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Climate Change Convention, Protocol and CDM

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Climate Change Convention, Protocol and CDM Workshop on Clean Development Mechanism: Opportunities in Rajasthan Hotel Clarks Amer, Jaipur Kalipada Chatterjee – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Climate Change Convention, Protocol and CDM


1
Climate Change Convention, Protocol and CDM
Workshop on Clean Development Mechanism
Opportunities in Rajasthan Hotel Clarks Amer,
Jaipur
Kalipada Chatterjee Climate Change
Centre Development Alternatives January 28-29,
2005
2
Global Warming Science of Climate Change
  • In the last 2 decades, two important events have
    far-reaching consequences for life on our planet.
  • These are
  • Appearance of ozone hole
  • Compelling scientific evidence of global warming
  • due to human activities climate has changed
    over the millennium, but the concern is the rate
    of change of climate

3
Atmospheric Concentration of Green House Gases
  • ppmv parts per million by volume
  • ppbv parts per billion (thousand million) by
    volume
  • pptv parts per trillion (million million) by
    volume

4
Changes in the Atmosphere Composition,
Circulation
Changes in the Hydrological Cycle
Changes in Solar Inputs
Clouds
Atmosphere
N2, O2, Ar, H2O, CO2, CH4, N2O, O3, etc. Aerosols
Precipitation Evaporation
Atmosphere-Ice Interaction
Atmosphere-Biosphere Interaction
Terrestrial Radiation
Heat Exchange
Wind Stress
Human Influence
Ice Sheet
Sea Ice
Hydrosphere Ocean
Biosphere
Land- Atmosphere Interaction
Soil-Biosphere Interaction
Ice-Ocean Coupling
Hydrosphere Rivers Lakes
Land Surface
Cryosphere Sea Ice, Ice Sheets, Glaciers
Changes in/on the Land Surface Orograogy, Land
Use, Vegetation, Ecosystems
Changes in the Ocean Circulation, Sea Level,
Biogeochemistry
5
What is the Role of the Atmosphere ?
  • The mean annual concentration of CO2 is
    relatively homogenous through out the troposphere
    (the troposphere is mixed on a time scale of
    about 1 year)
  • Role of Oceans
  • Largest reservoirs of carbon
  • Global warming may result in release of carbon
    into the atmosphere
  • Role of earths vegetation and soils
  • exchange of carbon through photosynthesis, plant
    respiration, and microbial conversion of the
    organic material in the soil back into CO2

6
Why the GHGs are increasing
  • The GHGs in the atmosphere are increasing mainly
    due to human activities which include
  • Energy production from fossil fuels
  • Industries
  • Transport
  • Construction
  • Agriculture
  • Land use change and deforestation
  • Rapid population growth

7
Global Action
  • 1988 Formation of IPCC
  • First Assessment Report1990
  • Second Assessment Report1995
  • Third Assessment Report1995
  • conclude that the balance of evidence
    suggests a discernible human influence on global
    climate
  • 1992

Climate Change Convention
8
Global Action
  • 1997 Adoption of Kyoto Protocol
  • Will enter into force after it has been ratified
    by at least 55 Parties to the Convention
    accounting for at least 55 of the total 1990 CO2
  • February 16, 2005
  • Under Article 3 of the Protocol the Annex 1
    countries agreed to quantified emissions
    limitation and reduction commitments (QELRCs) by
    at least 5.2 below their 1990 levels.

9
Global mean surface temperatures have increased
10
Indian Scenario
  • Aggregate emissions in 1994 1228 (million
    tonnes)? CO2 eq.

Relative emissions of GHGs from India in 1994
55
N2O
380
CH4
793
CO2
1000
200
0
600
800
400
Gigagram
11
(No Transcript)
12
Indian Scenario
  • As a member of the UNFCCC since its inception,
    Indias NATCOM brought out the following
    depicting Indias vulnerability to CC
  • Increase in water stress and reduction in the
    availability of fresh water.
  • Threats to agriculture and food security, since
    rain-fed agriculture is highly monsoon dependent.
  • Shifts in area and boundary of different forest
    types and threats to bio-diversity with adverse
    implications for forest dependent communities.
  • Adverse impacts on
  • natural ecosystems.
  • impacts of sea level rise on coastal agriculture,
    fisheries and settlements.
  • human health.
  • Increased energy requirement and impact on
    climate sensitive industries and infrastructure.

13
Climate Change Indias Concern
  • The third assessment report of IPCC (IPCC 2000)
    projects that under the combined influence of
    GHGs and sulphate aerosols climate may warms
    globally by 1.4 to 5.80C by the next 100 years
  • Over the Indian region, the warming will be
    restricted to
  • 1.4 0.130C in 2020
  • 2.5 0.40C in 2050
  • 3.8 0.50C in 2080
  • Rainfall is projected to increase by 2 (2020) to
    7 (2080)
  • Sea level is projected to rise between 0.09 to
    0.88 m in the period 1990 to 2100
  • Extreme events such as excessive rain, flash
    floods, droughts, cyclones and forest fire are
    likely to increase.
  • The combined effect of climate change and
    increase in extreme events is expected to lead to
    significant impacts on water resources,
    agriculture, on food security, human health,
    habitat and fragile ecosystems like mangroves etc.

14
Climate Impacts on Rajasthan
  • The state of Rajasthan experiences an arid and
    semi-arid climate and is situated in the north
    western part of India.
  • Indias initial national communication, submitted
    to the UNFCCC projected that under climate change
    scenario 60 area of Rajasthan is likely to
    experience acute physical water scarce
    conditions.
  • 1987-88 and 2002-2003 were the severest ones so
    far.

15
Addressing Climate Change
  • The possible options are
  • Mitigation of climate change through domestic
    actions by developed countries signatories to KP
    and through mechanisms like CDM
  • Adaptation to climate change, by vulnerable
    communities for increasing their coping capacity
    and resilience

16
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
  • The purpose of CDM is to
  • assist developing countries in achieving
    sustainable development
  • contribute to the ultimate objective of the
    Convention i.e. stabilisation of greenhouse gas
    concentration in the atmosphere at a level that
    would prevent dangerous anthropogenic
    interference with the climate system, and
  • assist developed countries in achieving
    compliance with their Quantified Emission
    Limitation and Reduction commitments (QELRCs)

17
How does CDM work
  • To be taken from IGES document

18
CFCs 11 and 12
CARBON DIOXIDE
OTHER CFCs
NITROUS OXIDE
METHANE
The contribution from each of the human-made
greenhouse gases to the change in radiative
forcing from 1980 to 1990. The contribution from
ozone may also be significant, but cannot be
quantified at present
19
Climate Change Convention
  • Objectives of the UNFCCC
  • To achieve stabilisation of GHG concentrations in
    the atmosphere at a level that would prevent
    dangerous anthropogenic interference with the
    climate system
  • Such a level should be achieved within a
    time-frame to
  • to ensure food production is not threatened, and
  • to enable economic development to proceed in a
    sustainable manner

20
Climate Change Convention
During the June92 Earth Summit at Rio de Janerio
representatives of 154 countries signed the UN
Framework Convention on Climate change
  • The UNFCCC came into force on March 21, 1994. As
    on CoP 9 (at Milan, Italy December, 2003) there
    are at present 188 Parties to the Convention.

21
Addressing Global Warming and Climate Change
  • The possible options are
  • Mitigation of climate change
  • Adaptation to climate change

22
UNFCCC Developing Countries Perspective
  • The Climate Change Convention is not merely for
    the stabilisation of the concentration of GHGs in
    the atmosphere
  • poverty eradication and
  • economic and social development
  • in the developing countries, are also central,
    though implicit in the Convention

23
BENEFITS THAT INDIA EXPECTS FROM CDM PROJECT
ACTIVITIES ARE
  • Capacity building in project development and
    implementation
  • Social development, economic development,
    environment protection and technological
    development and transfer, leading to the
    realisation of sustainable development and to
    address to Indias main agenda poverty
    eradication and better quality of life to people
  • Additional foreign investments
  • A share of CERs
  • A cleaner path for rapid economic development

24
PARTICIPATION REQUIREMENTS OF A DEVELOPING
COUNTRY PARTY
  • According to Marrakesh Accords, participation
    requirements of a developing country Party (e.g.
    India) in the CDM Process are
  • Voluntary
  • A Party not included in Annex I may participate
    in a CDM project activity if it is a Party to the
    Kyoto Protocol, and
  • Have set up a Designated National Authority (DNA)

25
Enabling Environment for CDM in India
  • Indias ratification of the Kyoto Protocol
  • Designated National Authority (DNA) in place
  • GoIs endorsement of a number of CDM Projects so
    far
  • Enabling environment was further strengthened by
    hosting the COP 8 at New Delhi, Prime Minister of
    Indias address at COP8 and Delhi Declaration

26
ADDRESSING GHG MITIGATION IN INDIA
  • Focus of the abatement strategy is CO2 emissions
    reductions in the energy sector and forestry
    sectors and CH4 emissions reduction in the
    agriculture sector
  • Mitigation Options in the energy sector
    identified are
  • improvements in energy efficiency through
    upgrading currently employed technologies and
  • introduction of advanced technologies that are
    more efficient
  • use of renewable energy sources wherever feasible
    to bring down the carbon content of the grid, to
    provide sustainable energy, and as a
    decentralised energy source at remote areas

27
Focus of the Present Orientation Workshop and
Expectations
  • Focus
  • Initiate a process and bring different
    stakeholders from state and country level to a
    common platform for raising awareness and build
    capacity on the clean development mechanism,
    particularly in the small scale sector such as
    brick, rice mill, hotel and small scale renewable
    energy project activities as defined under the
    Marrakech Accords (CoP7) and recent CDM executive
    board modalities and procedures on small scale
    CDM.

28
Focus of the Present Orientation Workshop and
Expectations
  • Expectation
  • This orientation workshop under IGES and CCC, DA
    initiatives will lead to a three year CDM
    capacity building programme amongst the different
    stakeholders in India.
  • Assist Project Developers to initiate CDM project
    activity in their respective sectors.
  • Facilitate to develop, design and implement a
    number of CDM projects under the small scale
    sector and strengthen learning processes by doing
  • Assist in achieving sustainable development
    objectives
  • Assist in the mitigation and adaptation to
    climate change, poverty eradication and rural
    development in the longer term to address to
    poverty eradication and providing better quality
    of life to all.

29
NGO INITIATIVES CLIMATE CHANGE CENTRE,
DEVELOPMENT ALTERNATIVES
  • Among the NGOs, Development Alternatives has set
    up a Climate Change Centre
  • Activities of the Climate Change Centre are
    categorised under three broad heads
  • A. Research
  • Development of methodologies
  • Analysis and determination of baselines
  • Analysis and documentation of experience and
    lessons learned worldwide for capacity building
  • Quantified indicators of sustainability for CDM
    projects

(Contd...)
30
NGO INITIATIVES CLIMATE CHANGE CENTRE,
DEVELOPMENT ALTERNATIVES (Contd)
  • B. Facilitations
  • Project formulation
  • Approval process
  • Identification of partners and technologies
  • Providing linkages to reduce transaction costs
  • Assisting in negotiations
  • C. Outreach and Awareness
  • Organising regional workshops on CDM project
    development
  • Participation in CoPs,
  • Closely interacting with Govt. and Industry on
    issues on climate change, CDM etc. particularly
    on policy analysis and operational issues
  • Bringing out publications, research papers /
    articles

31
Initiatives taken by the Various Stakeholders in
India can be further Reinforced by proactive role
of financial institutions
  • Finance being one of the main hurdles in the
    promotion of Renewable Energy, a proactive role
    with well defined programmes of the Financial
    Institutions may considerably help in
    accelerating promotion of RETs in the rural
    development through CDM
  • By internationally agreeing to a minimum price of
    per tonne of CO2 reduced particularly through
    small scale CDM activities
  • Minimising transaction costs / upfront costs

32
CONCLUSION
  • Clean Development Mechanism
  • catalyses sustainable development in longer term
  • promote international co-operation in mitigation
    of climate change in short as well as longer term
  • increase resilience and coping capacity of
    communities through increased sustainable
    livelihoods and other tools for adaptation to
    climate change
  • narrow the gap between the haves and have nots in
    longer term
  • may lead to equitable distribution of resources
    in longer term
  • will address to rural development and poverty
    eradication in India in the longer term

To speed up the process of CDM in India and to
encourage different stakeholders, GoI may
introduce a concept of CARBON RESERVE by
banking carbon reduced or sequestered in line
with Indias gold reserve and foreign exchange
reserve as a part of Indias climate change
policy in the longer term.
33
Thank you
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