The numbers, however, should be lower inside.

31
DATA INTERPRETATION SPORE TRAPS
  • November 2001 AIHA Synergist guidelines for air
    samples
  • Residential Buildings
  • Normal lt 5000 spores/m3
  • Probable Contamination gt 10,000 spores/m3
  • Commercial Buildings
  • Normal lt 2500 spores/m3
  • Probable Contamination gt 10,000 spores/m3

32
AIR SAMPLING VIABLE MOLD
  • VIABLE CASCADE IMPACTOR
  • Specified in NIOSH Methods 0800 and 0801
  • Used with a pump at 28.3 L/min for typical sample
    times of 2 to 5 minutes
  • Mold impacts onto growth medium (agar).
  • Agar plates are shipped to a microbiological
    laboratory for growth and culture.

33
SKC BIOSTAGE SURELOCK DESIGN
SKC Cat. Nos. 225-9610/11
STANDARD MODEL at 28.3 L/MIN BIOSTAGE 200 MODEL
at 14.15 L/MIN
34
BIOSTAGE SAMPLER PREPARATION
35
SKC BIOSTAGE WITH QUICKTAKE 30 PUMP
SKC Cat. No. 228-9530K
36
AIR SAMPLING VIABLE MOLD
  • STERILE FILTERS
  • Air is passed through a membrane filter such as a
    polycarbonate or mixed cellulose ester filter to
    collect the fungal spores.
  • Gelatin filters (SKC Cat. Nos. 225-9551/2) will
    help to maintain viability by minimizing
    dehydration of the spores.
  • Samples are collected with a portable pump at 1
    to 4 L/min for 5 to 30 minutes.

37
AIR SAMPLING VIABLE MOLD
  • COLLECTION INTO LIQUID
  • Pumps are used to pull mold spores into glass
    impingers filled with a liquid collection medium,
    typically a dilute buffer solution or mineral
    oil.
  • Portions of the collection liquid can be placed
    onto nutrient agar and incubated. The resulting
    colonies can be evaluated.
  • Alternatively, analyses for viable or total mold
    can be done on liquid samples using biochemical,
    immunological, and biological assays.

38
AIR SAMPLING VIABLE MOLD
  • BIOSAMPLER
  • Resembles an all glass impinger
  • Design modifications to maintain viability of
  • collected organisms
  • Vacuum pump at sonic flow is used to pull air
    through the inlet and into the collection liquid
    for sample times up to 8 hours
  • Developed by researchers at University of
    Cincinnati manufactured by SKC
  • (SKC Cat. No. 225-9595)

39
DATA INTERPRETATION VIABLE AIR SAMPLES
  • November 2001 AIHA Synergist guidelines
  • Residential Buildings
  • Normal lt 500 cfu/m3
  • Probable Contamination gt 1000 cfu/m3
  • Commercial Buildings
  • Normal lt 250 cfu/m3
  • Probable Contamination gt 1000 cfu/m3

40
SPOTLIGHT ON FORMALDEHYDE
41
RECOGNITION OF FORMALDEHYDE
  • Formaldehyde is frequently used as a preservative
    and adhesive.
  • Formaldehyde gas can be released indoors from
    particle board, veneered or laminated furniture
    and cabinets, furniture and floor finishes,
    paneling, permanent press fabrics, and drapes.
  • Formaldehyde is a strong irritant that can cause
    burning in the eyes, nose, and throat.
  • In a June 2004 press release, the IARC classified
    formaldehyde as carcinogenic.

42
AIR SAMPLING PASSIVE SAMPLERS
  • SKC UMEx 100
  • Based on 2,4-DNPH chemistry
  • Indoor air sampling up to 24 hours
  • Measures from 5 ppb to 5 ppm
  • HPLC laboratory analysis
  • ISO Standard Method 16000-4
  • OSHA Method 1007

SKC Cat. No. 500-100
43
AIR SAMPLING PASSIVE SAMPLERS
  • SKC Indoor Air Formaldehyde Sampler
  • 5 to 7 day sampling
  • Colorimetric laboratory analysis based on NIOSH
    Method 3500
  • Detection limit of 0.01 ppm
  • Includes ribbon to hang the sampler in the test
    area

SKC Cat. No. 526-100
44
AIR SAMPLING SORBENT TUBES
  • SORBENT TUBES
  • Sorbent tube with 2,4- DNPH-treated silica gel
    for EPA Method TO-11A
  • Sorbent tube with HMP-treated XAD-2 for
    OSHA/NIOSH Methods
  • Laboratory analysis using HPLC (EPA) or GC
    (NIOSH/OSHA)

SKC Cat. Nos. 226-117/118/119
45
DATA INTERPRETATION FORMALDEHYDE
  • The Indoor Air Quality Association, Inc. (IAQA)
    has published recommended guidelines for
    physical, chemical, and biological parameters in
    indoor environments. The U.S. Green Building
    Council has specified formaldehyde limits in
    their LEED rating system.
  • IAQA Formaldehyde Limit 50 ppb
  • LEED Green Building Limit 27 ppb

46
SPOTLIGHT ON PESTICIDES
47
RECOGNITION OF PESTICIDES
  • Indoor pesticide exposures may result from
    pesticides applied indoors or from pesticides
    inadvertently brought in from the outdoors on
    shoes.
  • Pesticides may accumulate on carpeting and other
    flooring materials and become an exposure source
    for children who spend considerable time in close
    proximity to the floor.

48
AIR SAMPLING SORBENT TUBES
  • OVS TUBES
  • Sorbent tubes with an internal pre-filter and 2
    layers of XAD-2 sorbent
  • Simultaneously collect pesticide
  • vapors and aerosols
  • GC or HPLC analysis following NIOSH/OSHA methods

SKC Cat. Nos. 226-30-16/226-58
49
AIR SAMPLING SORBENT TUBES
  • LOW VOLUME PUF
  • TUBES
  • EPA and ASTM specify the use of polyurethane foam
    sorbent contained in a glass tube with flows from
    1-5 L/min for 4-24 hours for pesticide
    measurements in indoor air.

SKC Cat. No. 226-92
50
DATA INTERPRETATION PESTICIDES
  • Government agencies have published exposure
    limits
  • for individual pesticides in various
    environments.
  • Ex. Chlordane
  • 7 µg/m3-Minnesota Health Departments Health
  • Risk Values (HRVs)
  • 0.2 µg/m3 for exposures from 14 to 364
    days-Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease
    Registry Minimal Risk Level (MRLs)

51
SPOTLIGHT ON VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCs)
52
RECOGNITION OF VOCs
  • Many common cleaning and household products
    contain solvents that can result in airborne
    concentration of a variety of VOCs that can cause
    problems for some people.
  • Furniture cleaners
  • Wood preservatives
  • Carpet shampoos
  • Disinfectants
  • Cleansers
  • Paint/paint strippers
  • Moth repellants
  • Hobby supplies

53
AIR SAMPLING PASSIVE SAMPLERS
  • 575-SERIES SAMPLERS
  • SKC research studies have documented reliable
    sampling for some VOCs in indoor air at ppb
    levels with 24-hour sampling times and solvent
    extraction.
  • Chemicals include benzene, hexane, toluene,
    1,1,1-trichloroethane, xylenes on Cat. No.
    575-001 and acetone using Cat. No. 575-002.

SKC Cat. Nos. 575-001/2
54
PASSIVE SAMPLERS DESIGNED FOR THERMAL DESORPTION
  • For sub-ppb detection limits, SKC has developed a
    passive diffusive sampler called the SKC ULTRA.
  • The SKC ULTRA uses thermal desorption and GC
    analysis to enhance sensitivity.
  • U.S. OSHA tested the ULTRA with Chromosorb 106
    for 20 of their most requested solvent analytes
    and they were shown to be an effective means to
    sample the solvent mixtures.

ULTRA III Sampler (SKC Cat. No. 690 Series)
55
PASSIVE SAMPLERS DESIGNED FOR THERMAL DESORPTION
  • The ULTRA III Passive Sampler is an alternative
    to stainless steel canisters for low-level VOC
    sampling.
  • Provides data in very low ppb range (µg/m3)
  • Allows for trace level VOC measurements from a
    few hours to 7 days in duration
  • Includes a blank section with each sampler for
    blank correction and certification

56
THE ULTRA DESIGN
  • Note that sorbent transfer is done by pouring the
    sorbent from the back of the sampler housing into
    a standard (empty) thermal desorption tube for GC
    analysis.

57
AIR SAMPLING SCREENING TUBES
  • SCREENING SORBENT TUBES
  • Screening tubes contain multiple layers of
    different sorbents.
  • Different classes of chemicals are trapped by
    different sorbents depending on their physical
    and chemical properties.
  • Thermal desorption is typically employed for
    analysis due to the low levels being measured.

58
DATA INTERPRETATION VOCs
  • IAQA Total VOC Indoor
  • Air Limit
  • 3.0 mg/m3 (0.64 ppm)
  • LEED Total VOC Limit
  • 500 µg/m3

59
SPOTLIGHT ON COMBUSTION POLLUTANTS
60
RECOGNITION OF COMBUSTION POLLUTANTS
  • Any device that burns fuel can introduce a
    combustion pollutant into the indoor environment
    if not properly vented. Common sources include
    gas stoves and ovens, space heaters, automobiles
    in adjacent garages, and burning, welding, and
    soldering activities.
  • Combustion pollutants include carbon monoxide,
    carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide,
    and particulates.

61
AIR MONITORING DIRECT-READING INSTRUMENTS
  • ELECTRONIC
  • MONITORS
  • Direct-reading monitors can measure gaseous
    combustion pollutants over a wide range.
  • Shown on this slide are portable monitors for
    carbon dioxide using an NDIR sensor and carbon
    monoxide using an electronic sensor.

SKC Cat. No. 753-007 for CO2
SKC Cat. No. 753-005 for CO
62
AIR SAMPLING SORBENT TUBES
  • SORBENT TUBES
  • Sorbent sample tubes containing specially treated
  • sorbents are available for
  • - Sulfur dioxide by OSHA Method ID 200
  • (SKC Cat. No. 226-80)
  • - Nitrogen dioxide by NIOSH Method 6014 and
  • OSHA ID 182 (SKC Cat. No. 226-40-02)

63
DATA INTERPRETATION CARBON MONOXIDE
  • IAQA
  • 9 ppm
  • LEED
  • 9 ppm and no greater than 2 ppm above outdoor
  • levels
  • Health Canada Agency Guideline
  • 11 ppm for 8 hours
  • 25 ppm for 1 hour

64
DATA INTERPRETATION NITROGEN DIOXIDE
  • WHO Indoor Air Guideline
  • 0.08 ppm for 24 hours
  • 0.21 ppm for 1 hour
  • Health Canada Indoor Air Guideline
  • 0.25 ppm for 1 hour

65
AIR MONITORING DIRECT-READING INSTRUMENTS
  • REAL-TIME
  • PARTICULATE
  • MONITORS
  • SKC EPAM-5000 measures PM10, PM2.5, or PM1.0
    using light scattering technology with various
    sampling heads
  • Has internal sampling pump for concurrent
    gravimetric samples
  • using a 47-mm filter

SKC Cat. Nos. 770-201/3
66
AIR SAMPLING FOR PARTICULATES CHALLENGES TO
PRACTITIONERS
  • SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR INDOOR
  • SAMPLING OF PARTICULATES
  • Higher flow rates are required since mass
    concentrations are low.
  • Small, quiet samplers are necessary for sampling
    in occupied homes, schools, and office buildings.

67
THE CHALLENGE MET LELAND LEGACY PUMP
  • HIGH FLOWS
  • Up to 15 L/min
  • LONG RUNS
  • Up to 24 hours
  • FOR LOW LEVELS
  • In indoor air using impactors or 37-mm filter
    cassettes

SKC Cat. No. 100-3002
68
LELAND LEGACY PERFORMANCE PROFILE
  • High-power lithium-ion battery pack
  • Patented internal flow sensor
  • Automatically compensates for changes in
    temperature and atmospheric pressure
  • 3-button manual operation
  • PC programmable
  • History downloadable
  • Nylon case with sound reducing material (55 dB at
    10 L/min)
  • U.S. Patent No. 5,892,160

69
PARTICULATE CHARACTERIZATION SIOUTAS CASCADE
IMPACTOR
  • Four impaction stages
  • and after-filter at
  • 9 L/min flow rate
  • 2.5 to 10 µm
  • 1.0 to 2.5 µm
  • 0.5 to 1.0 µm
  • 0.25 to 0.5 µm
  • lt 0.25 µm

SKC Cat. No. 225-370
70
HIGH FLOW PARTICULATE SAMPLING PM 10 OR PM2.5
IMPACTORS
  • Impactors for PM10 or PM2.5 at 10 L/min (SKC Cat.
    Nos. 225-390/292) can be partnered with the
    Leland Legacy sampler and run for 24 hours to
    enhance sensitivity.

IMPACT SAMPLER
71
DEPLOYABLE PARTICULATE SAMPLER SYSTEM
  • SYSTEM INCLUDES
  • Leland Legacy Pump
  • IMPACT sampling head
  • Filter cassettes
  • Calibration adapter
  • Rain cover
  • Impaction discs
  • Accessories

SKC Cat. Nos. 100-3901/3903
72
PARTICULATE SAMPLING WITH PERSONAL PUMPS
  • SKC personal sampling pumps can be partnered with
    various size-selective samplers including
    impactors for PM10 or PM2.5.
  • Shown here is the SKC Personal Modular Impactor
    (PMI) used at flow rates of 3 L/min.
  • The SKC AirChek XR5000 will provide run times of
    10 hours with the PMI.

SKC Cat. Nos. 225-350/352
73
DATA INTERPRETATION PARTICULATES
  • IAQA Respirable
  • Particulate
  • Indoor Air Guideline
  • 50 µg/m3
  • LEED Limit
  • 50 µg/m3 as PM10

74
SPOTLIGHT ON BUILDING PARMETERS FOR OCCUPANT
COMFORT
75
ILLUMINATION LEVELS
  • The amount of lighting in homes, schools, and
    workplaces can affect quality and quantity of
    output and overall well-being of occupants.
  • Improper illumination levels can result in poor
    performance and health effects, including
    headache and eyestrain.

76
ILLUMINATION MEASUREMENTS LIGHT METERS
  • SKC Light Meters use a photo diode that converts
    incident light into an electrical signal.
  • Readings are displayed on the meter in either lux
    or footcandles.

SKC Cat. No. 753-003
77
DATA INTERPRETATION LIGHT METERS
  • The Illuminating Engineering
  • Society of North America
  • publishes guides for office
  • and industrial lighting as the
  • ANSI Secretariat.
  • Available from SKC
  • Office (Cat. No. 877-612)
  • Industrial (Cat. No. 877-611)

78
PHYSICAL PARAMETERS
  • Improper control of physical parameters can
    result
  • in adverse health effects that mimic chemical
  • exposures. Physical parameters include
  • Temperature
  • Relative Humidity
  • Air Movement
  • Ventilation
  • Carbon dioxide

79
INDIVIDUAL PARAMETERS USING ELECTRONIC MONITORS
  • CARBON DIOXIDE
  • Direct-reading monitors with non-dispersive
    infrared (NDIR) sensors can typically measure CO2
    levels up to several thousand ppm without the
    need for frequent calibration.
  • This monitor also measures temperature and
    relative humidity.

SKC Cat. No. 753-007
80
MULTIPLE PARAMETERS USING ELECTRONIC MONITORS
  • SKC offers electronic instruments to measure
    multiple parameters in the indoor environment.
  • The HAZ-SCANNER IEMS measures and displays data
    for up to 14 critical air quality parameters
    including particulates, carbon monoxide, carbon
    dioxide, temperature, and relative humidity.

81
MULTIPLE PARAMETERS USING ELECTRONIC MONITORS
  • The HAZ-SCANNER IEMS, Indoor Environmental
    Monitoring Station, has a variety of plug and
    play sensor options for particulates along with
    gaseous air contaminants. Various meters can also
    be attached to measure air velocity, light
    intensity, noise, and radiation.

82
MULTIPLE PARAMETERS USING ELECTRONIC MONITORS
  • 3M/QUEST EVM-7
  • MEASUREMENT
  • OPTIONS
  • VOCs using PID
  • Toxic gases
  • CO2
  • Particulates
  • Relative humidity and temperature
  • Air velocity (with probe)

SKC Cat. No. 755-EVM7
83
DATA INTERPRETATION BUILDING COMFORT PARAMETERS
  • IAQA INDOOR AIR GUIDLINES
  • Temperature in Summer 73 to 79 F
  • Temperature in Winter 68 to 74.5 F
  • Relative Humidity 30 to 65
  • Air Movement 0.8 ft/s or 0.25 m/s

84
DATA INTERPRETATION BUILDING COMFORT PARAMETERS
  • IAQA INDOOR AIR
  • LIMITS
  • Ventilation (as Carbon
  • Dioxide)
  • 650 ppm over ambient

85
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!
  • Your source for
  • IAQ Sampling Equipment
  • www.skcinc.com
  • 800-752-8472
  • 724-941-9701
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