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Ecology - study of the interactions between living things and their surroundings.

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Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: McDougal Littell Last modified by: Hollie Rak Created Date: 9/14/2006 4:17:10 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ecology - study of the interactions between living things and their surroundings.


1
Ecology - study of the interactions between
living things and their surroundings.
2
Levels of Organization
  • Biosphere
  • Ecosystem
  • Community
  • Population
  • Organism

3
Biosphere
  • The portion of earth that supports life
  • Extends from the lower atmosphere to the bottom
    of oceans
  • Supports diverse array of organisms and wide
    range of climates

4
  • An ecosystem/biome - all of the living and
    nonliving things in a given area (climate, soil,
    water, rocks).

5
Earth has six major biomes.
6
Community
  • All the different species that live in the same
    place at the same time.
  • Example
  • Forest community
  • Flowers, bushes, trees, snakes, frogs, birds,
    squirrels, deer, etc

7
Population
  • A group of one species, which interbreed and live
    in the same place at the same time.
  • Example
  • Population of bullfrogs in Jackson Bog

8
  • An organism - individual living thing, ex
    alligator.

9
Why does the Earth have Deserts?
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vT6Us1sPXBfAlistPL
    ElB7nLNHZvhSor-RW0mv1FE_IDi9ZuiAindex6

10
13.2 Biotic and Abiotic Factors
KEY CONCEPT Every ecosystem includes both living
and nonliving factors.
11
13.2 Biotic and Abiotic Factors
  • Abiotic factors are nonliving things.
  • moisture
  • temperature
  • wind
  • sunlight
  • Soil
  • Not constant (always changing)

12
Biotic Factors
13.2 Biotic and Abiotic Factors
  • Living components of the environment

13
13.2 Biotic and Abiotic Factors
  • A keystone species is a species that has an
    unusually large effect on its ecosystem.

14
16.3 Water Quality
13.2 Biotic and Abiotic Factors
  • Indicator species provide a sign of an
    ecosystems health.
  • amphibians
  • top predators

15
Producers provide energy for other organisms in
an ecosystem.
13.3 Energy in Ecosystems
  • autotrophs - make their own food.

16
Almost all producers obtain energy from sunlight.
13.3 Energy in Ecosystems
  • Photosynthesis
  • Chemosynthesis produce energy from chemicals

17
Measuring productivity
13.3 Energy in Ecosystems
  • Gross primary productivity rate at which
    producers capture E
  • Biomass organic material in an ecosystem
  • Only E stored as biomass is available to other
    organisms in the ecosystem

18
Consumers are organisms that get their energy by
eating other living or once-living resources.
13.3 Energy in Ecosystems
  • heterotrophs

19
13.3 Energy in Ecosystems
  • Herbivores eat producers
  • Carnivores eat other consumers
  • Omnivores eat both producers and consumers
  • Detritivores feed on the garbage of an
    ecosystem

20
A food chain is a model that shows a single chain
of consumers within an ecosystem.
13.4 Food Chains and Food Webs
  • arrows point in the direction that energy flows

21
A food web - interrelated food chains in an
ecosystem
13.4 Food Chains and Food Webs
22
Fly Factory turns Waste into Food
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vak0pOxhGDqMlistUU
    zWQYUVCpZqtN93H8RR44Qwindex6

23
Energy Flow
13.4 Food Chains and Food Webs
  • moves from producers to consumers
  • Trophic level indicates the organisms position
    in the sequence of energy transfers
  • Producers 1st trophic level
  • Herbivores 2nd trophic level
  • Predators of herbivores 3rd trophic level

24
Quantity of Energy Transfers
13.4 Food Chains and Food Webs
  • 10 of the total E consumed in one trophic level
    is incorporated into the organism in the next
    level
  • E is used to maintain body T, to move, etc.
  • E is lost when organisms escape being eaten
  • decomposer return their E to the lower trophic
    levels
  • E is lost in parts of the organism that can not
    be broken down by the predator
  • bones, teeth, hair

25
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26
An energy pyramid shows the distribution of
energy among trophic levels.
13.4 Food Chains and Food Webs
  • Higher trophic levels contain less energy
  • support fewer individuals

27
Biomagnification - accumulation of toxins in the
food chain.
16.3 Water Quality
13.4 Food Chains and Food Webs
  • Pollutants move up the food chain.
  • predators eat contaminated prey
  • Top consumers (humans) are most affected.
  • DDT- Birds of prey

28
Species Interactions
13.4 Food Chains and Food Webs
  • Predation
  • Predator captures, kills, and consumes prey
  • Influences where and how species live by
    determining their relationship in the food web
  • Regulates population size
  • Natural selection favors adaptations that improve
    the efficiency of predators at finding,
    capturing, and consuming prey
  • Natural selection favors adaptations for prey to
    avoid, escape, or otherwise ward off predators

29
13.4 Food Chains and Food Webs
30
13.4 Food Chains and Food Webs
  • Natural selection of plants has favored
    adaptations that protect them from being eaten
  • Thorns, sticky hairs, tough leaves
  • Chemical defenses (secondary compounds)
  • Strychnine, nicotine, poison ivy
  • May also have medicinal uses codeine, morphine

31
Parasitism one individual is harmed (host)
while the other benefits (parasite)
13.4 Food Chains and Food Webs
  • Does not usually result in the immediate death of
    the host

32
13.4 Food Chains and Food Webs
  • Ectoparasite external parasites do not enter
    hosts body
  • Ticks, fleas, lice, leeches, mosquitoes
  • Endoparasite internal parasite live inside
    host
  • Disease causing bacteria, protists, tapeworm
  • Affect the health and reproduction of the host
  • Stimulates evolution of defenses in hosts
  • Tough skin chemically defended openings
  • eyes-tears
  • mouth-saliva
  • nose-mucus

33
Natural selection favors adaptations that allow a
parasite to efficiently attack host
13.4 Food Chains and Food Webs
  • Specialized anatomically
  • Mouth parts
  • and Physiologically
  • Body chemistry to survive different environments
    etc.

34
The Most Horrifying Parasites!
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vulK9XUd_hh8

35
Competition
13.4 Food Chains and Food Webs
  • The use of a limited resource by 2 or more
    species
  • Types
  • Intraspecific- competition between organisms of
    the same species
  • Interspecific- competition between 2 or more
    different species of organisms

36
Competitive Exclusion
13.4 Food Chains and Food Webs
  • one species is eliminated from a community
  • Natural selection favors differences between
    potential competitors character displacement

37
Resource Partitioning
13.4 Food Chains and Food Webs
  • Organisms divide resources
  • Adaptations allow for use of resources in
    different ways or at different times
  • Examples
  • Diurnal vs. Nocturnal

38
Mutualism
13.4 Food Chains and Food Webs
  • Cooperative relationship in which both species
    benefit
  • Some relationships are so close that neither
    species can survive without the other
  • Ex pollination

39
Symbiosis A Surprising Tale of Species
Cooperation
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v2AM3ARs9MMglistPL
    JicmE8fK0Ehrg3meytY7DT8LJiwuU3Thindex170

40
Commensalism
13.4 Food Chains and Food Webs
  • Interaction in which one species benefits and the
    other is not affected

41
Niche -Role of a species in its environment (Job)
14.1 Habitat and Niche
  • Types
  • Fundamental- ideal absence of competition
  • Realized- natural competition and other
    constraints

42
Generalist vs. Specialist
14.1 Habitat and Niche
  • Broad niche
  • Tolerate variety of resources and conditions
  • Example
  • raccoons
  • Narrow niche
  • Very specific adaptations
  • Example
  • Koalas

43
A habitat is all aspects of the area in which an
organism lives.
14.1 Habitat and Niche
  • biotic factors
  • abiotic factors
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