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Facilitating and Managing Meetings

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Title: Facilitating and Managing Meetings


1
Facilitating and Managing Meetings
  • Minder Chen
  • Associate Professor of MIS
  • California State University Channel Islands
  • Minder.chen_at_csuci.edu

2
Outline
  • Manage meetings
  • What is facilitation
  • Creative problem solving process

http//www.businessweek.com/articles/2012-06-07/st
artups-war-on-meetings
3
Why Meeting?
  • Down with the meeting?
  • This ignores one of the most important reasons
    for having meetings. People are bad at
    communicating in just one form (e.g. written or
    verbal). Communication involves what we say, our
    body language, and how we say things with tone
    and emphasis on words. You lose a lot of that
    when you limit team communication to just written
    notes or institute artificial time limits. A
    meeting should go as long as it needs to in order
    to get the work done, and people should not be
    afraid of personal face to face interaction.
  • Status meeting should be emilimtated.
    http//postfrenzy.com/
  • Meetings are only for really important matters
    that need a full discussion.

4
Characteristics of Negative Meetings
  • 83 -- Drifting off the subject
  • 77 -- Poor preparation
  • 74 -- Questionable effectiveness
  • 68 -- Lack of listening
  • 62 -- Verbosity of participants (keep talkinh)
  • 60 -- Length
  • 51 -- Lack of participation
  • From Achieving Effective Meetings Not Easy
    But Possible
  • by Bradford D. Smart in a survey of 635
    executives.

5
What Are People Looking for in Effective Meetings
  • 88 -- allow all attendees to participate
  • 66 -- define a meetings purpose
  • 62 -- address each item on the agenda
  • 59 -- assign follow up action
  • 47 -- record discussion
  • 46 -- invite only essential personnel
  • 36 -- write an agenda with time frames
  • Source GM Consultants, Pittsburgh, 1993

Sample Meeting http//v.youku.com/v_show/id_XMzk1
NDIzMjQw.html
6
Meeting Types and Purposes
  • Briefing meetings Inform
  • Consultation meetings Consult
  • Planning meetings Develop plans
  • Review and Evaluation meetings (Status Meeting)
  • Business meetings
  • Make decisions or reach consensus
  • Create understanding
  • Working meetings
  • Develop ideas
  • Solve problems
  • Team formation meetings
  • Encourage enthusiasm and initiative
  • Provide a sense of direction
  • Create a common purpose

7
Making Decisions in a Meeting
  • https//processarts.wikispaces.com/Kaner

8
Effective Meetings
  • They achieve the meeting's objective.
  • They take up a minimum amount of time.
  • They leave participants feeling that a sensible
    process has been followed.

Source http//www.mindtools.com/CommSkll/RunningM
eetings.htm
Successful meetings dont just happen theyre
planned and managed.
http//www.andyeklund.com/creativestreak/2010/03/s
even-different-types-of-meetings-.html
9
OARR Clarify Roles and Rules
Outcome (Objectives)
Rules
Roles
Agenda
10
Visual Template
11
Meeting Objectives
  • Do you want a decision?
  • Do you want to generate ideas?
  • Are you getting status reports?
  • Are you communicating something?
  • Are you making plans?

12
SMART Objectives
  • How to define objectives
  • S Specific
  • M Measurable
  • A Attainable
  • R Realistic
  • T Time-bound

13
Outcomes
  • Task outcomes an action plan, a solution, a
    decision, an informed group
  • Process outcomes a cooperative attitude,
    commitment, motivated team members

14
Prepare Agenda
  • To prepare an agenda, consider the following
    factors
  • Priorities what absolutely must be covered?
  • Results what do need to accomplish at the
    meeting?
  • Participants who needs to attend the meeting
    for it to be successful?
  • Sequence in what order will you cover the
    topics?
  • Timing how much time will spend on each topic?
  • Date and Time when will the meeting take place?
  • Place where will the meeting take place?

15
Meeting Agenda
  Meeting Agenda   Meeting Agenda   Meeting Agenda   Meeting Agenda   Meeting Agenda
  Date Time Duration Place   Chair/Facilitator Meeting Purpose   Participants     Date Time Duration Place   Chair/Facilitator Meeting Purpose   Participants     Date Time Duration Place   Chair/Facilitator Meeting Purpose   Participants     Date Time Duration Place   Chair/Facilitator Meeting Purpose   Participants     Date Time Duration Place   Chair/Facilitator Meeting Purpose   Participants  
 Topic/Item Activity Type Time allocated Topic Leader Objective
1.        
2.        
3.        
4.        
5.        
6.        
7.        
8.        
Adapted from http//www.mindtools.com/pages/articl
e/worksheets/AgendaTemplate.pdf
16
Various Roles in Facilitated Meetings
Agenda
Outcomes
Rules
Facilitator
Public displays served as group or organizational
memory
Scribe (Technographer)
Roles
Participants
Source Adapted from http//www.grove.com/wkshp/w
kshp.html
17
Participants of Meetings
  • Essential People who
  • Have relevant information or expertise
  • Will make the final decision
  • Are affected by or will carry out a decision
  • Might significantly prevent or interfere with the
    implementation of a decision
  • Optional
  • Individuals with higher functional responsibility
  • People with a general interest in the meeting
    information or outcomes
  • Staff or support members who will be indirectly
    affected by the outcome
  • People with similar problems or work situations

18
Ground Rules
  • Ground rules are guidelines for desired behaviors
    that enhance the process of the meeting and
    assist in accomplishing its purpose (task).
  • They are standards that help clarify expectations
    regarding participation and can be used to
    address counterproductive behavior.
  • Some example ground rules are
  • - Listen to the person who is talking
  • - One person talks at a time, without
    interruption
  • - Stay on track
  • - No side conversations
  • - Be creative
  • - Communicate directly, honestly, and
    respectfully
  • - Hold questions until a person has finished
    speaking
  • - Limit contributions to five minutes
  • It is a good idea to ask a group to suggest
    changes or additions to add to an initial listing
    of ground rules.

19
Facilitating the Meeting
  • At the end of each agenda item, quickly summarize
    what was said, and ask people to confirm that
    that's a fair summary.
  • Note items that require further discussion (open
    issues at parking lot).
  • Watch body language and make adjustments as
    necessary. Maybe you need a break. (Flexibility)
  • If certain people are dominating the conversation
    you may need to stop them, make a point of asking
    others for their ideas. (Full participation by
    everyone)
  • Ensure the meeting stays on topic. (Focus )
  • List all tasks that are generated at the meeting.
    Make a note of who is assigned to do what, and by
    when. (Follow up Actionable Items)
  • At the close of the meeting, quickly summarize
    next steps and inform everyone that you will be
    sending out a meeting summary/minutes.

20
Managing Meetings as a Problem-Solving Process
A meeting Agenda Agenda item 1 Agenda Item
2 Agenda Item 3
A problem solving process Problem-solving
activity or task 1 Problem-solving activity or
task 2 Problem-solving activity or task 3
  • Meeting Roles
  • Facilitator Design, set up, and monitor the
    meeting
  • Participant Participate in a meeting

21
Creative Problem-Solving Process and TeamSpirit
TeamSpirit is a Web-based group decision support
system / creative group problem solving system.
Every user can create and facilitate meetings.
TeamSpirit Toolkit
Creative Problem Solving Process
Share information Discussion forum Multi-Aspect
brainstorming Brainstorming Idea
consolidation Rate alternative Rank
alternatives Select alternatives Multicriteria
evaluation
Idea generation
Divergent Thinking
Idea Organization
Convergent Thinking
Idea Evaluation
22
Divergent and Convergent Thinking
http//keyholesoftware.wordpress.com/2011/12/20/se
tting-the-stage-for-the-agile-retrospective-organi
zational-culture-of-collaboration-and-feedback-the
-facilitator-and-creating-a-safe-environment/
23
Diverge vs. Converge
Source Gerard J. Puccio, etc., Creative
Leadership Skills That Drive Change, 2010, Sage
Publication.
24
Benefits of Defer Judgment
Source Gerard J. Puccio, etc., Creative
Leadership Skills That Drive Change, 2010, Sage
Publication.
25
Learning Style Inventory (Kolb)
Feeling
How we think about things
How we do things
Watching
Source http//www.primarygoals.org/models/learnin
g-styles/ http//www.banffcentre.ca/leadership/as
sessment_tools/kolb/ and http//www.primarygoals.
org/articles/individual-and-organizational-learnin
g/
26
Mind and Hand
  • MIT's motto is "Mens et Manus," which translates
    from the Latin to "Mind and Hand." 

http//www.mensetmanus.net/mit-motto/motto.shtml
27
David Kolbs Learning Styles
Learning style Characteristic Description
Converger Abstract conceptualization active experimentation strong in practical application of ideas can focus on hypo-deductive reasoning on specific problems unemotional has narrow interests
Diverger Concrete experience reflective observation strong in imaginative ability good at generating ideas and seeing things from different perspectives interested in people broad cultural interests
Assimilator Abstract conceptualization reflective observation strong ability to create theoretical models excels in inductive reasoning concerned with abstract concepts rather than people
Accommodator Concrete experience active experimentation greatest strength is doing things more of a risk taker performs well when required to react to immediate circumstances solves problems intuitively
28
Problem-Solving Life Cycle
Problem-Solving Life Cycle
Identify problems or opportunities
Generic Problem Solving Process
Create/design solutions or systems
Idea generation
Implement solutions or systems
Idea Organization
Idea Evaluation
29
Universal Aspects of Processes
  • All processes are reconciliation of the tension
    between the top line freedoms of our visions
    and bottom-line constraints of current
    realities.
  • All processes move through stages, with periods
    of crisis and periods of progress.
  • All highly evolved Processes rely on simpler,
    repeating processes.
  • All processes move through periods of
    unpredictability (Garbage can model-freedoms-creat
    ivity) and periods of predictability (realities).

30
http//www.idea-sandbox.com/destination/2007/10/os
born-creative-problem-solving-process/
31
CPS Creative Problem Solving
Process Stage Steps
Explore the Challenge Objective Finding (identify the goal, wish, or challenge)
Explore the Challenge Fact Finding (gather the relevant data)
Explore the Challenge Problem/Opportunity Finding (clarify the problems/opportunities to be solved/ exploited in order to achieve the goal)
Generate Ideas Idea Finding (generate ideas to solve the identified problem)
Prepare for Action Solution Finding (move from idea to implementable solution)
Prepare for Action Acceptance Finding (plan for action)
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creative_Problem_Solv
ing_Process
32
CPS v3.0
33
Teamwork Classifications
Same Time
Different Time
Project/team rooms Shared offices
Same Place
Multi-media presentation systems Key-pad based
voting tools Facilitated meetings using a PC
Networked PCs based GDSS
TeamSpirits
Different Place
E-mail Shared document database Group
authoring tools Discussion forum
Screen sharing
Audio/video conferencing Web-based
desktop conferencing (Skype) Instant messaging
34
Orientating to Facilitation
  • What is facilitation?
  • When is facilitation needed?
  • Whats the biggest challenge in facilitation?
  • Understanding process in action.

Source "An Orientation to Facilitation -
Fundamental Principles" from The Grove
Consultants International, 1994.
35
Definition of Facilitation
Facilitation is the Art of Leading
People through Processes toward agreed-on
objectives in a manner that encourages
Participation, Ownership, and Productivity from
all Involved.
36
What is Facilitation?
Facilitation is the Art of Leading Group Processes
  • Groups need guidance
  • Poor processes are costly
  • Facilitation is process leadership
  • Facilitation is key part of management
  • You don't need authority to facilitate

37
What is Facilitation?
  • Facilitators will work to help achieve the
    groups desired outcomes, not their own.
  • Facilitator's leadership will be focused on
    making process suggestions and following the
    agenda, while usually staying away from
    content-related positions.
  • Facilitators will mediate any disagreements over
    how to proceed in a consensus-oriented manner.

38
Handling Group Dynamics
  • Understand and handle group dysfunction
  • Build group identify
  • Get the right people
  • Prevent scope creep
  • Stay flexible
  • When should the facilitator interrupt
  • Start on time
  • Handle conflict
  • Chill the dominator
  • Encourage shy users
  • Stifle the sidebar conversation

39
Ground Rules of Facilitation
  • The facilitator leads each session
  • The facilitator calls for suggestions from the
    participants
  • No criticism (of anyone's suggestion) by anyone
    is allowed and
  • All suggestions should be recorded on the board
    (even the crazy ones).
  • http//cec.vcn.bc.ca/cmp/modules/brn-sto.htm

40
In Successful Facilitation ...
  • Everyone takes responsibility for outcomes.
  • Participants feel safe.
  • Everyone participates.
  • Meetings and processes generate momentum and
    results.
  • People enjoy the process.

41
Understand the Challenge
  • Framing problems
  • Constructing opportunities
  • Exploring data

A problem well stated/defined/framed is a
problem half solved. --Charles F. Kettering
42
Reframe Problem as an Opportunity
Your job is to imagine the flip side of the
problem.
43
Different Perspectives and Expectations
Process/ Relationship Oriented
Past/ Historically Oriented
Future/ Change Oriented
Work/ Task Oriented
Two sets of competing expectations vie for a
groups attention. At first they seem
contradictory. But the tensions and efforts to
resolve them are actually a key source of
creativity in a group.
44
The Biggest Challenge in Facilitation
Balancing Different Expectation
  • Facilitation requires understanding competing
    points of view.
  • Backward- and forward- looking orientations.
  • Memory Freeze Frames past experience for
    historic reference.
  • Expectations for change are sparked by visions of
    the future.
  • Task and relationship expectations mediate this
    tension in the here and now.
  • Work-oriented perspectives focus on concrete
    results.
  • Relationship-oriented expectations flow from
    feelings about the process ? Go with the flow
  • Facilitation is a performance art.

45
Establish Ground Rules for Known Problems
  • Dominators People who talk too much
  • Attackers People who get personal
  • Taskmasters People who get impatient
  • Contrarians People who argue with anything you
    propose
  • Drifters People who come in and out
  • Detailers People who dont want the process to
    be effective

46
Understanding and Dealing with Problem Behaviors
  • Silent Members Could be an introvert. Did you
    give him or her enough information during the
    meeting to allow reflection? Be cautious, but try
    asking, Joe, what are your thoughts on this
    question?
  • Challengers Consistently challenges the
    presenters ideas and opinions. Acknowledge that
    the Challengers ideas or opinion have merit and
    say, I will need to think about the effect that
    has on my thinking, or ask the group what they
    think about the idea/opinion expressed.
  • Out in Left Field May be confused or
    misinformed. Be patient. Listen and rephrase.
    Compliment their asking questions. Get others to
    help you understand.
  • Complainers Defer to the group. Ask, How are
    other people feeling about this?
  • Dominators Talks often. Ask the rest of the
    group, What does anyone else think about this
    point? or Who else has some ideas? Redirect
    your body language in another direction.
  • Long-Winded Members Talks long. Wait a minute
    for a pause, however brief, and interrupt,
    saying, Could you summarize your idea in a few
    words so I can write it down? Celebrate
    diversity.
  • Side Conversations. Talks to someone else at
    length. If possible, you can move to where they
    are. Try, What are your thoughts on the point
    just raised? or Are we missing out on something
    important?
  • Side-Trackers Brings up issues that appear not
    to relate. Try, Im not clear how that fits in
    with what we are discussing. Can you help me?
    Get others to help you understand. The Side
    Trackers issues can be placed in a Parking
    Lot. (Open Issues)

47
Probing Questions to Clarify Participants
Thinking
What to do What to say
Gently ask about others conclusions. - What leads you to conclude that? - What causes you to say that?
Use non-aggressive language. Avoid provoking defensiveness. - What do you mean? - Can you help me understand your thinking here?
Find out as much as you can about why others said what they said.  - What is your reason for thinking that?
 Ask for examples. - How would your idea affect - Can you give me a typical example?
 Test understanding. - Am I correct that youre saying - Can I check to make sure were all understanding this the same way?
48
Six Hats Thinking
Source http//pictureshdd.blogspot.com/2011/10/wa
tch-six-thinking-hats-2011-on-youtube.html
https//www.youtube.com/watch?ve20lpMyXFj4featur
erelated
49
Six Thinking Hats
  • Information/Objective (White) - considering
    purely what information is available, what are
    the facts?
  • Creativity (Green) - statements of provocation
    and investigation, seeing where a thought goes
  • Optimistic/positive response (Yellow) - logic
    applied to identifying benefits, seeking harmony
  • Emotions/intuitive (Red) - intuitive or
    instinctive gut reactions or statements of
    emotional feeling without any justification
  • Discernment/negative (Black) - logic applied to
    identifying reasons to be cautious and
    conservative
  • Process/Meta thinking (Blue)

http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Six_Thinking_Hats
50
Dealing with Emotion
  • Feelings Accept, acknowledge, and process
    feelings in an organized way so the group can
    move on to facts.
  • Facts Objectively generate and develop facts so
    the group can use them to identify and analyze
    problems.
  • Solutions Have the group generate potential
    solutions, select one of them, and make decisions
    about implementing and evaluating it.

51
Graphic Facilitation
http//www.youtube.com/watch?featureplayer_embedd
edviRL8ZxBhCa0
52
Visual Thinking
http//www.futurefactor.dk/media/catalog/product/c
ache/2/image/9df78eab33525d08d6e5fb8d27136e95/g/a/
gameplan_uk.jpg
http//www.cupahrregions.org/midwest/strategic.asp

53
http//www.cupahrregions.org/midwest/strategic.asp

54
Drawing
55
Processes Needing Facilitation
  • Communication Processes
  • Team building processes
  • Planning processes
  • Decision processes
  • Production processes
  • Improvement Processes
  • Transformation Processes
  • Product design Process
  • Information systems development process
    Planning, Analysis, Design, Testing
  • Business process design process

56
Initiate Maintain an Open Collaborative
Climate
  • Initiate and maintain an open and collaborative
    climate
  • Present issues so the focus is on the situation,
    not on behaviors.
  • Present issues so that they encompass common
    interests.
  • Share your knowledge of the relevant facts
    regarding topics or issues.
  • Resist the temptation to immediately influence
    the thinking of the group.
  • Encourage contributions by asking questions and
    by inviting, reinforcing, and safeguarding
    participation.

57
Facilitating Collaborative Participation
  • Gate opening Inviting a group member to
    contribute ideas or thoughts on the subject being
    discussed.
  • Restating opinions Making sure that everyone
    understands the opinions that have been
    expressed.
  • Safeguarding an idea Protecting an idea from
    being prematurely killed.
  • Role splitting When a primary facilitator moves
    back and forth between functioning as a
    facilitator and as a contributing member of the
    group.

58
Types of Problems You Might Face
  • Competing goals
  • Resource allocation issues
  • Different values
  • Different skills and interests
  • Different language and culture
  • Customer/supplier conflicts
  • Varying perception about roles
  • Technical conflicts
  • Lack of trust
  • Different needs.

59
Managing Differences and Resolving Conflict
  • Encourage diverse views to improve quality and
    creativity.
  • Make sure minority views are heard.
  • Focus on the idea rather than the person.
  • Suggest that each speaker paraphrase the previous
    speaker before presenting his or her own
    viewpoint.
  • Set aside a separate meeting to deal directly
    with the conflict.

60
Use These Steps for Resolving Conflict
  • Define common ground, areas of agreement, or
    common goals.
  • Isolate points of disagreement, asking each side
    to make clear statements and paraphrase
    everything that is said.
  • Brainstorm or research alternatives to reach
    agreed-on goals or common ground and diminish
    differences. Allow sufficient time for
    alternatives to be generated and discussed.
  • Decide by accommodation, compromise, or consensus
    on suitable solutions and actions.
  • Plan for evaluation of ideas and solutions.
  • Refocus the meeting.

61
Conflict Resolving Strategies
Understand the other Person
Regain your own Center
  • Take time to address the issue
  • Take a break
  • Ground yourself mentally
  • Acknowledge that conflict is happening
  • Accept the feeling you are having
  • Ask for more information
  • Allow everyone time to explain
  • Identify concerns
  • Encourage expression of feeling
  • Actively listen - paraphrase for understanding
  • Write down descriptions, needs, offers, ground
    rules

62
Finding a Third Way-Strategies for Transforming
Conflict
  • Put things in the right/larger context - take a
    systems perspective of causes
  • Appeal to a higher purpose - what would our true
    nature do here?
  • Exaggerate the problem - play out possible
    catastrophic consequences
  • Go deeper - get behind positions to real
    interests
  • Create alternate scenarios - what might a
    resolution look like if it happened?
  • Look for win-wins - combine the best of both
    interests
  • Change perspective - what would a stranger say
    if one walked in?
  • Reframe the problem as an opportunity - ask what
    is the opportunity here?
  • Invent a Third Way - get beyond My Way and
    Your Way to a shared third way.

63
Facilitate Group Interactions/Manage Meeting
Start-up
Move-Out
Wrap-up
Maintain an open and collaborative climate
Tie up loose ends at session's close
Define session purpose and desired outcomes
Initiate an open and collaborative climate
Conclude along the way
Check session's outcomes against desired outcomes
Hold short warm-up
Manage disruptive behavior
Manage differences
64
Mining the Group Gold Process
65
Planning a Meeting The Nine Steps
  1. Clarify the purpose (task) of the meeting.
  2. Define the desired outcomes.
  3. Design the sequence of meeting activities.
  4. Determine attendees, roles, and ground rules.
  5. Decide when to meet and when to end.
  6. Determine logistics, equipment, and
    administrative matters, and notify participants.
  7. Complete the agenda.
  8. Communicate the agenda to participants.
  9. Set up the meeting room.

Failing to plan is planning to fail.
66
How to Run an Effective Meeting
  Before the Meeting   During the Meeting   During the Meeting   During the Meeting   After the Meeting
  Plan   Start   Conduct (Focus Facilitate)   Conclude   Follow-up
  Clarify purpose and desired outcome of the meeting   Start with a warm-up   Cover one agenda item at a time   Summarize decisions and accomplishments   Write and distribute meeting minutes promptly
  Identify meeting participants   Review the agenda Purpose (task) Outcome Topics Methods Time allocations   Establish and maintain appropriate pace   Agree on action items What needs to be done By whom By when   File the agenda, minutes, and other key documents
  Choose methods to accomplish the meetings purpose and outcome, for example Brainstorming Reporting Analyzing data Decision-making ranking, voting, consensus   Set or review ground rules for the meeting   Open discussions   Draft agenda for next meeting   Carry out all assignments
  Develop the agenda and set the starting and ending times for each item   Clarify participant roles facilitator, recorder, time- keeper, etc.   Maintain the focus of discussions   Evaluate the meeting What went well Improvements   Set a time for pre- meeting planning
  Send agenda to participants early     Manage participation   Thank everyone for their contributions and participation  
  Arrange room and equipment     Check decisions    
      Close discussions    
67
How to Run an Effective Meeting
  Before   During the Meeting   During the Meeting   During the Meeting   After
 Plan  Start Conduct  Conclude Follow-up
  Choose methods to accomplish the meetings purpose and outcome   Set or review ground rules for the meeting   Open discussions   Draft agenda for next meeting   Carry out all assignments
  Develop the agenda and set the starting and ending times for each item   Clarify participant roles facilitator, recorder, time- keeper, etc.   Maintain the focus of discussions   Evaluate the meeting What went well Improvements   Set a time for pre- meeting planning
  Send agenda to participants early     Manage participation   Thank everyone for their contributions and participation  
  Arrange room and equipment     Check decisions    
      Close discussions    
68
Facilitation Techniques
  • Meeting rules
  • Round-robin
  • Brainstorming
  • Storyboarding
  • Open discussion
  • Problem solving / solution development
  • Small groups
  • Consensus / Voting
  • Process meeting / feedback
  • Personal interventions
  • Using public records (group memory)

69
Using Flip Chart
  • Purposes
  • Record and display
  • Share data (Group memory)
  • Provide feedback
  • Serve as meeting minutes
  • Tips
  • Clarify What people say???
  • Record
  • Summarize ideas What are the key points?
  • Record summarization Use scribes and visual
    aids/computer tools
  • Scribe as a participants (Role clarification)
  • Tape "charts" to the wall
  • Use "PARKING LOT"/"Open issues to delay
    discussion of side-tracked and complex issues or
    issues that require further investigation

70
Benefits of a Public Record
  • People feel acknowledged.
  • Mistakes can be corrected.
  • Latecomers can catch up.
  • Display focus discussion.
  • Visualizing supports systems thinking.
  • Records support keeping commitments.

71
The Challenge of a Public Record
  • You must be faithful to what people actually say.
  • Its tougher to hide agendas.
  • Sometimes people need to work in less committed
    ways to explore feelings.

72
Fundamental Principles of Facilitation
  • Getting involvement and setting the pace.
  • Making decisions and managing flow.
  • Tracking progress and supporting performance.

73
Getting Involvement Setting the Pace
  • Imagine potential in every situation
  • Assume a We frame of mind.
  • Enroll management early in your plans.
  • Use simple framework and stories.
  • Set a pace you can keep.
  • Create a safe environment.
  • Prevent problems by naming them.
  • Manage the hill of influence.
  • Deal with conflict creatively ? Tai-Chi
    philosophy (There is a yin in yang and there is
    yang in yin)

74
Making Decisions and Managing Flow
  • Anchor in outcomes.
  • Agree how youll make decisions.
  • Know when to lead and when to follow.
  • Balance pushing and pulling.
  • Use Helicopter-quality thinking.
  • Appreciate different realities and perspectives.
  • Be a mirror (sounding board) not a magnet.

75
Tracking Progress and Supporting Performance
  • Create public and visual records.
  • Anticipate the process.
  • Improvise with the magic of Yes/And or
    Yes/But.
  • Reframe problems as opportunities ? In Chinese,
    Crisis also mean Opportunity.
  • Manage transition.
  • Maintain common ground.
  • Create links and memories to serve as design
    rationales or organizational memories.

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Benefits of Good Facilitation
  • Greater motivation and productivity.
  • Flexibility in response to change.
  • Better links to organizational goals.
  • Participation and empowerment.
  • Richer workplace learning.
  • Time and resource economies.

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References
  • http//library.state.or.us/services/training/DAS_T
    raining_Materials/Files/EffectiveMeetingsPart1TheF
    undamentals.pdf
  • http//library.state.or.us/services/training/DAS_T
    raining_Materials/Files/EffectiveMeetingsPart2Faci
    litationSkillsToolKit.pdf

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Problem Solving and Consulting Skills
  • http//www.movelearning.com/downloads/8_steps_in_t
    he_consulting_process.pdf
  • Block, Peter (2011) Flawless consulting A guide
    to getting your expertise used (third edition),
    San Francisco Jossey-Bass

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Dealing with Resistance
  • Verifying - What I understand you to mean
    is...Is that correct?
  • Aligning - Let me look at it from your point of
    view.
  • Probing - Tell me more about your concerns.
  • Phrasing -How can we work it out so
    that...(describe your concerns and theirs)?
  • Asking -What will it take to...(describe your
    concerns and theirs)?

http//www.fcps.edu/cco/fam/volunteer/documents/Re
sp_Resistance_Solv_Probs_0.pdf
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Decision-Making Processes
Diffused
  • Collaboration
  • Consensual
  • Collegial
  • Dialogic
  • Rules
  • Majority rules
  • Minority rules
  • Procedural rules

Power
  • Executive
  • Decisions
  • Unilateral
  • Managerial
  • Consultative
  • Negotiations
  • Mediated
  • Contractual
  • Informal

Concentrated
Individual Interests
Institutional Interests
Commitment to
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CPS 2.3
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Task Appraisal
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Responses to Problems
Reactive Response
Proactive Response
I 5. Ask for information M 6. Express My
Feelings P 7. Positive A Adult C
Creative T Translations
4. Accept your reaction Take a breath Make a
second and third transition
1. Stonewall S 2. Attack A 3. Deceive D
Graphic translation of Bill Pambertons ideas
expressed in Sanity for Survival, a Semantic
Approach to Conflict Resolution.
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Example of Graphical Facilitation
http//www.loosetooth.com/Viscom/gf/innovation_cen
ters.htm
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Facilitation should help everyone commit to
working together and getting results.
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Facilitation supports the whole group in being
more productive - it becomes a set of
competencies every manager, team leader or
meeting leader has at his or her disposal.
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Group Dysfunction
  • Groupthink (Superficial unanimity)
  • Risk shift (Taking high risk alternatives)
  • Commitment errors (Over-commitment)
  • Goal-setting errors
  • Compromise for the worst

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Processes Needing Facilitation
Strategic processes
  • Organization
  • wide change.
  • Teams
  • Meetings
  • Individual work

Goal
Information
  • Tasks
  • Steps

Q3
Time
Q2
Q1
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Maintain Balanced Participation
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  • http//store.readwritetechnology.com/Shared/FreeIt
    ems/2020kitsamples/202020Effective20Meetings20P
    PT20Sample20Notes.pdf
  • http//www.fastcompany.com/26726/seven-sins-deadl
    y-meetings

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Tools in the Toolbox
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Imagination
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Tools in the Toolbox
  • Idea Generation
  • Share information
  • Brainstorming
  • Multi-Aspect brainstorming
  • Discussion forum
  • Idea consolidation
  • Delete duplicate ideas
  • Merge similar ideas (Affinity clustering)
  • Combine ideas at different levels of abstraction
  • Idea Evaluation
  • Rate alternative
  • Rank alternatives
  • Select alternatives
  • Multicriteria evaluation

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Creative Problem Solving Process
  • 1. Problem finding  2. Fact finding  3. Problem
    definition  4. Idea finding  5. Evaluating and
    selecting  6. Action planning  7. Gaining
    acceptance  8. Taking action

A problem well stated is a problem half solved.
--Charles F. Kettering
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Elements of Appraising Tasks for Meetings
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