LIFE07 ENV/FIN/000133 SNOWCARBO Stakeholder Meeting 14.12.2011 Helsinki-Finland - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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LIFE07 ENV/FIN/000133 SNOWCARBO Stakeholder Meeting 14.12.2011 Helsinki-Finland

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Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: Mattila Olli-Pekka Last modified by: Ali Nadir Arslan Created Date: 1/1/1601 12:00:00 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: LIFE07 ENV/FIN/000133 SNOWCARBO Stakeholder Meeting 14.12.2011 Helsinki-Finland


1
LIFE07 ENV/FIN/000133 SNOWCARBO Stakeholder
Meeting14.12.2011 Helsinki-Finland
2
CONTENTS
  • INTRODUCTION
  • BACKGROUND AIMS
  • MAIN ACTIVITIES
  • EXPECTED RESULTS
  • METHODOLOGY
  • PROGRESSES
  • MAIN TECHNICAL ACHIEVEMENTS
  • FUTURE WORK

3
PROJECT LOCATION Helsinki
Helsinki
BUDGET INFO
Total amount 2 155 000
EC Co-funding 1 046 000
DURATION Start 01/01/09 - End 31/12/12
PROJECTS IMPLEMENTORS
Coordinating Beneficiary Finnish Meteorological
Institute (FMI)
Associated Beneficiary(ies) Finnish Environment
Institute (SYKE), Commissariat à l'énergie
atomique Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et
de lEnvironnement (CEA-LSCE)
4
Project management
5
Project primary stakeholders
  • National stakeholders
  • Ministry of Transport and Communications
    (governing body of FMI)
  • Ministry of the Environment (governing body of
    SYKE)
  • Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, National
    Forestry Board (Metsähallitus) and forestry
    industry
  • Statistics Finland
  • Finnish Forest Research Institute (METLA)
  • Agrifood Research Finland (MTT)
  • European Comission
  • Green Paper follow up (adaption policy
    development)
  • European Climate Change Programme II (ECCP)
  • International environmental monitoring activities
    including
  • Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP)
  • Sustained Arctic Observing Networks (SAON)
    initiative of the Arctic Council
  • Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) programme of the
    World Meteorological Organization (WMO).

6
Secondary stakeholders
  • The spatial and temporal changes in snow cover
    have widespread impacts on ecosystems and human
    activities
  • flooding, water resources management,
    agriculture, transportation, hydropower
    production, reindeer husbandry, game management,
    biological diversity, insurance, tourism and
    recreational use of nature.
  • gt national and international organizations and
    companies related to these issues are secondary
    stakeholders of the project
  • Secondary stakeholders include organizations that
    support the snow monitoring systems used in the
    project
  • Snow and phenology monitoring services of FMI and
    SYKE applied in the project are part of European
    Space Agencys (ESA) GMES (Global Monitoring of
    Environment and Security) Services (projects
    Polar View and Land).
  • Environment Canada snow melt monitoring data
    (based on space-borne microwave scatterometers)
    covering northern Eurasia and America.

7
  • BACKGROUND AIMS
  • Magnitudes of carbon sinks and sources of boreal
    forests are currently estimated only in single
    locations or coarsely for very large regions
  • gt Handicap the performance of climate scenarios
    and the evaluation of anthropogenic influences to
    climate change
  • The information on global and regional level is
    limited as the distributed ground-based
    point-wise observations do not provide data
    sufficient spatially
  • gt Effect the high uncertainty in the location
    and magnitude of carbon sinks
  • The mapping of carbon sinks is a major issue
    concerning the implementation of Kyoto protocol
    and concerning future climate treaties

8
  • MAIN EU POLICY(IES) TARGETED
  • DG ENV Action on Climate Change Post 2012
  • DG ENV European Climate Change Programme (ECCP)
  • Relevant to European Strategic Energy Technology
    Plan SET (DG TREN), Integration of climate
    change into the EU s Rural Development Policy
    (DG AGRI), Water Information System for Europe,
    WISE (DG ENV)

9
  • MAIN ACTIVITIES
  • Development of a novel Earth observation
    satellite data-aided system for the monitoring of
    annual carbon balance by applying observations of
    hydrological phenomena, phenology, CO2 fluxes and
    CO2 concentration.
  • Use of snow melt information together with GIS
    land cover data and CO2 flux/concentration
    measurements to assess the annual carbon balance
    with a high spatial resolution
  • Use of dedicated models for different
    soil/vegetation types and CO2 together with a
    climate model are applied for the determination
    of carbon sinks and sources

10
  • EXPECTED RESULTS
  • Maps of carbon uptake by terrestrial vegetation,
    soil respiration and net carbon balance in
    different land use and cover classes
  • Demonstration of the mapping of carbon sources
    and sinks in boreal forest zone (northern
    Finland, northern Eurasia) and the assessment of
    natural background sources from the anthropogenic
    influence
  • Evaluation of the required performance
    characteristics of Eurasian land cover
    information for the needs of net carbon balance
    mapping/monitoring

11
METHODOLOGY
12
METHODOLOGY
13
METHODOLOGY
14
PROGRESSES
15
PROGRESSES
A novel Earth observation satellite data-aided
modeling system to produce CO2 balance in
resolution of 0.16 degrees for a domain covering
Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark as whole as
well as the Baltic countries Estonia, Latvia and
Lithuania together with areas from most
Northern Germany and Western parts of Russia IS
READY.
16
SNOWCARBO- Project Results
  • Gross Primary Production, GPP (one month
    average,July, 2003), (mol/m2/s). Same type of
    results will be reported in hourly, daily and
    monthly from 2001 to 2010. SnowCarbo project will
    also present NET CARBON BALANCE (NEE).
  • Table shows National Greengases inventory
    reporting to UNFCCC By Statistics Finland

17
Implementing Yasso07 to JSBACH
  • Replacing the original soil carbon model
    CBALANCE of JSBACH by a new soil carbon model
    Yasso07

Soil carbon pools (kg m-2) CBALANCE vs. Yasso07
CBALANCE
Yasso07
17
18
30 year-long CDR time-series on snow
conditionsof Northern Hemisphere (ESA-GlobSnow
SWE)
  • First time reliable daily spatial information on
    SWE (snow cover)
  • Snow Water Equivalent (SWE)
  • Snow Extent and melt (grain size)
  • 25 km resolution (EASE-grid)
  • Time-series for 1979-2011
  • Passive microwave radiometer data combined with
    ground-based synoptic snow observations
  • Available at open data archive (www.globsnow.info)
  • Demonstration of NRT processing started on
    October 2010
  • Greenland, glaciers mountains masked out

19
Start of growing season of evergreen coniferous
forest from MODIS time-series for comparison
with model results
  • Reference date for start of season is the final
    recovery of photosynthesis determined at CO2 flux
    measurement sites in Finland
  • Good correspondence between in situ dates and
    decrease of fractional snow cover and spring-rise
    of NDVI
  • Extraction of start of season based on NDVI
    time-series for pixels with 90 coverage with
    coniferous forest
  • Aggregation of results for comparison with
    model-derived start of season

Temporal profiles at Sodankylä from February to
July 2006 of (a) Snow Covered Area and (b) NDVI
in comparison with start of flux growing season
(FGS, red line) at Sodankylä. FGS started on
26.04.2006.
20
Evaluation of required North-Eurasian Land cover
information
  • Collection of land cover data needs in carbon
    balance modeling at FMI
  • Production of up-to-dated land cover data over
    the modeling area
  • Evaluation of existing, up-to-date global and
    regional land cover data
  • GLOBCOVER (regional version 2.2)
  • CORINE Land Cover (2000 and 2006)
  • Production of a new land cover data set for the
    modeling area
  • Low resolution satellite data (TERRA MODIS)
  • High resolution satellite data (IRS LISS,
    KOMPTSAT)
  • gtgt Different revised land cover data sets with
    Olsson nomenclature provided

21
MAIN TECHNICAL ACHIEVEMENTS
  • Snow water equivalent (30 years), on-set of snow
    melt (30 years), snow clearance (30 years), soil
    freezing (2008) weekly products
  • Implemented a modified MODIS cloud masking
    algorithm and deployed a new data processing
    server. This increases the quality of raw
    time-series data.
  • Spectral measurements from the winter field
    campaigns were processed. The measurements are
    used to aid the interpretation of NDVI and SCA
    time-series and in accuracy assessments.
  • Autumn field campaign was conducted for land
    cover data validation and accuracy assessment and
    spectral measurements of vegetation.
  • Carbon balance related features, like growing
    season beginning and end dates, were analyzed
    from the CO2 flux measurements.
  • A method for the extraction of start of season in
    boreal coniferous forests from NDVI time-series
    was developed.
  • The start of the growing season, derived from
    CO2- flux measurements, was compared with the
    start of the growing season from NDVI-
    time-series from satellite data. The two datasets
    show good correlation.
  • The up-to-date versions of both REMO and JSBACH
    models have been one-way coupled, and the models
    are now properly running on the FMI
    supercomputers, producing regional present day
    climates and CO2 fluxes with all the different
    land cover datasets currently available.
  • Assesment of system functionality in sitewise,
    Finland and Baltic area was done.
  • Tools for data extraction from REMO- model data
    format have been created. First comparisons of
    modeled snow cover and satellite data time-series
    are currently being compiled for evaluation of
    the model performance.
  • Up-to-date sets of nordic landcover information
    based on Globcover v2, CORINE2006 and TERRA MODIS
    data have been produced and reported for carbon
    balance modeling purposes.

22
FUTURE WORK
  • Model intracomparison - among land cover maps
  • Model intercomparison - REMO, JSBACH, ORCHIDEE
  • Comparison with observations
  • Comparison of carbon-balance-related features
    between modeling and
  • satellite-derived time-series
  • Model simulation results will be mapped to show
    the atmospheric load
  • of the anthropogenic emissions. Biospheric
    component will also be mapped and shown for
    different seasons, as well as the total column
    average from satellite measurements
  • REMO results to surface concentration
    observations in Pallas and Sodankylä will be
    compared and specifically examine those high CO2
    episodes, which may be of anthropogenic origin.
    Other species (CO, NOx, BC etc.) assist in
    determining whether the observed high CO2
    episodes were truly anthropogenic.
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