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Balanced Literacy GUIDED READING: Expanding on instruction Grades K-2


Balanced Literacy GUIDED READING: Expanding on instruction Grades K-2 FLEX Workshop for 2008-09 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Balanced Literacy GUIDED READING: Expanding on instruction Grades K-2

Balanced Literacy GUIDED READING Expanding
on instruction Grades K-2
FLEX Workshop for 2008-09
Overview of Workshop
  1. Quick review of Components of Balanced Literacy
  2. Guided Reading Strategy instruction and
  3. Guided Reading Guidelines and procedures
  4. Viewing and reflection

Components of Comprehensive Balanced Literacy
Independent Reading
Shared Reading
Read Aloud
Guided Reading
Guided Writing
Independent Writing
Shared/modeled Writing
Word Work
Guided Reading
Guided Reading
  • Guided Reading is a context in which a teacher
    supports each readers development of effective
    strategies for processing texts at increasingly
    challenging levels of difficulty.
  • Some teacher support is needed
  • The reader problem solves a new text in a way
    that is mostly independent and at their
    instructional level
  • The teacher informally assesses students use of
    strategies and skills.
  • Guided Reading Fountas and Pinnell

Its about differentiation
  • - Differentiation matches student learning needs
    to instruction and assessment. Teachers adjust
    the teaching process, content, and product to
    allow students access to the same classroom
  • - Guided Reading is one of the most powerful
    instructional tools we have to adjust for student
    reading needs. It assures that students read
    regularly at their instructional level the
    level at which there is just the right amount of
    challenge for the student to practice new skills
    and strategies.

Why Strategies???
  • Activity Read Salvador, Late or Early
  • Discuss
  • What kind of person is Salvador? What makes you
    think that?
  • Did you relate to this story? In what ways?
  • Why do you think the author wrote the story?
  • Discuss
  • What did you do during reading to help you

Strategies Good Readers Use
  • Use Decoding/Phonics
  • Self-Correct
  • Make and Confirm Predictions
  • Create Mental Images
  • Self-Question
  • Summarize
  • Read Ahead
  • Reread to Clarify
  • Use Picture Clues and Context to Confirm Meaning
  • Use Text Structure and Format
  • Adjust Reading Rate
  • Make Inferences
  • Sequence and Summarize

Kindergarten Skills
Letters and sounds Same and different Title, author, illustrator Matching speech to text Concept of word Words/ words in a sentence Making connections/Comparing texts Questions and answers Story characters Setting Sentences are made of words Following directions Categorizing Action words/ naming words Text patterns Main idea/details Beginning, middle, end Summarize Making judgments Picture details/cues Syllables in words Sequence Real/make believe Problem/solution Making predictions Rhyming words Drawing conclusions Retelling Visualizing Using prior knowledge Making inferences Fact/fantasy Cause and effect

Focus Skills
Grade 1 Sequence Predict Outcomes Details Draw Conclusions Setting Cause and Effect Character Fact/Fiction Alphabetize Classify/Categorize Fantasy/Reality Plot Main Idea Grade 2 Main Idea Authors Purpose Narrative Elements ( setting/ Characters) Compare and Contrast Sequence Predict Outcomes Synonyms Details Reading Diagrams Fact and fiction Make Inferences Cause and Effect Antonyms Narrative Elements (Plot) Multiple Meaning Words Summarize/Restate Locate Information Homophones
Focus Skills
Grade 3 Prefixes and Suffixes Main Idea/Detail Decode Long Words Compare/Contrast Locate Information Sequence Fact and Opinion Summarize Cause and Effect Elements of Non-Fiction Authors Purpose Word Relationship Grade 4 Narrative Elements Prefixes and Suffixes Cause and Effect Draw Conclusions Sequence Locate Information Elements of Non-Fiction Text Structure Word Relationships Main Ideas and Details Summarize Fact and Opinion Authors Purpose Compare/Contract
Focus Skills
Grade 5 Prefixes and Suffixes Cause and Effect Graphic Aides Compare/Contrast Connotation/Denotation Narrative Elements Fact and Opinion Authors Perspective/Authors Purpose Summarize/Paraphrase Main Ideas/Details Grade 6 Prefixes and Suffixes Cause and Effect Authors Purpose/Authors Perspective Fact and Opinion Graphic Aids Literacy Devices Word Relationships Draw Conclusions Narrative Elements Main Ideas/Details
Skills and Strategies SKILLS STRATEGIES
Definition Automatic procedures that do not require thought, interpretation, or choice Definition Conscious plans under the control of the user, who must make decisions about which strategies to use and when to use them.
Instruction Stresses repeated practice until the skill becomes a habitual response to a particular task Instruction Stresses the reasoning and critical thinking process that readers undergo as they interact and comprehend text.
Example Word Recognition How to use word patterns How to use picture clues How to use context clues Example Word Recognition When to use word patterns When to use picture clues When to use context clues
Strategies yOUR TURN
  • 1. Choose a strategy table.
  • 2. Read the information in the packet at your
    table provided on that strategy
  • 3. As a table, create a visual representation on
    chart paper to represent the teaching/learning of
    the strategy. Be sure to assign a recorder,
    reporter, timekeeper, and researchers.
  • 4. You may want to consider a kinesthetic/visual
    representation (cue) of the strategy
  • (refer to article in packet).
  • 5. Report Out

  • The major difference, then, between skills
    teaching and strategy teaching concerns the
    presence or absence of self-direction on the part
    of the learner.
  • Don Holdaway

Guided Reading Supports the Path To Independence
Guided Reading
The Reading Instruction Pyramid Another Way to
Look at the Path to Independence
Shared Reading Large group strategy
instruction Modeling and demonstration
Guided Reading Guided Practice
Instructional-level text Flexible groups
Small, needs -based groups
Independent application Individual or
pairs Independent text
Source Lori Jamison
What are the Purposes of Guided Reading?
  • Observation of children as they practice new
    skills and strategies in a new text. Individual
    attention to a student to observe how the student
    uses the strategies and self corrects.
  • Practice of strategies so children can read
    increasingly difficult texts independently
  • Students actively apply good reading behaviors
    with teacher support by reading text just beyond
    what the child can read on his/her own, but not
    at the frustration level.
  • Provides a small group setting for the teacher to
    coach for reading strategies and evaluate a
    childs text processing and take running records
  • Provides opportunity for a teacher directed
    review of skills and strategies
  • Opportunity for students to interact in small

Grouping and Composition of the Group
  • 3-6 students
  • Determined by need of students. Fragile groups
    should be smaller.
  • Students reading at the same instructional level
    and exhibiting the same need.
  • Dynamic or fluid
  • Remain intact until the intended outcome is

  • 3 groups a day.
  • Fragile readers
  • Five days a week.
  • A minimum of three of those days should be for
    guided reading. The other two days could be for
    skill-based flex groups.
  • On-Level Readers
  • A minimum of two days should be for guided
    reading. The other three days could be for
    skill-based flex groups, as needed.
  • Above-Level Readers
  • Minimum of one day should be for guided reading.
  • The other days could be skill-based flex groups,
    as needed, literature circles, authentic
    application of literacy skills and strategies.
  • Students above grade level still need guided
    reading to learn how to scuba dive rather than

Guided Reading Grouping
If there are more than 5 students at a level
(below, on, above), create two groups. The
picture shows students of similar need divided
into smaller groups, if needed, for instruction.

A Below
B On
C Above
Lesson Frequency One Suggestion with Emphasis on
Guided Reading on Days 3,4,5
1 Flex
1 Flex
When to Begin Guided Reading Groups
  • Kindergarten
  • Guided Reading groups should begin in January.
  • In Kindergarten Guided Reading begins with one
    homogenous group of 4-6 children who
  • Demonstrate sufficient bottom power
  • Have the concepts of print in place
  • Know most of the letters and most of the sounds
  • Know some sight words
  • First Grade Begin by the end of October once
    rules, classroom procedures are in place, and
    baseline assessments have been administered.
  • Second through Sixth Grades Begin by the end
    of September once rules and classroom procedures,
    baseline assessments are in place.

  • Books Books for All Learners and Leveled Readers
  • Leveled Books Manual to use as a resource
  • Suggested Supplies
  • Sticky notes
  • Student reading journals
  • Pencils, highlighters or highlight tape
  • Strategies posters/ packet
  • Charts or bookmarkers for reference
  • Way to keep anecdotal notes

Time Recommendations
  • Kindergarten
  • 10 minutes
  • Grade 1
  • 10 15 minutes
  • Grades 2-6
  • 15 20 minutes

Where Do I Find Guided Reading in Trophies?
  • Look at the 5 Day Planner.
  • Find the sections labeled Books for All
  • Use the lesson plans on these pages to help guide
    your lesson planning, focusing on reinforcing
    skills and strategies.
  • You can also use the Intervention Readers during
    Guided Reading

A Framework for Guided Reading Lessons
  • 1. Identify students
  • 2. Determine lesson focus
  • 3. Select an Appropriate Text
  • 4. Introduce the Text and Set the Purpose
  • 5. Read the Text
  • 6. Discuss and Revisit the Text and Strategies
  • 7. Extending the Meaning of the Text or Word
    Work (Optional, or as needed)

The Reading Process and Guided Reading
  • Prepare students for reading Text Introduction
    Guided preview
  • Help students anticipate meaning Strategy
  • Guide students through the silent reading process
  • Help students realize meaning
  • Refocus students attention Discussion/strategy
  • Help students react to meaning responding
  • Word Work

Procedure for Guided Reading Groups
  • 1. Identify students
  • Students should be reading at approximately the
    same level or exhibit the same need.
  • 2. Determine lesson focus
  • The initial guided reading objective should be
    the focus skill and /or strategy from the
    Trophies weekly planner, anthology read aloud,
    and shared reading.
  • Previously taught skills / strategies are
    re-taught, reviewed, or extended. New skill /
    strategies should not be introduced.

Procedure for Guided Reading Groups
  • Select an Appropriate Text
  • Use Books for All Learners to support skills and
  • Using these books will shorten the time needed to
    prepare for reading, since the skills,
    strategies, vocabulary, and theme will match the
    lesson focus of the week.
  • On-line access to readers http//readers.eharcou
  • The books used in the Guided Reading lesson
    should be on the students instructional level,
    not their independent level.
  • He/she should have moderate challenge to
    practice the strategies. However, if the book is
    too difficult, the task of reading will be
    frustrating and not allow for practice of the
    skills and strategies.

Procedure for Guided Reading Groups
  • Introduce the Text and Set the Purpose
  • Review (from shared reading) background
    knowledge, vocabulary, skill/strategy.
  • Invite predictions a picture walk,
    particularly at the primary grades, will help to
    set the purpose of the story/text and
    review/implant vocabulary.
  • Focus attention on details of the text that will
    support students understanding of the text. For
    example, a non-fiction text will have headings
    and/or graphics.
  • Make predictions
  • Discuss strategy taught during shared reading
  • Encourage students to jot down questions,
    thoughts and/or ideas for discussion while
    theyre reading. (Post-its, reading journal,
    graphic organizer, etc.)

Procedure for Guided Reading Groups
  • Read the Text
  • Students read the text silently and whisper read.
  • Students can write questions, thoughts and/or
    ideas for discussion in their journal while
    reading. If text is longer, they can read it
    over several days.
  • The teacher moves from one child to the next
    listening and lightly coaching that child. The
    teacher makes observations and notes or records
    any strategies used by the student. This
    individual 3-4 minute interaction also gives the
    teacher an opportunity to offer individual help
    to improve specific reading behaviors.
  • NOTE Round Robin / Popcorn reading is not an
    effective instructional strategy, as students
    need to attend to and read the entire text. It is
    essential that students have eyes on text.
    Limit teacher talk during this phase of

Procedure for Guided Reading Groups
  • Discuss and Revisit the Text and Strategies
  • Students should have the opportunity to talk
    about what was read, discussing what was noticed,
    interesting, or confusing.
  • Focus on the skill /strategy and review how it
    helped students to problem solve and gain
    meaning. Think of this as a mini-lesson to
    confirm and extend understanding.
  • Encourage students to provide evidence from text
    of how/where they applied the skill / strategy.
    This will foster independence and transfer of the
    learning by providing them with the opportunity
    to articulate their use of a strategy.
  • Invite students to make connections and examine
  • Rereading for fluency will help to support
  • NOTE The purpose of this teaching is not to
    focus on a particular text but to develop
    strategies that can apply to all reading.
    Discussions should have a teaching point and
    reflect the focus for the lesson.

Procedure for Guided Reading Groups
  • Extending the Meaning of the Text or Word Work
  • Word work is one or two minutes (Optional, or as
    needed, for grades 3-6)
  • Analyze individual words or highlight
    phonic/decoding skill such as letter sounds at
    the primary level or prefixes at the intermediate
  • Extend the meaning (Optional or as needed)
  • Compare/contrast
  • Analyze characters
  • Incorporate art as a response
  • Further reading or data gathering
  • Graphic organizers for extension activities
  • Could complete in a learning station

What are the Other Students Doing? KEEPING the
focus on Literacy Consider whether they are
engaged in CHOICE activities or TEACHER ASSIGNED
  • Choice could be
  • Self-selected reading with a purpose
  • Writing in Response Journals
  • Engaging in related readings
  • Teacher assigned could be
  • Literature Study Groups or Literature Circles,
    especially in grades 3-6
  • Guided Reading Extension or Follow-up Activities
  • Engaging in related readings
  • Writing in Response Journals
  • Retelling
  • Practice Book Differentiated by need
  • Center Activities related to Reading/ Language
    Arts goals such as
  • Writing Center
  • Listening Center
  • Readers Theatre
  • Technology Center

What are the Other Students Doing?
  • Five essential questions if using centers
  • Are the centers/stations purposeful and
  • Are the centers/stations engaging?
  • How will I manage the centers/stations?
  • How will the students know what to do at the
  • How will I evaluate the students work ?

Assessment / Record Keeping
  • Use assessments to determine fluid placement
    throughout the year.
  • In September
  • Review student grouping cards and literacy
  • Discuss the needs of the fragile readers with
    Title I/Reading Support teacher or reading
  • Administer the Beginning of the Year
    assessment, Placement Inventory, or running
  • During the Year / Ongoing
  • Reading Journals
  • Running Records
  • Anecdotal Notes (in journal, cards, label, etc.)
  • Checklists for Reading Behaviors (found in the
    back of the teacher manual)

An Assessment idea for anecdotal notes

Post- it notes One per student Date comments
Other ways to keep anecdotal notes
  • Labels
  • Flip charts
  • Notebook

Opitz/Ford 2001
Formative vs. summative Assessment
Score Standing at the end of the season Personal
improvement from game to game Personal
improvement from season to season
Ball control Kicking Passing Resilience Position S
peed Teamplay creativity
  • Formative assessment provides a continuous
    stream of information about each student.
  • Formative assessment done well leads to good
    news on summative assessment.
  • Accountability is measured by a single test on
    a single day, but accountability is accomplished
    with daily, useful assessment that informs
    instruction. Peter Afflebach

Lets take a closer look..
  • Use the Power Point slides as note-taking pages
    while viewing.

Before you begin to view various components of
guided reading, lets take a look at students
engaging in a reread of a familiar text.
Guided Reading Before Reading Introducing a
New Text
Guided Reading During Reading Coaching Reading
Guided Reading After Reading Returning to the
Teacher Self-Reflection Questions
  • Teacher Self-Reflection Questions
  • Were children placed at their instructional
  • Was the lesson related to the direction of the
    entire group and was there a clear focus?
  • Were the children making thinking public,
    indicating good use of during reading strategies
    such as questioning, clarifying, connecting,
    summarizing, and predicting?
  • Was there on-going observation that informed
  • Were there many interruptions during guided
  • Were the other children actively engaged in
    student directed work?

Essential Elements of Guided Reading The Reading
Before Reading Teacher Role Select texts that will help expand processing skills Prepare an introduction Introduce the whole text or a unified portion Leave some problem solving for the readers Student Role Engage in conversation about the text Understand purpose Access schema Raise questions Build expectations Notice information Make connections
During Reading May listen to individuals Assist with problem solving Observe and make notes Read to themselves Use schema and strategies to construct meaning Think about comprehension and any questions
After Reading Lead discussion about the text Invite personal response Assess student understanding Invite students to ask questions Sometimes engage in word work Talk about the text Check predictions Clarify confusions and expand understanding Express connections Revisit the text Find evidence for opinions Sometimes respond through writing or visual arts Sometimes engage in word work
Resources for classroom use
  • Resources for Guided Reading

Lets Summarize A quick check for understanding
  • Complete the Crossword Puzzle with a partner
  • You can find this at

A few words of wisdom
  • The way a book is read-which is to say, the
    qualities a reader brings to a book- Can have as
    much to do with its worth as anything the author
    puts in it.
  • Norman Cousins
  • To read without reflecting is like eating
    without digesting.
  • Edmund Burke
  • Force yourself to reflect on what you read,
    paragraph by paragraph.
  • Samuel Taylor Coleridge
  • The more that you read,
  • The more things you know.
  • The more that you learn.
  • The more places youll go.
  • Dr. Seuss