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Pakistan

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Title: Pakistan


1
Pakistan
2
Independent Pakistan and Government Since Then
3
Civil War
  • Pakistan begins as two separate and divided
    states
  • East Pakistan is more populous West Pakistan
    houses government
  • East Pakistan declares independence from West
    Pakistan in 1971
  • Civil war erupts East Pakistan wins, becomes new
    nation of Bangladesh

4
Politics
  • Pakistan goes back and forth from being a
    democracy and being ruled by a military dictator
    after a coup.
  • Pakistani politics have a tradition of being
    underhanded, violent, and volatile.

5
Pakistan Politics
Jinnah (1947)gtgt
ltltZulfikar Bhutto (1973-77)
Benazir Bhuttogtgt (1988-90, 93-96)
Sharif (1990-93, 97-99)
Zardari (now)
ltlt Musharraf (1999-2008)
6
History of Pakistans Political Leaders
  • 1948 Muhammad Ali Jinnah, founding father of
    Pakistan, dies
  • 1951 Jinnahs successor, Liaquat Ali Khan is
    assassinated.
  • 1956 Constitution proclaims Pakistan as Islamic
    Republic.
  • 1958 General Ayyub Khan becomes president.
  • 1969 General Yahya Khan takes over in a coup.
  • 1973 Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (Benazirs father)
    becomes PM.
  • 1979 General Zia ul-Haq overthrows and hangs
    Bhutto in a military coup becomes president.
    Daughter Benazir goes into exile, returns in
    1986.
  • 1988 Gen. Zia dies in mysterious plane crash.
    Bhuttos Pakistans Peoples Party wins election
    she becomes PM.
  • 1990 Benazir Bhutto is dismissed as PM on
    charges of incompetence corruption.

7
History of Pakistans Leaders Continued
  • 1991 PM Nawaz Sharif begins economic
    liberalization.
  • 1993 PM Sharif resigns under pressure from
    military. General election brings Bhutto back to
    power.
  • 1996 President Leghari dismisses Bhuttos
    government amid corruption allegations.
  • 1996 Nawaz Sharif returns as PM after his
    Pakistan Muslim League wins elections.
  • 1999 Bhutto and her husband are convicted of
    corruption and sentenced. Benazir flees to exile.
    Later that year Sharif is overthrown by General
    Pervez Musharraf in a military coup.
  • 2002 Musharraf grants himself new powers
    including the right to dismiss parliament.
  • 2007 Bhuttos and Sharifs parties protest
    Musharraf. Musharraf takes over media and
    communication networks.
  • 2008 Musharraf forced to step down in face of
    impeachment
  • 2011 Musharraf indicted for assassination of
    Benazir Bhutto

8
A Pattern of Instability
  • Many different governments rule Pakistan, non
    achieve stability
  • Benazir Bhutto leads Pakistan in 1980s and 1990s
    but is ousted. The military now rules.
  • Bhutto is assassinated in 2007.

U.S. President George W. Bush condemned the
assassination in a 27 December press conference.
9
Gen. Pervex Musharaff
  • Coup detat.
  • Secular government against Islamic
    fundamentalists.
  • U.S. ally in the War on Terror.

10
The Musharraf Era
  • Musharraf came to power in a 1999 military coup,
    self appointed as president in 2001.
  • Enjoyed western support due to his announced
    intentions in 2002 to combat extremists in
    Pakistan.
  • Legitimacy of his rule is dubious - In 2007 he
    suspended the constitution and jailed several
    supreme court members before they were about to
    evaluate the validity of his election.
  • During Musharrafs time Pakistan enjoyed
    impressive economic performance.
  • Musharrafs approval rating plummeted to 15.

11
Pakistan, The U.S. and the War on Terror
  • US supported Pakistan and Musharraf ever since he
    pledged to be an ally to the US in the war on
    terror.
  • US placed its faith in Musharraf by appropriating
    over 10B in foreign aid since 9/11.
  • Stark contrast to the sanctions US had against
    Pakistan before Musharraf pledged his support.
  • Question now is whether or not the US should have
    continued to support Musharraf since he became
    widely unpopular and Illegitimate.

12
President Prime Minister
  • Asif Ali Zardari
  • Syed Yusuf Raza Gilani

13
Effects Suffering Economy
  • Economy suffered from decades of internal
    political disputes
  • a fast growing population
  • mixed levels of foreign investment
  • a costly, ongoing confrontation with neighboring
    India

14
Major problems Issues in Pakistan today
  • Economic development.
  • Political instability/military dictatorship.
  • Hindu-Muslim tensions.
  • Gender issues ? honor killings.
  • Terrorism.
  • The Kashmir dispute and nuclear weapons.

15
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16
Conflict Over Kashmir
17
Kashmir, Nehru, the British
  • Muslim ruler of Kashmir agrees to sign on with
    India, and Nehru makes exception to the rule of
    partition
  • in cases of majority population land goes to
    Pakistan in border regions......

18
Kashmir
  • Kashmir, a region occupied by Pakistan and India,
    lies south of the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan.
  • This disputed territory is the scene of sporadic
    fighting between the armies of Pakistan and
    India. China also occupies a part of Kashmir.

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21
History of the Conflict
  • The territory of Kashmir
  • The territory was handed over to India after they
    gained independence from the British in 1947.

22
The Problem
  • The Kashmir area was predominantly Muslim.
  • The ruler of Kashmir fled to India and agreed to
    place Kashmir under Indian rule if India would
    protect Kashmir from invasion.
  • If there had been a vote in Kashmir, the majority
    probably would have voted to become part of
    Pakistan for religious reasons.

23
Religious Groups in India-Controlled Kashmir
REGION Buddhist Hindu Muslim Other
Kashmir Valley - 4 95 -
Jammu - 66 30 4
Ladakh 50 - 46 3
Religious Groups in Pakistan-Controlled Kashmir
REGION Buddhist Hindu Muslim Other
Northern Areas - - 99 -
Azad Jammu and Kashmir - - 99 -
Source BBC World News, Pakistani and Indian
Census Data
24
The Importance of Kashmir to India and Pakistan
  • The geography is mostly rural, with large
    mountains, deserts, and valleys.
  • The region could have natural resources such as
    oil, gold, or silver that has not yet been
    discovered.

25
Control of the Indus River  
  • The Indus begins in Kashmir, flows through
    Pakistan, then flows into mainland India.
  • Since Kashmir is part of India, they could dam
    the Indus and change the flow of the river.
  • Without fertile land to grow crops, Pakistan
    would become a desert and its people would
    starve.

26
Religious Sites
  • Both Pakistan and India have sites in Kashmir
    that are important to their respective religions.
  • Pakistan is predominately Muslim. Kashmir is
    predominately Muslim.
  • India is predominately Hindu.

27
Strategic Location
  • India-Kashmir acts as a buffer.
  • Pakistan-Kashmir offers a fertile roadway into
    India for possible invasion.

28
1947 Pakistan invaded Kashmir
29
... Pakistan objects, Indian sends in new army to
Kashmir, and war breaks out in 1947-8, ending in
the LINE OF CONTROL still extant today...
30
1965 Second war over Kashmir
31
1965 War
Conflicts Context US Pakistan vs. USSR
India Global Cold War
32
War
  • Three major wars between India and Pakistan have
    been fought over the Kashmir territory
  • 1947-1948
  • 1965
  • 1971
  • A fourth war almost took place when Pakistan
    invaded and attempted to capture Kargil.

33
The Battle for Kashmir
  • India and Pakistan fight over Kashmir, a region
    in northern India
  • Cease-fire in 1949, but disputes over the region
    continues.
  • In total, India and Pakistan have fought four
    wars
  • Indo-Pakistan War of 1947
  • Indo-Pakistan War of 1965
  • Indo-Pakistan War of 1971
  • Indo-Pakistan War of 1999 (minor war)

34
1971 India-Pakistan War
35
1999 Kargil Skirmish
Context Both nations nuclear powers
36
Kargil Conflict (1999)
  • In 1998, India carried out nuclear tests and a
    few days later, Pakistan responded by more
    nuclear tests giving both countries nuclear
    deterrence capability.
  • Diplomatic tensions eased after the Lahore Summit
    was held in 1999.
  • The sense of optimism was short-lived, however,
    since in mid-1999 Pakistani paramilitary forces
    and Kashmiri insurgents captured deserted, but
    strategic, Himalayan heights in the Kargil
    district of India.

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39
Indian Soldiers Near the Pakistani Border - 2001
40
A Pakistani Ranger at the Indian-Pakistani Joint
Border Check Post in Wagha, India - 2001
41
Anti-war Protestors in Karachi, Pakistan - 2001
42
Kashmiri Militants - 2003
43
Mumbai Bombings, Nov 26, 2008 163 people die from
terrorist bombings A Kashmir Connection? Lashkar,
Regional History and Islamist Militarism
Taj Mahal Hotel
Photo Punit Paranjpe/Reuters
44
Kashmir Today Insurgency and Terrorism, State and
Proxies
45
Hindu Kashmiri Panditas terrorized, flight into
refugee camps in Jammu
46
Still Kashmiris not allowed to decide their own
fate
47
Stalemate Continues....
48
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57
Nuclear Rivalry Between Pakistan and India
58
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59
INDIAN PARADOX POVERTY AND POWER
60
What title would you give this political cartoon?
61
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63
Nuclear Power India-Pakistan
  • Indian Nuclear Power Plants
  • Pakistani Nuclear Power Plants

64
India Weapon of Mass Destruction
  • India does possess nuclear weapons and maintains
    short- and intermediate-range ballistic missiles,
    nuclear-capable aircraft, surface ships, and
    submarines under development as possible delivery
    systems and platforms.
  • Although it lacks an operational ballistic
    missile submarines India has ambitions of
    possessing a nuclear triad in the near future.

65
India Weapon of Mass Destruction
  • India tested a nuclear device in 1974 (code-named
    "Smiling Buddha"), which it called a "peaceful
    nuclear explosive."
  • India performed further nuclear tests in 1998
    (code-named "Operation Shakti").

66
The India-Pakistan Arms Race Heats Up in the Late
1990s
67
THE ISLAMIC BOMB
  • PAKISTAN EXPLODED ITS FIRST NUCLEAR DEVICE IN
    DESERT IN 1998.
  • DR. A.Q. KHAN RESPONSIBLE FOR ITS SECRET
    DEVELOPMENT, AND SHARED TECHNOLOGY WITH ROGUE
    STATES LIKE LIBYA, NORTH KOREA, MAYBE OTHERS

68
Supporters of former Indian Prime Minister Atal
Bihari Vajpayee chant nationalist slogans in
support for his nuclear policy - 1998
69
1998 India tested their first nuclear weapon.
Pakistan followed with nuclear tests.
70
Former Indian Prime Minister, Atal Bihari
Vajpayee, displays a sword given to him by Sikh
youths in New Delhi to honor him for making India
a nuclear power - 1998
71
Right-wing Pakistani Activists Burn Indian Flag
to Protest Indian Nuclear Tests - 1998
72
Hot Air Balloon Protesting India Pakistans
nuclear testing - 1998
73
2002 Military Statistics
74
India Displays Nuclear Missiles During Republic
Day, - 2002
75
India Successfully Tested Agni Missiles - 2002
76
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77
2002 Nuclear Statistics
78
Musharraf and Vajpayee at a meeting on nuclear
issues in Nepal in 2002
79
Is this a possibility?
80
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81
Partners in the War on Terror?
82
Threat of Taliban to Pakistan
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84
Taliban Connections Rooted in Pakistan
  • The Taliban emerged as a powerful movement in
    late 1994 when Pakistan chose the Taliban to
    guard a convoy trying to open a trade route from
    Pakistan to Central Asia.
  • With Pakistan providing weapons, military
    training, and financial support, the Taliban
    gained control over several Afghan cities and
    successfully captured Kabul in September 1996

85
Taliban Connections to Pakistan
  • Pakistani support for the Taliban is based on
    strong religious and ethnic bonds between the
    Taliban and Pakistan, especially with the tribal
    areas on the North-West borders of Pakistan.
  • Most of the Talibans leaders were educated in
    refugee camps in Pakistan where they had escaped
    the Soviet invasion.
  • Taliban militants are Sunni Muslim Pashtuns, and
    Pashtuns constitute thirteen percent of the total
    population of Pakistan.
  • Pashtuns dominate the Pakistani military and are
    concentrated in the North-West Frontier province,
    which was the command center for the Mujahedeen
    groups fighting the Soviet troops and a major
    destination for the Afghan refugees

86
Taliban Connections to Pakistan
  • Pakistani Taliban members have been involved
  • In insurgent activity and terrorist attacks
    inside Afghanistan
  • Trained the Times Square bomber Faisal Shehzad
  • Participated in numerous suicide bombings and
    urban guerrilla attacks inside Pakistan including
    the siege at the Pakistan Naval Base Mehran in
    Karachi

87
Pakistani Taliban Alliance with Al-Qaeda
  • Dates back to the Soviet-Afghan War
  • Taliban has provided shelter to Al-Qaeda leaders
  • Has been operationally active with the terrorist
    group
  • Vowed to avenge the killing of Osama Bin Laden
  • Vows to continue the war with the USA

88
Taliban Moves to Pakistan
  • In October 2001, thousands of Pakistani Pakthun
    tribesmen were mobilized for armed action and
    crossed the Durand Line into Afghanistan to
    resist both the American and NATO forces.
  • For example, Sufi Mohammed, a Pakhtun cleric and
    leader of the Movement for the Enforcement of
    Islamic Law infiltrated Afghanistan with about
    10,000 boys and young men.

89
Taliban Moves to Pakistan
  • The arrival in tribal areas of the Afghans
    Taliban and Al-Qaedas senior leadership along
    with hundreds of Afghan, Arab, Chechen, Uzbek,
    East Asian, and Sudanese fighters in Pakistan
    distributed millions of dollars among the tribal
    elders for shelter
  • Al-Qaeda as been leasing compounds from the
    tribesmen to establish training camps and command
    and control centers.

90
Taliban Moves to Pakistan
  • In 2002, when the Pakistani Army invaded the
    tribal areas, it transformed the existing
    widespread militancy into a full-blown
    insurgency.
  • This has since spread throughout Pakistan

91
The war spills over into Pakistan
  • Pakistani military intelligence manipulation of
    the Afghanistan war - from the 1980s onward
  • Taliban and Haqqani Network across the Pakistani
    border provinces
  • Cross-border illicit trade
  • US operations in Pakistan
  • CIA and Special Forces assassination teams
  • CIA drone bombings
  • The assassination of Osama Bin Laden

92
Refugees
  • Afghans constitute the largest single refugee
    population in the world with an estimated 6
    million people or 30 percent of the global
    refugee population.
  • The population has been greatly affected by a
    refugee problem for years.
  • Large numbers of Afghans are refugees in
    Pakistan.

93
Refugees
  • Pakistan has received the most

94
Pakistani Taliban Numbers
  • There are about 40 militant groups with a
    combined membership between 30,000 and 35,000.
  • They are decentralized and do not always agree.
  • They use social networks to recruit, raise funds,
    and to harass people.

95
Why Pakistani Men Join the Taliban
  • Recruit young men by offering them access to and
    membership in social networks, money, power, and
    respect
  • Many are young unemployed men who have had no
    access to education or jobs
  • Brainwash the men during the interactions
  • For example, many of the suicide bombers are
    poor, uneducated students in their early teens

96
Why Pakistani Men Join the Taliban
  • Existing poverty from an ongoing lack of
    infrastructure
  • The governments inability to provide education
    and fair legal system aid recruitment efforts
  • Most join because they are poor and feel that the
    government does not care about them.
  • For example, in 2009, the average salary of a
    low-level Taliban member was 180 a month, while
    in other areas it was as high as 240 a month

97
Why Pakistan Men Join the Taliban
  • The governments inability to provide better
    shelter and services to the refugees in the camps
    have aided recruitment.
  • Young men frustrated by the preventable deaths of
    family members due to pneumonia and diarrhea join
    the Taliban
  • The Taliban provides swift and free justice in
    hostile areas

98
Why Pakistani Men Join the Taliban
  • They sometimes use abduction and other coercive
    tactics to recruit fighters and quell dissent.
  • In early 2007, they began forcing school children
    to sign up for suicide bombing missions by
    kidnapping 30 children

99
Why Pakistani Men Join the Taliban
  • The Pakistani Army when fighting against the
    insurgents have killed many civilians and this
    has led to the people joining the Taliban for
    revenge
  • For example, in 2009, 1,150 civilians were killed
    during Pakistan Army actions
  • The Pakistani Army also alienates locals by
    arbitrary arrests, illegal detentions, unlawful
    killings, deliberate property damage, executing
    people without trials

100
BBC, 2009
101
Most Recent and Widely Known Pakistani Taliban
Attack
  • The banned Islamist group, which has intimate
    links to the Afghan Taliban and al Qaeda,
    unabashedly confirmed it tried to kill teen
    activist Malala Yousufzai as she rode home from
    school in a van October 9, 2012
  • But before that, the group, formally known as
    Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), took the global
    spotlight when Faisal Shahzad, a
    Pakistani-American, attempted to detonate a car
    bomb in New York's Times Square in May 2010. The
    TTP took responsibility, and Shahzad testified
    that he had received training from them.
  • Formally known as Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan, the
    group is very closely linked with its namesake in
    Afghanistan as well as with al Qaeda. It shares
    its religious extremist ideology -- but is its
    own distinct group.
  • The TTP also has a different goal, but its
    tactics are the same, says Raza Rumi, director of
    policy and programs at the Jinnah Institute, a
    Pakistani think tank.
  • "Their primary target is the Pakistani state and
    its military," he says. "It resents the fact that
    it (Pakistan) has an alliance with the West, and
    it wants Sharia to be imposed in Pakistan."

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103
Malal Yousafzai
  • Ms. Yousafzai was targeted for advocating the
    right of girls to education, and for exposing the
    daily violence and intimidation after the Taliban
    took control of the Swat valley.
  • She had been writing a blog for the BBC in Urdu
    under the pen name Gul Makai since the age of
    11.
  • As the Taliban were driven out of the Swat valley
    in 2009, her identity was made public.
  • She received the National Peace Award from
    former Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani on
    December 19, 2011, and was nominated for the
    International Children's Peace Prize the same
    year by the Dutch organisation Kids Rights.
  • Ms. Yousafzai was also a speaker for the Child
    Assembly in Swat, an initiative supported by
    UNICEF in 2011.
  • She appeared on national and international
    television to express her views on the rights of
    children and girls.
  • On the day of the attack, spokesperson for the
    Pakistani Taliban, Ehsanullah Ehsan, confirmed to
    international media that they attacked her
    because she was anti-Taliban and secular,
    adding that she would not be spared. She was
    pro-West, she was speaking against Taliban and
    she was calling President Obama her idol She
    was young but she was promoting Western
    culture in Pashtun areas,he said. He reiterated
    the threats to kill her if she survives the
    attack.

104
Malala Yousafzai
  • Gunmen halted the van ferrying Malala Yousafzai
    through her native Swat Valley, one of the most
    conservative regions in Pakistan.
  • They demanded that other girls in the vehicle
    identify her. Malala had faced frequent death
    threats in the past.
  • Some of the girls pointed her out.
  • At least one gunman opened fire, wounding three
    girls.
  • Two suffered non-life-threatening injuries, but
    bullets struck Malala in the head and neck.
  • The bus driver hit the gas. The assailants got
    away.
  • Malala was left in critical condition.
  • An uncle described her as having excruciating
    pain and being unable to stop moving her arms and
    legs.

105
Malala Yousafzai
  • Malala Yousafzai, the Pakistani girl shot in an
    attempted assassination by the Taliban in
    October, has spoken publicly for the first time
    of her recovery in Britain, saying God has given
    her "a second life" thanks to the prayers of
    those who supported her around the world.
  • Malala has been treated at the Queen Elizabeth
    hospital in Birmingham since being flown to
    Britain after being shot by the Taliban for
    campaigning for women's rights and girls'
    education

106
Malalas Courage
http//www.nytimes.com/2012/10/11/world/asia/pakis
tan-erupts-in-anger-over-talibans-shooting-of-mala
la-yousafzai.html?hp
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