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Nationalist Revolutions Sweep the West and The Industrial Revolution


Nationalist Revolutions Sweep the West and The Industrial Revolution Chapters 24-25 Industrialization The process of developing machine production of goods. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Nationalist Revolutions Sweep the West and The Industrial Revolution

Nationalist Revolutions Sweep the West and The
Industrial Revolution
  • Chapters 24-25

Peninsulares / Creoles / Mulattos
  • Peninsulares Spanish Portuguese officials who
    lived temporarily in Latin America for political
    economic gain. Peninsulares were at the top of
    the Latin American class structure, holding all
    important positions.
  • Creoles Descendants of Europeans who were born
    in Latin America. Creoles were the leaders of
    Latin American revolutions, favoring
    enlightenment ideals and opposing European
    domination of their trade.
  • Mulattos People of mixed European and African
    descent who made up the lowest class in Latin
    American society.
  • By the end of the 18th century, the political
    ideals stemming from the revolution in North
    America put European control of Latin America in
    peril. Latin Americas social class structure
    played a big role in how the 19th century
    revolutions occurred and what they achieved.
    Social classes divided colonial Latin America.
    Peninsulares were Spanish and Portuguese
    officials who resided temporarily in Latin
    America for political and economic gain. At the
    top of the class structure, peninsulares
    dominated Latin America. They held all important
    positions. Creoles controlled land and business
    and resented the peninsulares. The peninsulares
    regarded the creoles as second-class citizens.
    Mestizos were the largest group. They worked as
    servants or laborers.

Simon Bolivar
  • A wealthy Venezuelan Creole, Bolivar led a
    volunteer army of revolutionaries in a struggle
    for independence from Spain from 1811 to 1822.
    Bolivar is revered as the George Washington of
    South America. He hoped to unite the Spanish
    colonies of South America into a single country
    called Grand Colombia but was unable to do so as
    a result of geographic and political obstacles.
  • Even though they could not hold high public
    office, creoles were the least oppressed of those
    born in Latin-America. They were also the best
    educated. In fact, many wealthy young creoles
    traveled to Europe for their education. In
    Europe, they read about and adopted Enlightenment
    ideas. When they returned to Latin America, they
    brought ideas of revolution with them. Napoleons
    conquest of Spain in 1808 triggered revolts in
    the Spanish colonies. Removing Spains King
    Ferdinand VII, Napoleon made his brother Joseph
    king of Spain. Many creoles might have supported
    a Spanish king. However, they felt no loyalty to
    a king imposed by the French. Creoles, recalling
    Lockes idea of the consent of the governed,
    argued that when the real king was removed, power
    shifted to the people. In 1810, rebellion broke
    out in several parts of Latin America.
  • Simon Bolivars native Venezuela declared its
    independence from Spain in 1811. But the struggle
    for independence had only begun. Bolivars
    volunteer army of revolutionaries suffered
    numerous defeats. Twice Bolivar had to go into
    exile. A turning point came in August 1819.
    Bolivar led over 2,000 soldiers on a daring march
    through the Andes into what is now Colombia.
    Coming from this direction, he took the Spanish
    army in Bogota completely by surprise and won a
    decisive victory. By 1821, Bolivar had won
    Venezuelas independence. He then marched south
    into Ecuador. In Ecuador, Bolivar finally met
    Jose de San Martin. Together they would decide
    the future of the Latin American revolutionary

Jose de San Martin
  • Though native to Argentina, Martin had spent most
    of his life serving in the Spanish army in
    Europe. He returned to South America following
    Napoleons conquest of Spain, leading
    revolutionary forces to oust European armies from
    Argentina, Chile, and finally, in 1824, Peru.
  • Jose de San Martin believed that the Spaniards
    must be removed from all of South America if any
    South American nation was to be free. Bolivar
    began the struggle for independence in Venezuela
    in 1810. He then went on to lead revolts in New
    Granada (Colombia) and Ecuador. By 1810, the
    forces of San Martin had liberated Argentina from
    Spanish authority. In January 1817, San Martin
    led his fortress over the Andes to attack the
    Spanish in Chile. The journey was an amazing
    feat, 2/3 of the pack mules and horses died
    during the trip. Soldiers suffered from lack of
    oxygen and severe cold while crossing mountain
    passes. The Andes mountains were more than two
    miles above sea level.
  • The arrival of San Martins forces in Chile
    completely surprised the Spaniards. Spanish
    forces were badly defeated at the Battle of
    Chacabuco on February 12, 1817. In 1821 San
    Martin moved on to Lima, Peru, the center of
    Spanish authority. San Martin was convinced that
    he could not complete the liberation of Peru
    alone. He welcomed the arrival of Simon Bolivar
    and his forces. Bolivar, the Liberator of
    Venezuela, took on the task of crushing the last
    significant Spanish army at Ayacucho on December
    9, 1824.
  • By the end of 1824, Peru, Uruguay, Paraguay,
    Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, Bolivia, and
    Chile had all become free of Spain. Earlier, in
    1822, the prince regent of Brazil had declared
    Brazils independence from Portugal. The Central
    American states had become independent in 1823.
    In 1823 and 1839, they divided into five
    republics Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras,
    Costa Rica, and Nicaragua.

Miguel Hidalgo / Jose Maria Morelos
  • Miguel Hidalgo The Father of Mexico Roman
    Catholic Priest who founded the Mexican
    Independence movement in 1810. Hidalgo organized
    an army of mostly poor Mexicans which succeeded
    in winning early victories but was defeated by a
    more well-armed colonial army from Mexico City.
    Hidalgo was executed by firing squad in 1811.
  • Jose Maria Morelos A Catholic Priest and
    associate of Hidalgo, Morelos replaced Hidalgo as
    the leader of the revolutionary movement in
    Mexico. Morelos was defeated by a creole army led
    by Augustin Iturbide in 1815. Ironically, 6 years
    later Iturbide led Mexico to achieve its
    Independence from Spain in 1821.
  • Beginning in 1810, Mexico, too, experienced a
    revolt. The first real hero of Mexican
    independence was Miguel Hidalgo. A parish priest,
    Hidalgo lived in a village about 100 miles from
    Mexico City. Hidalgo had studied the French
    Revolution. He aroused the local Native Americans
    and mestizos to free themselves from the Spanish.
    On September 16, 1810, Hidalgo led this
    ill-equipped army of thousands of Native
    Americans and mestizos in an attack against the
    Spaniards. He was an inexperienced military
    leader, however, and his forces were soon
    crushed. A military court sentenced Hidalgo to
    death. However, his memory lives on. In fact,
    September 16, the first day of the uprising, is
    Mexicos Independence Day. Events in Mexico took
    an unexpected turn in 1820, when a revolution in
    Spain put a liberal group in power there.
    Mexicos creoles feared the loss of their
    privileges in the Spanish-controlled colony. So
    they united in support of Mexicos independence
    from Spain.

Closure Assignment 1
  • Answer the following questions based on what you
    have learned from Chapter 24, Section 1
  • Compare and contrast the leadership of the South
    American revolutions to the leadership of
    Mexicos revolution.
  • Would creole revolutionaries tend to be
    democratic or authoritarian leaders? Explain.
  • How were events in Europe related to the
    revolutions in Latin America?

  • Political philosophy based on tradition and a
    belief in the value of social stability which was
    supported by European leaders following the
    defeat of Napoleon Conservatives favor obedience
    to political authority, support organized
    religion, and hate revolutions.
  • Eventually, the great powers adopted a principle
    of intervention. According to this principle, the
    great powers had the right to send armies into
    countries where there were revolutions in order
    to restore legitimate monarchs to their thrones.
    Refusing to accept the principle, Britain argued
    that the great powers should not interfere in the
    internal affairs of other states. The other great
    powers, however, used military forces to crush
    the revolutions in Spain and Italy, as well as to
    restore monarchs to their thrones.
  • Between 1815 and 1830, conservative governments
    throughout Europe worked to maintain the old
    order. However, powerful forces of change known
    as liberalism and nationalism were also at
    work. Nationalism was an even more powerful force
    for change in the 19th century than was
    liberalism. Nationalism arose when people began
    to identify themselves as part of a community
    defined by a distinctive language, common
    institution, and customs. This community is
    called a nation. In earlier centuries, peoples
    loyalty went to a king or to their town or
    region. In the 19th century, people began to feel
    that their chief loyalty was to the nation.
  • Conservatism is based on tradition and a belief
    in the value of social stability. Most
    conservatives at that time favored obedience to
    political authority. They also believed that
    organized religion was crucial to keep order in
    society. Conservatives hated revolutions and were
    unwilling to accept demands from people who
    wanted either individual rights or representative
    governments. To maintain the new balance of
    power, Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, and
    Austria (and later France) agreed to meet at
    times. The purpose of these conferences was to
    take steps needed to maintain peace in Europe.
    These meetings came to be called the Concert of

  • Political philosophy based on Enlightenment ideas
    which argues that people should be as free as
    possible from government.
  • Liberals had a common set of political beliefs.
    Chief among them was the protection of civil
    liberties, or the basic rights of all people.
    These civil liberties included equality before
    the law and freedom of assembly, speech, and the
    press. Liberals believed that all these freedoms
    should be guaranteed by a written document such
    as the American Bill of Rights. Most liberals
    wanted religious toleration for all, as well as
    separation of church and state. Liberals also
    demanded the right of peaceful opposition to the
    government. They believed that a representative
    assembly (legislature) elected by qualified
    voters should make laws.
  • Many liberals, then, favored government ruled by
    a constitution, such as in a constitutional
    monarchy, in which a constitution regulates a
    king. They believed that written constitutions
    would guarantee the rights they sought to
    preserve. Liberals did not, however, believe in a
    democracy in which everyone had a right to vote.
    They thought that the right to vote and hold
    office should be open only to men of property.
    Liberalism, then, was tied to middle-class men,
    especially industrial middle-class men, who
    wanted voting rights for themselves so they could
    share power with the landowning classes. The
    liberals feared mob rule, and had little desire
    to let the lower class share the power.
  • The French monarchy was finally overthrown in
    1848. A group of moderate and radical republicans
    set up a provisional, or temporary, government.
    The republicans were people who wished France to
    be a republic a government in which leaders are
    elected. The provisional government called for
    the election of representatives to a Constituent
    Assembly that would draw up a new constitution.
    Election was to be by a universal male suffrage.

Closure Question 1 Why might liberals and
radicals join together in a nationalist cause?
Liberalism Cartoon
  • Political philosophy developed in the early 1800s
    which favors drastic change to extend democracy
    to all people. Radicals believed that governments
    should practice the ideals of the French
    Revolution liberty, equality, and brotherhood.
  • In the first half of the 19th century,
    nationalism found a strong ally in liberalism.
    Most liberals believed that freedom could only be
    possible in people who ruled themselves. Each
    group of people should have its own state. No
    state should attempt to dominate another state.
    The association with liberalism meant that
    nationalism had a wider scope. Beginning in 1830,
    the forces of change liberalism and nationalism
    began to break through the conservative
    domination of Europe. In France, liberals
    overthrew the Bourbon monarch Charles X in 1830
    and established a constitutional monarchy.
    Political support for the new monarch, Louis
    Philippe, a cousin of Charles X, came from the
    upper-middle class.
  • In the same year, 1830, 3 more revolutions
    occurred. Nationalism was the chief force in all
    3 of them. Belgium, which had been annexed to the
    former Dutch Republic in 1815, rebelled and
    created an Independent state. In Poland and
    Italy, which were both ruled by foreign powers,
    efforts to break free were less successful.
    Russians crushed the Polish attempt to establish
    an independent Polish nation. Meanwhile Austrian
    troops marched south and put down revolts in a
    number of Italian states.
  • The conservative order still dominated much of
    Europe as the midpoint of the 19th century
    approached. However, the forces of liberalism and
    nationalism continued to grow. These forces of
    change erupted once more in the revolutions of
    1848. Revolution in France once again sparked
    revolution in other countries. Severe economic
    problems beginning in 1846 brought untold
    hardship in France to the lower-middle class,
    workers, and peasants. At the same time, members
    of the middle class clamored for the right to
    vote. The government of Louis Philippe refused to
    make changes, and opposition grew.

Closure Question 1 Why might liberals and
radicals join together in a nationalist cause?
  • The belief that peoples greatest loyalty should
    not be to a king or an empire but to a nation of
    people who share a common culture and history.
  • Nationalism did not become a popular force for
    change until the French Revolution. From then on,
    nationalists came to believe that each
    nationality should have its own government. Thus,
    the Germans, who were separated into many
    principalities, wanted national unity in a German
    nation-state with one central government. Subject
    peoples, such as the Hungarians, wanted the right
    to establish their own governments rather than be
    subject to the Austrian empire. Nationalism was a
    threat to the existing political order. A united
    Germany, for example, would upset the balance of
    power set up at the Congress of Vienna in 1815.
    At the same time, an independent Hungarian state
    would mean the breakup of the Austrian Empire.
  • Great Britain managed to avoid the revolutionary
    upheavals of the first half of the 19th century.
    In 1815, aristocratic landowning classes, which
    dominated both houses of Parliament, governed
    Great Britain. In 1832, Parliament passed a bill
    that increased the number of male voters. The new
    voters were chiefly members of the industrial
    middle class. By giving the industrial middle
    class an interest in ruling, Britain avoided
    revolution in 1848. In the 1850s and 1860s,
    Parliament continued to make social and political
    reforms that helped the country to remain stable.
    However, despite reforms, Britain saw a rising
    Irish nationalist movement demanding increased
    Irish control over Irish internal affairs.
    Another reason for Britains stability was its
    continuing economic growth. By 1850, real wages
    of workers rose significantly, enabling the
    working classes to share the prosperity.
  • In France, events after the revolution of 1848
    moved toward the restoration of the monarchy. In
    1848, Louis-Napoleon returned to the people to
    ask for the restoration of the empire. In this
    plebiscite, 97 responded with a yes vote. On
    December 2, 1852, Louis-Napoleon assumed the
    title of Napoleon III, Emperor of France. The
    government of Napoleon III was clearly
    authoritarian. As chief of state, Napoleon III
    controlled the armed forces, police and civil
    service. Only he could introduce legislation and
    declare war. The Legislative Corps gave an
    appearance of representative government, because
    the members of the group were elected by
    universal male suffrage for 6-year terms.
    However, they could neither initiate legislation
    nor affect the budget.

Closure Question 1 Why might liberals and
radicals join together in a nationalist cause?
  • Government of a region by people who share a
    common culture and history. Nation-states defend
    the territory and way of life of the people,
    representing the nation to the rest of the world.
  • A multinational state is a collection of
    different peoples living in the same country. The
    Austrian Empire included Germans, Czechs, Magyars
    (Hungarians), Slovaks, Romanians, Slovenes,
    Poles, Croats, Serbians, Ruthenians (Ukranians),
    and Italians. Prague was a major city populated
    by the Czech peoples but ruled by Austria In
    1848 Czechs attempted to revolt against Austria
    to establish an independent nation but were
    defeated by the Austrians.
  • The Austrian Empire had many problems. Only the
    German-speaking Hapsburg dynasty held the empire
    together. The Germans , though only a quarter of
    the population, played a leading role in
    governing the Austrian Empire. In March 1848,
    demonstrations erupted in the major cities. To
    calm the demonstrators, the Hapsburg court
    dismissed Metternich, the Austrian foreign
    minister, who fled to England. In Vienna,
    revolutionary forces took control of the capital
    and demanded a liberal constitution. To appease
    the revolutionaries, the government gave Hungary
    its own legislature. In Bohemia, the Czechs
    clamored for their own government.
  • Austrian officials had made concessions to
    appease the revolutionaries but were determined
    to reestablish their control over the empire. In
    June 1848, Austrian military forces crushed the
    Czech rebels in Prague. By the end of October,
    the rebels in Vienna had been defeated as well.
    With the help of a Russian army of 140,000 men,
    the Hungarian revolutionaries were finally
    subdued in 1849. The revolutions in the Austrian
    Empire had failed.
  • In 1848, a revolt broke out against the Austrians
    in Lombardy and Venetia Italy. Revolutionaries in
    other Italian states also took up arms and sought
    to create liberal constitutions and a unified
    Italy. By 1849, however, the Austrians had
    reestablished complete control over Lombardy and
    Venetia. The old order also prevailed in the rest
    of Italy. Throughout Europe in 1848, popular
    revolts started upheavals that had led to liberal
    constitutions and liberal governments. However,
    moderate liberals and more radical
    revolutionaries were soon divided over their
    goals and so conservative rule was reestablished.

The Balkans
  • Geographic region along the eastern Mediterranean
    Sea which includes all or part of present-day
    Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey, and
    the former Yugoslavia. The entire region had been
    controlled by the Ottoman Empire however,
    beginning in 1821 nationalist movements in the
    Balkans sparked violence.
  • The first people to win self-rule during the
    early 1800s were the Greeks. For centuries,
    Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire.
    Greeks, however, had kept alive the memory of
    their ancient history and culture. Spurred on by
    the nationalist spirit, they demanded
    independence and rebelled against the Ottoman
    Turks in 1821. The most powerful European
    governments opposed revolution. However, the
    cause of Greek independence was popular with
    people around the world. Russians, for example,
    felt a connection to Greek Orthodox Christians,
    who were ruled by the Muslim Ottomans. Educated
    Europeans and Americans loved and respected
    ancient Greek culture.
  • Eventually, as popular support for Greece grew,
    the powerful nations of Europe took the side of
    the Greeks. In 1827, a combined British, French,
    and Russian fleet destroyed the Ottoman fleet at
    the Battle of Navarino. In 1830, Britain, France,
    and Russia signed a treaty guaranteeing an
    independent kingdom of Greece. By the 1830s, the
    old order, carefully arranged at the Congress of
    Vienna, was breaking down. Revolutionary zeal
    swept across Europe. Liberals and nationalists
    throughout Europe were openly revolting against
    conservative governments. Nationalist riots broke
    out against Dutch rule in the Belgian city of
    Brussels. In October 1830, the Belgians declared
    their independence from Dutch control. In Italy,
    nationalists worked to unite the many separate
    states on the Italian peninsula. Some were
    independent. Others were ruled by Austria, or by
    the pope. Eventually, Prince Metternich sent
    Austrian troops to restore order in Italy.

  • Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte who was elected
    President of the French Second Republic in 1848.
    In 1852 he took the title of Emperor Napoleon III
    with popular support. As Frances emperor,
    Louis-Napoleon built railroads, encouraged
    industrialization, and promoted ambitious public
    works programs. Gradually, as a result of these
    changes, unemployment decrease and France
    experienced real prosperity.
  • In 1830, Frances King Charles X tried to stage a
    return to absolute monarchy. The attempt sparked
    riots that forced Charles to flee to Great
    Britain. He was replaced by Louis-Philippe, who
    had long supported liberal reforms in France.
    However, in 1848, after a reign of almost 18
    years, Louis-Philippe fell from popular favor.
    Once again, a Paris mob overturned a monarchy and
    established a republic. The provisional
    government in France also set up national
    workshops to provide work for the unemployed.
    From March to June, the number of unemployed
    enrolled in the national workshops rose from
    about 66,000 to almost 120,000. This emptied the
    treasury and frightened the moderates, who
    reacted by closing the workshop on June 21st,
    1848. The workers refused to accept this
    decision and poured into the streets. In four
    days of bitter and bloody fighting, government
    forces crushed the working-class revolt.
    Thousands were killed and thousands more were
    sent to the French prison colony of Algeria in
    northern Africa.
  • The new constitution, ratified on November 4,
    1848, set up a republic called the Second
    Republic. The Second Republic had a single
    legislature by universal male suffrage. A
    president, also chosen by universal male
    suffrage, served for four years. In the elections
    for the presidency in December 1848, Charles
    Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (called Louis-Napoleon),
    the nephew of the famous French ruler, won a
    resounding victory.

Closure Question 2 Why did some liberals
disapprove of the way Louis-Napoleon ruled France
after the uprisings of 1848?
Alexander II
  • Czar of Russia during the mid to late 1800s who
    made reforms to Russian society, such as
    emancipation (freedom) for serfs and providing
    land for peasants by buying it from landlords.
  • Nationalism, a major force in 19th century
    Europe, presented special problems for the
    Austrian Empire. That was because the empire
    contained so many different ethnic groups, and
    many were campaigning for independence. After the
    Hapsburg rulers crushed the revolutions of 1848
    and 1849, they restored centralized, autocratic
    government to the empire. Austrias defeat at the
    hands of the Prussians in 1866, however, forced
    the Austrians to make concessions to the fiercely
    nationalist Hungarians. The result was the
    compromise of 1867, which created a dual monarchy
    of Austria-Hungary. Each of these two components
    had its own constitution, its own legislature,
    its own government bureaucracy, and its own
    capital Vienna for Austria and Budapest for
  • In 1856 the Russians suffered a humiliating
    defeat in the Crimean War. Even staunch
    conservatives realized that Russia was falling
    hopelessly behind the western European powers.
    Serfdom, the largest problem in czarist Russia,
    was a complicated issue that affected the
    economic, social, and political future of Russia.
    On March 3, 1861, Czar Alexander II issued an
    emancipation edict, freeing all serfs in Russia.
    Alexander II attempted other reforms as well, but
    he soon found that he could please no one.
    Reformers wanted more changes and a faster pace
    for change. Conservatives thought that the czar
    was trying to destroy the basic institutions of
    Russian society.
  • A group of radicals assassinated Alexander II in
    1881. His son, Alexander III, became the
    successor to the throne. Alexander III turned
    against reform and returned to the old methods of
    repression. Budapest was the capital city of
    Hungary In 1867 the Austro-Hungarian Empire was
    split into two separate constitutional
    governments (Austria and Hungary) but under one
    monarch, Francis Joseph.

Closure Question 3 Why did Alexander III of
Russia turn against the reforms of his father?
(At least 1 sentence)
Closure Assignment 2
  • Answer the following questions based on what you
    have learned from Chapter 24, Section 2
  • Why might liberals and radicals join together in
    a nationalist cause?
  • Why did some liberals disapprove of the way
    Louis-Napoleon ruled France after the uprisings
    of 1848?
  • Why did Alexander III of Russia turn against the
    reforms of his father? (At least 1 sentence)

  • The goal of the Romanov Dynasty beginning in the
    1860s to force Russian culture on all the ethnic
    groups within the Russian Empire. School
    instruction was required to be entirely in
    Russian, even in the primary grades, and
    conversion to the Eastern Orthodox Church was
    encouraged. This policy actually strengthened
    ethnic nationalist feelings and helped to
    disunify Russia.
  • During the 1800s, nationalism fueled efforts to
    build nation-states. Nationalists were not loyal
    to kings, but to their people to those who
    shared common bonds. Nationalism believed that
    people of a single nationality, or ancestry,
    should unite under a single government. However,
    people who wanted to restore the old order from
    before the French Revolution saw nationalism as a
    force for disunity. Gradually, authoritarian
    rulers began to see that nationalism could also
    unify masses of people. They soon began to use
    nationalist feelings for their own purposes. They
    built nation-states in areas where they remained
    firmly in control.
  • Three aging empires The Austrian Empire of the
    Hapsburgs, the Russian Empire of the Romanovs,
    and the Ottoman Empire of the Turks contained a
    mixture of ethnic groups. Control of land and
    ethnic groups moved back and fort between these
    empires, depending on victories or defeats in war
    and on royal marriages. When nationalism emerged
    in the 19th century, ethnic unrest threatened and
    eventually toppled these empires. In addition to
    the Russians themselves, the czar ruled over 22
    million Ukrainians, 8 million Poles, and smaller
    numbers of Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians,
    Finns, Jews, Romanians, Georgians, Armenians,
    Turks, and others. Each group had its own
    culture. The weakened czarist empire finally
    could not withstand the double shock of World War
    I and the communist revolution. The last Romanov
    czar gave up his power in 1917.

Closure Question 1 How can nationalism be both
a unifying and a disunifying force? (At least 1
Camillo di Cavour
  • Prime minister to King Victor Emmanuel II of the
    Italian province of Sardinia. A cunning
    statesman, Cavour used skillful diplomacy and
    well-chosen alliances to gain control of northern
    Italy for Sardinia. Through an alliance with
    Louis Napoleon of France in 1858, Sardinia
    succeeded in driving Austria from northern Italy.
  • Italian nationalists looked for leadership from
    the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, the largest and
    most powerful of the Italian states. The kingdom
    had adopted a liberal constitution in 1848. So,
    to the liberal Italian middle classes,
    unification under Piedmont-Sardinia seemed a good
    plan. In 1852, Sardinias king, Victor Emmanuel
    II, named Count Camillo di Cavour as his prime
    minister. Cavour was a cunning statesman who
    worked tirelessly to expand Piedmont-Sardinias
    power. Using skillful diplomacy and well-chosen
    alliances he set about gaining control of
    northern Italy for Sardinia.
  • Cavour realized that the greatest roadblock to
    annexing northern Italy was Austria. In 1858, the
    French emperor Napoleon III agreed to help drive
    Austria out of the northern Italian provinces.
    Cavour then provoked a war with the Austrians. A
    combined French-Sardinian army succeeded in
    taking all of northern Italy, except Venetia. As
    Cavour was uniting northern Italy, he secretly
    started helping nationalist rebels in southern
    Italy. In May 1860, a small army of Italian
    nationalists led by a bold and visionary soldier,
    Giuseppe Garibaldi, captured Sicily. In battle,
    Garibaldi always wore a bright red shirt, as did
    his followers. As a result, they became known as
    the Red Shirts. From Sicily, Garibaldi and his
    forces crossed to the Italian mainland and
    marched north. Eventually, Garibaldi agreed to
    unite southern areas he had conquered with the
    kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. Cavour arranged for
    King Victor Emmanuel II to meet Garibaldi in
    Naples. The Red One willingly agreed to step
    aside and let the Sardinian king rule.

Giuseppe Garibaldi
  • Italian patriot who liberated Naples and Sicily
    from Austrian rule, then turned over control of
    Southern Italy to King Victor Emmanuel II of
    Sardinia in 1870, establishing a unified,
    independent Italy.
  • Piedmont is a northern Italian state which, under
    the leadership of King Victor Emmanuel II, made
    an alliance with France in 1859 to revolt against
    Austrian control, establishing itself as an
    Independent nation. In 1850, Austria was still
    the dominant power on the Italian Peninsula.
    After the failure of the revolution of 1848,
    people began to look to the northern Italian
    state of Piedmont for leadership in achieving the
    unification of Italy. The royal house of Savoy
    ruled the Kingdom of Piedmont. Included in the
    kingdom were Piedmont, the island of Sardinia,
    Nice, and Savoy. The ruler of the kingdom,
    beginning in 1849, was King Victor Emmanuel II.
  • The king named Camillo di Cavour his prime
    minister in 1852. Cavour was a dedicated
    political leader. As prime minister, he pursued a
    policy of economic expansion to increase
    government revenues enable the kingdom to equip
    a large army. Cavour, knew that Piedmonts army
    was not strong enough to defeat the Austrians.
    So, he made an alliance with the French emperor
    Louis-Napoleon. Cavour then provoked the
    Austrians into declaring war in 1859. Following
    that conflict, a peace settlement gave Nice and
    Savoy to the French. Cavour had promised Nice and
    Savoy to the French in return for making the
    alliance. Lombardy, which had been under Austrian
    control, was given to Piedmont. Austria retained
    control of Venetia. Cavours success caused
    nationalists in other Italian states (Parma,
    Modena, and Tuscany) to overthrow their
    governments join their states to Piedmont.
  • Meanwhile,, in southern Italy, a new leader of
    Italian unification had arisen. Giuseppe
    Garibaldi, a dedicated Italian patriot, raised an
    army of a thousand volunteers. They were called
    Red Shirts because of the color of their
    uniforms. A branch of the Bourbon dynasty ruled
    the Tow Sicilies (Sicily and Naples), and a
    revolt had broken out in Sicily against the king.
    Garibaldis forces landed in Sicily and, by the
    end of July 1860, controlled most of the island.
    In August, Garibaldi and his forces crossed over
    to the mainland and began a victorious march up
    the Italian Peninsula. Naples and the entire
    Kingdom of the Two Sicilies fell in early
    September. Garibaldi chose to turn over his
    conquests to Piedmont. On March 17th, 1861, a new
    state of Italy was proclaimed under King Victor
    Emmanuel II. The task of unification was not yet
    complete, however. Austria still had Venetia in
    the north and Rome was under the control of the
    pope, supported by French troops.

  • Strongly conservative members of Prussias
    wealthy landowning class who supported King
    Wilhelm I in his conflict with Prussian
    parliament. The liberal parliament refused
    Wilhelm money for reforms that would double the
    strength of the army.
  • Like Italy, Germany also achieved national unity
    in the mid-1800s. Beginning in 1815, 39 German
    states formed a loose grouping called the German
    Confederation. The Austrian Empire dominated the
    confederation. However, Prussia was ready to
    unify all the German states. The German
    Confederation was composed of 39 Independent
    German States, including Austria and Prussia In
    May 1848 representatives from the separate German
    states held an assembly in Frankfurt to prepare a
    constitution for a united Germany ultimately,
    however, the movement failed to gain the support
    needed to unify Germany in the mid-19th century.
  • News of the 1848 revolution in France led to
    upheaval in other parts of Europe. The Congress
    of Vienna in 1815 had recognized the existence of
    38 independent German states (called the German
    Confederation). Of these, Austria and Prussia
    were the two greatest powers. The other states
    varied in size. In 1848, cries for change led
    many German rulers to promise constitutions, a
    free press, jury trials, and other liberal
    reforms. In May 1848, an all-German parliament
    called the Frankfurt Assembly, was held to
    fulfill a liberal and nationalist dream the
    preparation of a constitution for a new united

Closure Question 2 Why did Great Britain not
join the revolutions that spread through Europe
in 1848? (At least 1 sentence)
Otto von Bismarck
  • Otto von Bismarck Prime Minister of Prussia
    from 1860 to 1890 Bismarck increased Prussias
    military strength and led a series of successful
    military campaigns expanding Prussias borders,
    forming the German Empire.
  • Militarism is the glorification of and reliance
    on the military During the mid-1800s Prussia
    was well known for its militarism. After the
    Frankfurt Assembly failed to achieve German
    unification in 1848 and 1849, Germans looked to
    Prussia for leadership in the cause of German
    unification. In the course of the 19th century,
    Prussia had become a strong and prosperous state.
    Its government was authoritarian. The Prussian
    king had firm control over both the government
    and the army. Prussia was also known for its
    militarism. In the 1860s, King William I tried to
    enlarge the Prussian army. When the Prussian
    legislature refused to levy new taxes for the
    proposed military changes, William I appointed a
    new prime minister, Count Otto von Bismarck.
  • Bismarck has often been seen as the foremost 19th
    century practitioners of realpolitik the
    politics of reality, or politics based on
    practical matters rather than on theory or
    ethics. Bismarck openly voiced his strong dislike
    of anyone who opposed him. After his appointment,
    Bismarck ignored the legislative opposition to
    the military reforms. He argued instead that
    Germany does not look to Prussias liberalism
    but for her power. Bismarck proceeded to collect
    taxes and strengthen the army. From 1862 to 1866,
    Bismarck governed Prussia without approval of the
    parliament. In the meantime, he followed an
    active foreign policy, which soon led to war.
    After defeating Denmark with Austrian help in
    1864, Prussia gained control of the duchies of
    Schleswig and Holstein. Bismarck then created
    friction with the Austrians and forced them into
    a war on June 14, 1866. The Austrians, no match
    for the well-disciplined Prussian army, were
    defeated on July 3rd.

  • The politics of reality Term used to describe
    tough power politics with no room for idealism.
    Otto von Bismarck used realpolitik to establish
    himself as the de facto military dictator of
    Prussia and, eventually, the unified German
  • Bismarck purposely stirred up border conflicts
    with Austria over Schleswig and Holstein. The
    tensions provoked Austria into declaring war on
    Prussia in 1866. This conflict was known as the
    Seven Weeks War. The Prussians used their
    superior training and equipment to win a
    devastating victory. They humiliated Austria. The
    Austrians lost the region of Venetia, which was
    given to Italy. They had to accept Prussian
    annexation of more German territory. With its
    victory in the Seven Weeks War, Prussia took
    control of northern Germany. For the first time,
    the eastern and western parts of the Prussian
    kingdom were joined. In 1867, the remaining
    states of the north joined the North German
    confederation, which Prussia dominated.
  • By 1867, a few southern German states remained
    independent of Prussian control. The majority of
    southern Germans were Catholics. Many in the
    region resisted domination by Protestant
    Prussia. However, Bismarck felt he could win the
    support of southerners if they faced a threat
    from outside. He reasoned that a war with France
    would rally the south. Bismarck was an expert at
    manufacturing incidents to gain his ends. For
    example, he created the impression that the
    French ambassador had insulted the Prussian king.
    The French reacted to Bismarcks deception by
    declaring war on Prussia on July 19, 1870. The
    Prussian army immediately poured into northern
    France. In September 1870, the Prussian army
    surrounded the main French force at Sedan. Among
    the 83,000 French prisoners taken was Napoleon
    III himself. Parisians withstood a German siege
    until hunger forced them to surrender.

Closure Question 3 Many liberals wanted
government by elected parliaments. How was
Bismarcks approach to achieving his goals
different? (At least 1 sentence)
  • Kaiser Emperor, William I of Prussia was
    proclaimed the Kaiser of the Second German Empire
    on January 18th, 1871. Under the leadership of
    William I, Germany fought a successful war
    against France, known as the Franco-Prussian War,
    and in 1871 gained the French territories of
    Alsace and Lorraine. The loss of these
    territories left the French burning for revenge
    against Germany.
  • Prussia organized the German states north of the
    Main River into the North German Confederation.
    The southern German states, which were largely
    Catholic, feared Protestant Prussia. However,
    they also feared France, their western neighbor.
    As a result, they agreed to sign military
    alliances with Prussia for protection against
    France. Prussia now dominated all of northern
    Germany, and the growing power and military might
    of Prussia worried France. Bismarck was aware
    that France would never be content with a united
    German state to its east because of the potential
    threat to French security.
  • In 1870, Prussia and France became embroiled in a
    dispute over the candidacy of a relative of the
    Prussian king for the throne of Spain. Taking
    advantage of the situation, Bismarck goaded the
    French into declaring war on Prussia on July
    19th, 1870. This conflict was called the
    Franco-Prussian War. The French proved to be no
    match for the better led and better organized
    Prussian forces. The southern German states
    honored their military alliances with Prussia and
    joined the war effort against the French.
    Prussian armies advanced into France. At Sedan,
    on September 2, 1870, an entire French army and
    the French ruler, Napoleon III, were captured.
    Paris finally surrendered on January 28, 1871. An
    official peace treaty was signed in May. France
    had to pay 5 billion francs (about 1 billion
    dollars) and give up the provinces of Alsace and
    Lorraine to the new German state. Even before the
    war had ended, the southern German states had
    agreed to enter the North German Confederation.
    On January 18, 1871, Bismarck and 600 German
    princes, nobles, and generals filled the hall of
    Mirrors in the palace of Versailles, 12 miles
    outside Paris. William I of Prussia was
    proclaimed Kaiser.

Closure Assignment 3
  • Answer the following questions based on what you
    have learned from Chapter 24, Section 3
  • How can nationalism be both a unifying and a
    disunifying force? (At least 1 sentence)
  • Why did Great Britain not join the revolutions
    that spread through Europe in 1848? (At least 1
  • Many liberals wanted government by elected
    parliaments. How was Bismarcks approach to
    achieving his goals different? (At least 1

  • Romanticism Intellectual movement of the late
    18th and early 19th centuries which emphasized
    feelings, emotion, and imagination as sources of
  • Ludwig von Beethoven was a musician and composer
    who bridged the gap between classical and
    romantic music. The Enlightenment had stressed
    reason as the chief means for discovering truth.
    The romantics emphasized feelings, emotion and
    imagination. Romantics believed that emotion and
    sentiment were only understandable to the person
    experiencing them. In their novels, romantic
    writers created figures who were often
    misunderstood and rejected by society but who
    continued to believe in their own worth through
    their inner feelings. Romantics also valued
    individualism, the belief in the uniqueness of
    each person. Many romantics rebelled against
    middle-class conventions. Male romantics grew
    long hair and beards and both men and women wore
    outrageous clothes to express their
  • Many romantics had a passionate interest in the
    past ages, especially in the medieval era. They
    felt it had a mystery and interest in the soul
    that their own industrial age did not. Romantic
    architecture revived medieval styles and built
    castles, cathedrals, city halls, parliamentary
    buildings, and even railway stations in a style
    called neo-Gothic. The British Houses of
    Parliament in London are a prime example of this
    architectural style. Romantic artists shared at
    least two features. First, to them, all art was a
    reflection of the artists inner feelings. A
    painting should mirror the artists vision of the
    world and be the instrument of the artists own
    imagination. Second, romantic artists abandoned
    classical reason for warmth and emotion. Eugene
    Delacroix was one of the most famous romantic
    painters from France. His paintings showed two
    chief characteristics a fascination with the
    exotic and a passion for color. His works reflect
    his belief that a painting should be a feast to
    the eye.

Closure Question 1 How are the movements of
romanticism and realism alike and different?
  • The belief that the world should be viewed
    realistically Realism began as a political and
    scientific concept but, by the mid 19th century,
    came to influence literature and art as well.
  • Charles Dickens was a British novelist who showed
    the realities of life for the poor in the early
    Industrial Age. Oliver Twist and David
    Copperfield, written by Dickens, create a vivid
    picture of the brutal life of Londons poor so
    effectively that they helped inspire reform. The
    literary realists of the mid-19th century
    rejected romanticism. They wanted to write about
    ordinary characters from life, not romantic
    heroes in exotic settings. They also tried to
    avoid emotional language by using precise
    description. They preferred novels to poems. Many
    literary realists combined their interest in
    everyday life with an examination of social
    issues. These artists expressed their social
    views through their characters.
  • The French author Gustave Flaubert, who was a
    leading novelist of the 1850s and 1860s,
    perfected the realist novel. His work Madame
    Bovary presents a critical description of
    small-town life in France. In Great Britain,
    Charles Dickens became a huge success with novels
    that showed the realities of life for the poor in
    the early Industrial Age. In art, too, realism
    became dominant after 1850. Realist artists
    sought to show the everyday life of ordinary
    people and the world of nature with photographic
    realism. The French painter Gustave Courbet was
    the most famous artist of the realist school. He
    loved to portray scenes from everyday life. His
    subjects were factory workers and peasants. I
    have never seen either angels or goddesses, so I
    am not interested in painting them, Courbet once
    commented. There were those who objected to
    Courbets cult of ugliness and who found such
    scenes of human misery scandalous. To Courbet,
    however, no subject was too ordinary, too harsh,
    or too ugly.

Closure Question 1 How are the movements of
romanticism and realism alike and different?
Closure Question 2 How might a realist novel
bring about changes in society? Describe the ways
by which this might happen.
  • Artistic movement in which artists try to show
    their impression of a subject or a moment in
    time. Fascinated by light, impressionist artists
    used pure, shimmering colors to capture a moment.
  • Louis Pasteur was a French biologist who proposed
    the germ theory of disease. Pasteur also
    developed a method to eliminate bacteria in milk
    which is known as Pasteurization. Secularization
    is indifference to or rejection of religion in
    the affairs of the world As a result of
    scientific advances in the 19th century many
    people became less devoted to religious faith.
    Like the visual arts, the literary arts were
    deeply affected by romanticism and reflected a
    romantic interest in the past. Sir Walter Scotts
    Ivanhoe, for example, a best-seller in the early
    1800s, told of clashes between knights in
    medieval England. Many romantic writers chose
    medieval subjects and created stories that
    expressed their strong nationalism. An
    attraction of the exotic and unfamiliar gave rise
    to Gothic literature. Chilling examples are Mary
    Shelleys Frankenstein in Britain and Edgar Allan
    Poes short stories of horror in the United
  • The Scientific Revolution had created a modern,
    rational approach to the study of the natural
    world. For a long time, only the educated elite
    understood its importance. With the Industrial
    Revolution, however, came a heightened interest
    in scientific research. By the 1830s, new
    discoveries in science had led to many practical
    benefits that affected all Europeans. Science
    came to have a greater and greater impact on
    people. In biology, the Frenchman Louis Pasteur
    proposed the germ theory of disease, which was
    crucial to the development of modern scientific
    medical practices. In chemistry, the Russian
    Dmitry Mendeleyev in the 1800s classified all the
    material elements then known on the basis of
    their atomic weights. In Great Britain, Michael
    Faraday put together a primitive generator that
    laid the foundation for the use of electric
    current. Dramatic material benefits such as
    these led Europeans to have a growing faith in
    science. This faith, in turn, undermined the
    religious faith of many people. It is no accident
    that the 19th century was an age of increasing
    secularization. For many people, truth was now to
    be found in science and the concrete material
    existence of humans.

Closure Question 3 What was the goal of
impressionist painters?
Closure Assignment 4
  • Answer the following questions based on what you
    have learned from Chapter 24, Section 4
  • How are the movements of romanticism and realism
    alike and different?
  • How might a realist novel bring about changes in
    society? Describe the ways by which this might
  • What was the goal of impressionist painters?

Industrial Revolution
  • Term referring to the greatly increased output of
    machine-made goods that began in England in the
    middle 1700s.
  • The assembly line is an efficient manufacturing
    method pioneered by American Henry Ford in 1913
    Assembly Line production places a product on a
    conveyor belt and has individuals at various
    stations along the belt responsible to attach one
    specific part. Mass Production is a business
    practice of producing large quantities of
    identical products which can be made quickly and
  • By the 1880s, streetcars and subways powered by
    electricity had appeared in major European
    cities. Electricity transformed the factory as
    well. Conveyor belts, cranes, and machines could
    all be powered by electricity. With electric
    lights, factories could remain open 24 hours a
    day. The development of the internal-combustion
    engine, fired by oil and gasoline, provided a new
    source of power in transportation. This engine
    gave rise to ocean liners with oil-fired engines,
    as well as to the airplane and the automobile. In
    1903 Orville and Wilbur Wright made the first
    flight in a fixed-wing plane at Kitty Hawk, North
    Carolina. In 1919 the first regular passenger air
    service was established.
  • Industrial production grew at a rapid pace
    because of greatly increased sales of
    manufactured goods. Europeans could afford to buy
    more consumer products for several reasons. Wages
    for workers increased after 1870. In addition,
    prices for manufactured goods were lower because
    of reduced transportation costs. One of the
    biggest reasons for more efficient production was
    the assembly line. In the cities, the first
    department stores began to sell a new range of
    consumer goods. These goods clocks, bicycles,
    electric lights, and typewriters, for example
    were made possible by the steel and electrical

Assembly Line
  • Series of laws passed by British parliament in
    the 1700s which required landowners to fence off
    common lands. These laws forced many peasants to
    move to towns, creating a labor supply for
  • The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain
    in the 1780s and took several decades to spread
    to other Western nations. Several factors
    contributed to make Great Britain the starting
    point. First, an agrarian revolution beginning in
    the 1700s changed agricultural practices.
    Expansion of farmland, good weather, improved
    transportation, and new crops such as the potato
    dramatically increased the food supply. More
    people could be fed at lower prices with less
    labor. Now even ordinary British families could
    use some of their income to buy manufactured
  • Second, with the increased food supply, the
    population grew. When Parliament passed enclosure
    movement laws in the 1700s, landowners fenced off
    common lands. This forced many peasants to move
    to towns, creating a labor supply for factories.
    The remaining farms were larger, more efficient,
    with increased crop yields. Third, Britain had a
    ready supply of money, or capital, to invest in
    new machines and factories. Entrepreneurs found
    new ways to make profits in a laissez-faire
    market economy, ruled by supply and demand with
    little government control of industry. Fourth,
    Britain had plentiful natural resources. The
    countrys rivers provided water power for the new
    factories. These waterways provided a means for
    transporting raw materials and finished products.
    Britain also had abundant supplies of coal and
    iron ore, essential in manufacturing processes.
  • Finally, a supply of markets gave British
    manufacturers a ready outlet for their goods.
    Britain had a vast colonial empire, and British
    ships could transport goods anywhere in the
    world. Also, because of population growth and
    cheaper food at home, domestic markets increased.
    A growing demand for cotton cloth led British
    manufacturers to look for ways to increase

Closure Question 1 Was the revolution in
agriculture necessary to the Industrial
Revolution? Explain.
Crop Rotation
  • Improved agricultural process developed during
    the Industrial Revolution. One year, for example,
    a farmer might plant a field with wheat, which
    exhausted soil nutrients. The next year he
    planted a root crop, such as turnips, to restore
  • Livestock breeders improved their methods too. In
    the 1700s, for example, Robert Bakewell increased
    his mutton (sheep meat) output by allowing only
    his best sheep to breed. Other farmers followed
    Bakewells lead. Between 1700 and 1786, the
    average weight for lambs climbed from 18 to 50
    pounds. As food supplies increased and living
    conditions improved, Englands population
    mushroomed. An increasing population boosted the
    demand for food and goods such as cloth. As
    farmers lost their land to large enclosed farms,
    many became factory workers.
  • By 1800, several major inventions had modernized
    the cotton industry. One invention led to
    another. In 1733, a machinist named John Kay made
    a shuttle that sped back and forth on wheels.
    This flying shuttle, a boat-shaped piece of wood
    to which yarn was attached, doubled the work a
    weaver could do in a day. Because spinners could
    not keep up with these speedy weavers, a cash
    prize attracted contestants to produce a better
    spinning machine. Around 1764, a textile worker
    named James Hargreaves invented a spinning wheel
    he named after his daughter. His spinning jenny
    allowed one spinner to work eight threads at a
    time. At first, textile workers operated the
    flying shuttle and the spinning jenny by hand.
    Then, Richard Arkwright invented the water frame
    in 1769. This machine used the waterpower from
    rapid streams to drive spinning wheels. In 1779,
    Samuel Crompton combined features of the spinning
    jenny and the water frame to produce the spinning
    mule. The spinning mule made thread that was
    stronger, finer, and more consistent than earlier
    spinning machines. Run by waterpower, Edmund
    Cartwrights power loom sped up weaving after its
    invention in 1787.

Closure Question 1 Was the revolution in
agriculture necessary to the Industrial
Revolution? Explain.
  • The process of developing machine production of
    goods. England led the way in Industrialization,
    largely as a result of natural resources such as
    rivers for inland transportation, harbors from
    which merchant ships set sail, water power and
    coal to fuel machines, and iron ore to construct
  • Puddling Iron making process developed by
    Englishman Henry Cort which used coke, which was
    derived from coal, to burn away in impurities in
    Iron Ore. Manchester Liverpool In 1829
    Manchester, a rich cotton-manufacturing town, was
    connected with Liverpool, a thriving port, by
    railroad, further speeding the production and
    sale of cotton cloth. As a result of the puddling
    process, the British iron industry boomed. In
    1740, Britain had produced 17,000 tons of iron.
    After Corts process came into use in the 1780s,
    production jumped to nearly 70,000 tons. In 1852,
    Britain produced almost 3 million tons more
    iron than the rest of the combined world
    produced. High-quality iron was used to build new
    machines, especially trains.
  • The factory was another important element in the
    Industrial Revolution. From its beginning, the
    factory created a new labor system. Factory
    owners wanted to use their new machines
    constantly. So, workers were forced to work in
    shifts to keep the machines producing at a steady
    rate. Early factory workers came from rural areas
    where they were used to periods of inactivity.
    Factory owners wanted workers to work without
    stopping. They disciplined workers to a system of
    regular hours and repetitive tasks. Anyone who
    came to work late was fined or quickly fired for
    misconduct, especially for drunkenness. One early
    industrialist said that his aim was to make the
    men into machines that cannot err. Discipline of
    factory workers, especially of children, was
    often harsh. Children were often beaten with a
    rod or whipped to keep them at work.
  • In the 18th century, more efficient means of
    moving resources and goods developed. Railroads
    were particularly important to the success of the
    Industrial Revolution. Richard Threvithick, an
    English engineer, built the first steam
    locomotive. In 1804, Threvithicks locomotive ran
    on an industrial rail-line in Britain. It pulled
    10 tons of ore and 70 people 5 miles per hour.
    Better locomotives soon followed. In 1813, George
    Stephenson built the Blucher, the first
    successful flanged-wheel locomotive. With its
    flanged wheels, the Blucher ran on top of the
    rails instead of in sunken tracks.

Factors of Production
  • Resources needed to produce goods and services
    that the Industrial Revolution required. These
    include land, labor, and capital. (wealth)
  • The success of Stockton Darlington, the first
    true railroad, encouraged investors to link by
    rail Manchester and Liverpool. In 1829, the
    investors sponsored a competition to find the
    most suitable locomotive to do the job. They
    selected the Rocket. The Rocket sped along at 16
    miles per hour while pulling a 40 ton train.
    Within 20 years, locomotives were able to reach
    50 miles per hour. In 1840, Britain had almost
    2,000 miles of railroads. In 1850, more than
    6,000 miles of railroad track crisscrossed much
    of that country. Railroad expansion caused a
    ripple effect in the economy. Building railroads
    created new jobs for farm laborers and peasants.
    Less expensive transportation led to lower priced
    goods, thus creating larger markets. More sales
    meant more factories and more machinery. Business
    owners could reinvest their profits in new
    equipment, adding to the growth of the economy.
    This type of regular, ongoing economic growth
    became a basic feature of the new industrial
    economy. The Industrial Revolution spread to the
    rest of Europe at different times and speeds.
    First to be industrialized in continental Europe
    were Belgium, France, and the German states. In
    these places, governments actively encouraged
    industrialization. For example, governments
    provided funds to build roads, canals, and
    railroads. By 1850, a network of iron rails
    spread across Europe.
  • An Industrial Revolution also occurred in the
    United States. In 1800, 5 million people lived in
    the U.S., and 6 out of every 7 American workers
    were farmers. No city had more than 100,000
    people. By 1860, the population had grown to 30
    million people. Cities had also grown. Nine
    cities had populations over 100,000. Only 50 of
    American workers were farmers. A large country,
    the U.S. needed a good transportation system to
    move goods across the nation. Thousands of miles
    of roads and canals were built to link east and
    west. Robert Fulton built the first paddle-wheel
    steamboat, the Clermont, in 1807. Most important
    in the development of an American transportation
    system was the railroad. It began with fewer than
    100 miles of track in 1830. By 1860, about 30,000
    miles of railroad track covered the U.S. The
    country became a single massive market for the
    manufactured goods of the Northeast. Labor for
    the growing number of factories in the Northeast
    came chiefly from the farm population. Women and
    girls made up a large majority of the workers in
    large textile (cotton and wool) factories.

  • Large buildings in which merchants housed
    machines. Wealthy British textile merchants built
    their factories near waterways because most of
    the early machines ran on waterpower.
  • Cottage Industry The two-step process of
    manufacturing cotton cloth first, spinners made
    cotton thread from raw cotton second, weavers
    wove the cotton into cloth. Prior to the 18th
    century this process was carried out mostly by
    women in rural cottages. James Watt Scottish
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