Ancient Rome - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Ancient Rome PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 6d97f9-OGYzM


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Ancient Rome


Roman Military - HRSBSTAFF Home Page ... Ancient Rome – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:166
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 71
Provided by: WINX92


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome
Roman Military
  • The army was organized into legions.
  • Each legion had 5000 men.
  • Each legion had a leader, a banner, a number. a
  • Each legion was broken into fighting cohorts of
    480 men.

Roman Military
  • Cohorts were divided into centuries.
  • a centurion was in charge of 80 ordinary soldiers
    called legionaries.
  • Each troop of about 80 legionaries was called a
  • There were 59 centuries in a legion and 30
    legions in the Roman army.
  • There were other soldiers called auxiliaries who
    included the cavalry.
  • Centuries were divided into contubernium of eight
    men sharing one tent.
  • Colors were shown to distinguish ranks.

Roman Military
  • Eight men One Contubernium
  • Ten Contubernium One Century (80 men)
  • Two centuries One Maniple (160 men)
  • Six Centuries One Cohort (480 men)
  • Ten Cohorts A legion (6000 men)

Roman Military

Roman Military
  • Gaius Marius changed the military from farmers
    to a standing army.
  • Roman soldiers had to be tough.
  • Marius Mules.
  • Tortoise.

Roman Military
  • The Roman Army was made up of men from allover
    the Empire, no women were allowed to join. These
    men were professional soldiers whose only job was
    to fight and defend Rome. (Standing Army)
  • Initially only property owners such as farmers
    could serve in the army, but from the 1st century
    B.C.onwards anybody could join.
  • Each legionary served for 25 years. After
    serving in the ranks, they serves as a verteranus
    (a reserve soldier). If they lived through their
    service, they could retire. They were given land
    and a pension (gratuity fixed sum of money) so
    that they live comfortably. The land they were
    given was located in the provinces. This was very
    clever of Rome. It gave their retired military
    men a place to call home that they would defend.
    This system placed loyal military men all over
    the provinces. 

(No Transcript)
The Republic Fails
  • Rome needed tax money
  • pay the legions
  • build roads, sewers, aqueducts, and arenas.
  • welfare program to feed the poor in Rome. To get
    this tax money, Rome used tax farmers.
  • Tax collectors Corrupt practices.
  • If you did not pay the taxes you owed, you could
    be sold into slavery.
  • Tax collectors were powerful people under the

The Republic Fails
  • Under the Republic, elected officials used their
    positions to get rich.
  • Citizens paid money to elected officials

The Republic Fails
  • Under the Republic, Rome did not have a police
  • Rome was not a safe place after dark
  • Vigilantly Groups Arose

  • Brainpop
  • Rise of the Roman Empire
  • Video Clip on Caesar
  • http//

First Triumvirate
  • Political alliance between Julius Caesar, Pompey
    Crassus. The rule of three men.
  • Caesar a great military leader, was famous
    amongst the masses he spent a lot of money in
    their behalf. He organized spectacular public
    games and gave gifts of food.
  • Crassus was a military hero and the richest man
    in Rome
  • Pompey was a military hero.
  • Caesar held the positions of consul and general

Julius Caesar
  • Consul, tribune of the people, high commander of
    the army, and high priest (Pontifex Maximus)
  • In Gaul, he wrote Commentaries on the Gallic
    Wars, which made him known as a great military
  • While Caesar was fighting in Gaul, Crassus was
    fighting in Persia and was killed. Pompey ruled
    Rome almost as a dictator.
  • He suggested new laws, most of which were
    approved by the Senate. He reorganized the army.
    He improved the way the provinces were governed.
    The Romans even named a month after him, the
    month of July for Julius Caesar.

Julius Caesar
  • JC convinced Romans that he could do a better
  • Crime
  • Corruption
  • Taxes
  • Expansion
  • All could be improved under his leadership!

Julius Caesar
  • Senate feared JC
  • Senate said no to return to Monarchy (500 years
  • Took steps to stop him!

Julius Caesar
  • Caesar ordered to disband army and forbidden to
    cross the Rubicon River.
  • One of the laws of the original Twelve Tables was
    that no general could enter the city with his
    army. Julius Caesar ignored this law. 
  •  In 49 BCE, he entered Rome and took over the
  • Most were glad.
  • The people called him "father of the homeland.
     The Senate was furious. 
  • Pompey escaped to Egypt where he was murdered,
    thus ending the 1st triumvirate.

Julius Caesar
  • Caesar defeated the republican forces. Pompey,
    their leader, fled to Egypt where he was
    assassinated. Caesar followed him and became
    involved with the Egyptian queen, Cleopatra.
  • Caesar was now master of Rome and made himself
    consul and dictator.
  • He used his power to carry out much-needed
    reform, relieving debt, enlarging the senate,
    building the Forum and revising the calendar.
  • Strong leader
  • improved lives
  • made laws to help the poor
  • created new jobs
  • gave citizenship to more people

Julius Caesar
  • Dictatorship was a temporary position
  • 44 BC, Caesar took it for life.
  • A group of senators led by Cassius and Brutus,
    assassinated Caesar on the Ides (15) of March 44
  • Beware the Ides of March!!

Spartacus - Gladiator Slave
  • Led a slave revolt
  • Trained as a gladiator
  • 1/3 of people in Rome were slaves
  • 100,000 joined the revolt
  • Hunted down
  • Patricians feared an end to their lifestyle.
  • Eventually revolt was stopped1

  • BULLA Children wore a special locket around
    their neck, given to them at birth, called a

  • Romance Language A language that developed in
    an area that had been part of the Roman Empire,
    such as French, Spanish and Italian
  • Vernacular Everyday language of the people

  • He attempted to provide a year-by-year account of
    Romes developing power.
  • This account was called the Annales
  • It was in verse to make it easier to remember

  • a famous Roman statesman. (lawyer)
  • in politics at the same time as JC.
  • served in the Senate.
  • served as elected Consul, the highest position in
    government under the Republic.
  • He was a wonderful speaker
  • "Kings can be wise and just. But rule by one
    person can easily become tyranny." 

  • When Julius Caesar entered the city of Rome with
    his army, and declared himself dictator, Cicero
  • His action was in direct violation of the
    principals of a constitutional republic." 
  • When Julius Caesar was assassinated, Cicero was
  • he was not one of Julius Caesar's attackers.

  • Cicero lived at time when Rome was changing from
    a constitutional republic to a dictatorship,
    ruled by emperors.
  • Cicero fought in the way he knew best, with words
    and speeches, about the importance of keeping a
    constitutional government.
  • Rome became ruled by an all-powerful emperor,
    Cicero fled Rome.
  • Fled Rome .captured murdered!  

  • In the 500 years Rome was an Empire, there were
    over 140 different emperors!Some emperors were
    good. Some emperors were bad. Some were just
    plain crazy. 

Second Triumvirate
  • Alliance between Octavian (Caesars adopted son),
    Marc Antony Lepidus
  • They divided up the republic
  • Octavian took the West
  • Antony took the East
  • Lepidus took Africa
  • Octavian attacked Antony in the Battle of Actium.
    Antony had befriended Cleopatra, who Rome did
    not trust
  • Antony Cleopatra fled and committed suicide.

  • Caesars grand-nephew, Octavian, became dictator
    in 27 B.C. He changed his name to Augustus,
    respected one or revered one.
  • Augustus was the first true emperor of Rome. He
    was given the title Princeps 1st citizen or
    first amongst equals.
  • The Augustan period is known as the Principate.
  • Under the leadership of Augustus, the following
    things were accomplished
  • laws gave citizens more rights
  • a census (a count of the countrys people)
  • - professional army
  • Roads were built
  • New government buildings (basilicas), temples,
    libraries, and public
  • baths were built.
  • The aqueduct system was constructed.
  • Police force vigils, who were freed slaves

An Ancient Roman Epic - The Aeneid
  • heroic deeds of Prince Aeneas
  • The Aeneid, written by the great Roman poet,
    Virgil (official poet of the Emperor Augustus).
  • About the fall of Troy  founding of Rome by
    Romulus and Remus, twin sons of the war god
  • survivors of the city of Troy. 

  • Was a poet who used his gifts to applaud the
    benefits of peace, Augustan rule and the Roman
  • He wrote Odes.

  • Brainpop
  • Pax Romana

  • Augustus, the first Roman emperor, ruled for 45
  • It was during the reign of Augustus that people
    got used to being ruled by one leader..
  • This period is the beginning of the Pax Romana,
    or Roman Peace.
  • The phrase "Roman Peace" is a bit misleading. The
    Romans continued to expand their empire during
    this period. They did not always do so
  • Things were not always peaceful in the city of
    Rome. Rome did not always have the best
    leadership. Some emperors were very cruel. Some
    were insane..
  • The Romans were great builders.

  • Caligula Declared himself a god and tried to
    have his horse made a senator
  • Claudius Became an excellent ruler following
    Caligulas death and was chosen by the Praetorian
    Guard (A special palace guard who policed Rome.)
  • Vespasian Changed the system of hereditary
    succession to the throne. As the emperor before
    him, Nero, had no heirs.
  • Marcus Aurelius Had a humanitarian approach to
    government, which helped unify the empire.
  • Theodosius Last Roman Emperor

  • insane emperor
  • murdered his own mother and wife and poisoned
    Caligulas son.
  • great fire in Rome.
  • blamed the Christians and ordered many of them to
    be tied to poles and set on fire to light his
  • He spent most of his time staging plays and
    musical events.
  • The leaders of Rome in the Senate wanted to do
    something about it, but they were afraid. It was
    not until Nero ordered some of the members of the
    Senate to kill themselves that they finally took
  • The Senate ordered Nero's immediate execution.
    When Nero heard about it, he killed himself.

Trajan Hadrian
  • Trajan was the first Roman emperor who was not
    from Italy. He was Spanish. He was a great
    conqueror. Under his rule, the empire grew and
    covered more geography than at any other time.
  • Hadrian was Trajans adopted son.
  • He consolidated the Empire by taking making many
    trips across the empire.
  • His famous monuments are
  • Villa at Tivoli
  • Hadrians wall
  • The Pantheon

Villa at Tivoli
Hadrians wall
The Grand Pantheon
  • The Grand Pantheon was a temple first built in
    the very early days of the Roman Empire.
  • It was dedicated to all the Roman gods.
  • The Romans used concrete (an ancient Roman
    invention) to build the dome of the Pantheon,
    which even today is still one of the largest
    single-span domes in the world.
  • The construction of this building greatly
    influenced western architecture. 

The Baths
  • The Public Baths were extremely popular.
  • Roman women and men visited the baths daily.
  • hot and cold pools, towels, slaves to wait on
    you, steam rooms, saunas, exercise rooms, and
    hair cutting salons.
  • reading rooms and libraries, as among the
    freeborn, who had the right to frequent baths,
    the majority could read.
  • had stores, sold everything even fast food.
  • arranged like a very large mall, with bathing

Thermae (Baths)
  • a system to carry water from place to place

Improvements under the Empire
  • Other changes included   
  • Establishment of Public Health Programs
  • The government created new public health
    programs. One program distributed free bread to
    workmen on their way to work in the morning. 

Improvements under the Empire
  • Reduction in Crime Under the empire, the Roman
    legionnaires policed Rome's streets.
  • Improvements for Women
  • During the Empire, it was legal for women to own
    land, run businesses, free slaves, make wills,
    inherit wealth, and get a paid job. Women could
    even use the public baths. There were separate
    hours for men and women, but women were allowed
    inside. These were all new privileges. 

Improvements under the Empire
  • Public Theatre Under the empire, Rome built huge
    theatres. Plays were no longer performed only in
    the Forum. Admission was free.
  • Free Spectacles The government constructed other
    huge public buildings and improved open-air
    facilities. These were used to host  events
    called spectacles. Chariot racing was held in the
    Circus Maximus. The Colosseum hosted the
    gladiator games. Admission to spectacles was

  • Amphi-theatres are "theatres in the round"
    amphi- means "around" in Greek.
  • An amphitheatre is for action it's a sports
    arena, where the spectators sit around the field.
    They need to see, but they don't really need to
    hear, so an amphitheatre can be much larger.

The Colosseum
  • The Colosseum was a huge public entertainment
  • The Colosseum could seat 50,000 spectators.
  • Admission was free. 

  • Roman gladiators were trained in mortal combat, a
    form of public entertainment in ancient Rome.
  • The word gladiator comes from the Latin word
    gladius (sword).
  • Wealthy or important Romans often asked for
    funeral games to be held in their honor.
  • The popularity of the games grew and spread
    throughout the Roman empire. Eventually
    gladiatorial games became lavish public
    entertainments, especially after the Coliseum in
    Rome opened
  • Roman gladiators were usually convicted
    criminals, slaves, or prisoners of war.
  • Many gladiators came from the lands Rome had

  • Some gladiators who managed to survive the fierce
    fighting became famous or even wealthy.
  • Gladiators went through intense training and were
    taught complex moves so they could better
    entertain the audience.
  • Gladiators were supposed to fight to the death,
    but if they fought extremely well the crowd could
    decide to spare both fighters. The crowd voted by
    showing thumbs up or thumbs down although
    whether or not thumbs up meant life has not
    been verified.

  • Ave, Imperator, morituri te salutamus
  • (Hail, Emperor, we who are about to die, salute
  • As Christianity spread and the power of the Roman
    Empire declined, the appeal of the games
  • In 326 C.E. Constantine began the process of
    abolishing gladiator games. In 400 C.E.
  • Emperor Honorius banned gladiators forever.

Circus Maximus
  • The ancient Romans loved chariot racing.
  • It could seat over 250,000 people!
  • Admission was free.
  • Anyone could attend the races, including Rome's
    poor. There were races every day. It was the
    height of success to race in the Circus Maximus. 

  •  an ancient Roman city, buried by a volcanic
  • 2000 years later, archaeologists uncovered the
  • they found petrified bread still in the ovens
    that had been baking that day.
  • Archaeologists learned a great deal from the
    ruins of this ancient city because it had been so
    well preserved.

(No Transcript)
  • Romes Greatest Historian
  • He was financial minister, elected Praetor,
  • The Histories and the Annals.
  • He set the standard for historical research and
    writing for the rest of the Western Roman Empire.
  • He believed that it was the historians job to get
    to the objective truth and not have bias.

(No Transcript)
  • Roman slaves were 1/3 of the population
  • Slaves were used in almost every aspect of human
    activity builders, gladiators etc.
  • Lowest order of slaves were the outside workers
  • Highest order of slaves worked inside
  • Manumission is when a slave can buy their own
    freedom or a deceased owners will frees them.

  • Promoted to Emperor by his fellow soldiers in the
    Praetorian Guard.
  • Divided the empire into 2 parts East and West

The Roman Empire is Split into Two Pieces
  • Empire covered most of Europe, most of North
    Africa, and some of Asia. That created problems. 
  • One problem was that it was getting difficult to
    manage the empire effectively.

The Roman Empire is Split into Two Pieces
  • Emperor Diocletian split the empire in half.
  • The Western Roman Empire (Europe/North Africa)
    included the city of Rome. 
  • The Eastern Roman Empire (Turkey/parts of Asia)
    included the city of Byzantium.  
  • Rather than rule Rome, Diocletian chose to rule
    the Eastern Roman Empire.  Before he left town,
    Emperor Diocletian moved a great deal of Rome's
    money over to the Eastern Roman Empire. He left
    Rome forever.

  • Constantine Constantine was the first Christian
    Roman emperor. 
  • He lived in the Eastern Roman Empire, and chose
    his capital to be the small town Byzantium, which
    he renamed Constantinople.
  • The western side of the empire, which included
    the city of Rome, became less and less important
    to the Eastern Roman Empire.
  • Byzantium was located in a perfect position to
    trade with the east and the west.
  • Rather than send traded goods onto to Rome,
    Constantine kept most of the goods in his own
    half of the empire.
  • As well, he pulled monies from Rome to support
    and build Constantinople.

Rise of Christianity
  • During the first century CE, a new religion took
    hold in Rome. It was called Christianity.
  • Christians believed in one God.
  • They refused to worship the Roman gods. In
    ancient Rome, that was against the law.
    Christians were hunted as criminals.  
  • In spite of persecution, Christians grew in
    numbers rapidly. Christians actively looked for
    converts. They told others about the benefits of
    being Christian. Christians came from every walk
    of life in ancient Rome, but Christianity had
    great appeal to Rome's poor.  
  • Life After Death
  • Equality

Rise of Christianity
  • After nearly 300 years of persecution, in 313 CE,
    Emperor Constantine ruled that Christianity was
    legal and that Christians would no longer be
  • This does not mean that Rome finally had
    religious freedom. It meant only that it was now
    legal to worship Roman gods or to be Christian.
    Every other religion was still illegal. The lack
    of religious freedom in ancient Rome contributed
    to the fall of the Roman Empire. 

(No Transcript)
  • Brainpop
  • Fall of the Roman Empire

Valens The Barbarians
  • Huns, Franks, Vandals, Saxons, and Visigoths.

Valens The Barbarians
  • The Western Roman Empire fell into the Dark Ages
    in 476 CE.
  • The Eastern Roman Empire, its capital
    Constantinople, continued for another thousand

Review of the Fall of Rome
  • 476 AD FALL OF ROME 
  • First a monarchy, then a republic, then an empire
    all roads led to Rome for over 1200 years.
  • In the Mediterranean, Rome was in charge.
  • During the Imperial period, Rome had some
    wonderful emperors. Rome also suffered from a
    series of bad, corrupt and just plain crazy
  • There were lots of reasons why Rome fell. 

Review of the Fall of Rome
  • Problems towards the end of the Empire included
  • The empire was too large to govern effectively.
  • The army was not what it used to be. There was
    corruption in the military - dishonest generals
    and non-Roman soldiers.
  • Civil wars broke out between different political
  • Emperors were often selected by violence, or by
    birth, so the head of government was not always a
    capable leader.
  • The increased use of slaves put many Romans out
    of work
  • The rich became lazy and showed little interest
    in trying to solve Rome problems.
  • The poor were overtaxed and overworked. They were
    very unhappy.
  • Prices increased, trade decreased.
  • The population was shrinking due to starvation
    and disease. That made it difficult to manage
    farms and government effectively.
  • The Empire starting shrinking. The Huns,
    Visigoths, Franks, Vandals, Saxons and other
    barbarian tribes overran the empire.

Review of the Fall of Rome
  • The Western Roman Empire did not do well. Instead
    of getting stronger, they became weaker. By 400
    AD, it was pretty much over.
  • The Huns, Franks, Vandals, Saxons, Visigoths
    any of these barbarian tribes might have been the
    group that finally brought Rome down.
  • They were all attacking various pieces of the
    Western Roman Empire. In 476 AD, the Visigoths
    sacked Rome. Europe entered the Dark Ages. 
  • The eastern half of the Roman Empire received a
    new name the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantine
    Empire did fine. It lasted for another 1000