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Renaissance Art

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Title: PowerPoint Presentation - Renaissance Art Author: Laurie Wade Last modified by: Michael Cundari Created Date: 8/11/2004 5:36:50 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Renaissance Art


1
Renaissance Art
  • N.H.S. Humanities

2
Definition of Renaissance
  • Renaissance is a period, during the 14th, 15th,
    and 16th Centuries, of revival in classical
    learning characterized by a sharp increase in
    secular values and increased interest in learning
    the classics.  
  • The spirit of the Renaissance is reflected in
    Humanism, an intellectual movement initiated by
    secular men of letters during the fifteenth
    century. Humanism focused on developing the full
    potential of man. This included not only the
    traditional virtues of love and honor but also
    virtues such as judgment, prudence and eloquence.
    The effect of Humanism was to inspire men to
    abandon the traditional values of the Medieval
    Period and bring about new thought and creations.

3
Features of Humanism
  • Human nature is the primary study (as opposed the
    Medieval values of religion)
  • Emphasized the Dignity of Man and his potential
    to master nature over the medieval value of
    penitence and forgiveness.
  • Looked to the rebirth of the human spirit and
    wisdom over time

4
Pico della Mirandola On Dignity of Man
  • Oh unsurpassed generosity of God the
    Father, Oh wondrous and unsurpassable felicity of
    man, to whom it is granted to have what he
    chooses, to be what he wills to be! The brutes,
    from the moment of their birth, bring with them,
    as Lucilius says, from their mother's womb''
    all that they will ever possess. The highest
    spiritual beings were, from the very moment of
    creation, or soon thereafter, fixed in the mode
    of being which would be theirs through
    measureless eternities. But upon man, at the
    moment of his creation, God bestowed seeds
    pregnant with all possibilities, the germs of
    every form of life. Whichever of these a man
    shall cultivate, the same will mature and bear
    fruit in him. If vegetative, he will become a
    plant if sensual, he will become brutish if
    rational, he will reveal himself a heavenly
    being if intellectual, he will be an angel and
    the son of God. And if, dissatisfied with the lot
    of all creatures, he should recollect himself
    into the center of his own unity, he will there
    become one spirit with God, in the solitary
    darkness of the Father, Who is set above all
    things, himself transcend all creatures.

5
Historical Context of the Renaissance
6
Rise of the Nation New Monarchies
  • New Monarchies The Fifteenth and Sixteenth
    centuries see the declining influence of the
    Church in the political affairs of Europe.
    Additionally, the peasants and serfs of Europe
    see the decline of feudalism and the rise of the
    middle class.
  • The peasants life formerly secure if not
    luxurious began to be more precarious. The
    peasants saw themselves at the mercy of the
    Middle Class and Nobility.
  • Examples of the Peasants disgust with the
    increase in prices due to the influx of gold from
    the New World and the increasing population
    (increased demand).
  • The Peasant Revolts in England
  • The Peasant Revolts in France

7
New Monarchies in Western Europe
  • Loius XI of France(Spider King) established
    taille as a permanent tax an annual direct tax,
    usually on land or property.
  • Henry VII of England (first Tudor King) abolished
    private armies.
  • Isabelle of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon
    in 1469 merging two of the strongest kingdoms of
    Spain.

8
Rise of the Nation The School of Europe
  • School of Europe Refers to the Italian States
    of the Fifteenth Century. These states are
    examples of the usefulness of statecraft in
    Nation Building. The Italian States (Venice,
    Florence, Milan, Naples, Sicily) were among the
    first to establish a working relationship outside
    of the feudal and religious boundaries of the
    Middle Ages.
  • Florence
  • Medici Family ruled Florence for over sixty-five
    years. Influential in the woolen mills and baking
    industries of Florence.
  • Cosimo de Medici gained authority after the
    uprising of the woolen workers. Cosimo was able
    to appease the workers and appeared to be a man
    of Republican virtue. Many compared him to the
    Emperors of Greece.
  • Lorenzo de Medici was a patron of the arts. He
    was neglectful of family business and is
    considered responsible for the loss of the Medici
    family authority. Lorenzo failed take care of
    business responsibilities and caused the fail of
    the Medici Bank.

9
Rise of a Money Economy
  • Hanseatic League group of German Merchants that
    joined together to protect their trading
    interests. This group is one example of why the
    European economy was able to stabilize and grow.
    The hansas would form protective groups against
    merchants as well as pirates and robbers.
  • Venice regulated East/West trade. The Venetian
    ships were protected by the government, which
    enabled the Venetians to regulate prices, trade,
    and issues of supply and demand.
  • Industry
  • Divisions in labor became pronounced the guild
    system began to decline. This is the beginning of
    capitalism, where supply and demand were allowed
    to determine the sales.
  • Banking
  • Kings and small rulers began to loan money. This
    was a very risky business. Many times loans were
    not repaid, Kings would "fogive" themselves of
    loans. As a result the banks were allowed to
    charge very high interest rates. In one instance
    in Florence a bank recorded charging 266
    interest.
  • Banks were charged with changing money.
  • Banks facilitated transfer of money over long
    distances.
  • Florence is widely recognized as the leader in
    the banking industry. The "Florin" was the unit
    of currency used by the bankers of Florence. This
    unit of currency is considered the first monetary
    unit of Europe to gain international significance.

10
Printing, Thought and Literature
  • Language
  • Many different versions of language. The most
    common of educated men was Latin. Most, but not
    all, books would have been written in Latin.
  • Writers
  • Dante Allegerhi Divine Comedy Traces a journey
    from Hell into the light of Heaven. Dante is lead
    on this journey by Virgil, a Roman poet who
    embodies all knowledge.
  • Petrarch Known for his sonnets of love.
    Particularly to his love Laura. His work is
    considered to be the "perfected" Italian sonnet.
  • Erasmus He is considered the one who best
    reflects the humanist desire to draw on all
    wisdom to create his works. The Praise of Folly
    (see class handout) is one of his best-known
    works. In this work his mocks the monks of the
    church.
  • Machiavelli The Prince Political satire. Brings
    to issue the ethics of politicians. The question
    "Do the ends justify the means"?
  • Chaucer Made use of the English vernacular in
    his book The Canterbury Tales. Tells the stories
    of people traveling to Thomas a Becket's grave in
    Canterbury. It is important because the book
    allows us to see the spectrum of classes in
    England during the fifteenth century.

11
Dante Allegerhi
  • Divine Comedy Traces a journey from Hell into
    the light of Heaven. Dante is lead on this
    journey by Virgil, a Roman poet who embodies all
    knowledge.

12
Petrarch
  • Alone, and lost in thought, the desert glade
  • Measuring I roam with lingering steps and slow
  • And still a watchful glance around me throw,
  • Anxious to shun the print of human tread
  • No other means I find, no surer aid
  • From the world's prying eye to hide my woe
  • So well my wild disordered gestures show,
  • And love-lorn looks, the fire within me bred,
  • That well I think each mountain, wood and plain,
  • And river knows, what I from man conceal,
  • What dreary hues my life's fool chances dim.
  • Yet whatever wild or savage paths I've taken,
  • Wherever I wander, love attends me still,
  • Soft whispring to my soul, and I to him.
  • Sonnet 28 To Laura in Life

13
Erasmus
  • In Praise of Folly
  • And next these come those that commonly call
    themselves the religious and monks, most false in
    both titles, when both a great part of them are
    farthest from religion, and no men swarm thicker
    in all places than themselves. Nor can I think of
    anything that could be more miserable did not I
    support them so many several ways. For whereas
    all men detest them to that height, that they
    take it for ill luck to meet one of them by
    chance, yet such is their happiness that they
    flatter themselves. For first, they reckon it one
    of the main points of piety if they are so
    illiterate that they can't so much as read. And
    then when they run over their offices, which they
    carry about them, rather by tale than
    understanding, they believe the gods more than
    ordinarily pleased with their braying. And some
    there are among them that put off their
    trumperies at vast rates, yet rove up and down
    for the bread they eat nay, there is scarce an
    inn, wagon, or ship into which they intrude not,
    to the no small damage of the commonwealth of
    beggars. And yet, like pleasant fellows, with all
    this vileness, ignorance, rudeness, and
    impudence, they represent to us, for so they call
    it, the lives of the apostles. Yet what is more
    pleasant than that they do all things by rule
    and, as it were, a kind of mathematics, the least
    swerving from which were a crime beyond
    forgiveness--as how many knots their shoes must
    be tied with, of what color everything is, what
    distinction of habits, of what stuff made, how
    many straws broad their girdles and of what
    fashion, how many bushels wide their cowl, how
    many fingers long their hair, and how many hours
    sleep which exact equality, how disproportionate
    it is, among such variety of bodies and tempers,
    who is there that does not perceive it? And yet
    by reason of these fooleries they not only set
    slight by others, but each different order, men
    otherwise professing apostolical charity, despise
    one another, and for the different wearing of a
    habit, or that 'tis of darker color, they put all
    things in combustion. And among these there are
    some so rigidly religious that their upper
    garment is haircloth, their inner of the finest
    linen and, on the contrary, others wear linen
    without and hair next their skins. Others, again,
    are as afraid to touch money as poison, and yet
    neither forbear wine nor dallying with women. In
    a word, 'tis their only care that none of them
    come near one another in their manner of living,
    nor do they endeavor how they may be like Christ,
    but how they may differ among themselves.

14
Machiavelli
What does this painting tell us about the modern
interpretations of Machiavellis political
attitudes?
  • That Which Concerns a Prince on the Subject of
    the Art of War
  • The Prince ought to have no other aim or
    thought, nor select anything else for his study,
    than war and its rules and discipline for this
    is the sole art that belongs to him who rules,
    and it is of such force that it not only upholds
    those who are born princes, but it often enables
    men to rise from a private station to that rank.
    And, on the contrary, it is seen that when
    princes have thought more of ease than of arms
    they have lost their states. And the first cause
    of your losing it is to neglect this art and
    what enables you to acquire a state is to be
    master of the art. Francesco Sforza, though being
    martial, from a private person became Duke of
    Milan and the sons, through avoiding the
    hardships and troubles of arms, from dukes became
    private persons. For among other evils which
    being unarmed brings you, it causes you to be
    despised, and this is one of those ignominies
    against which a prince ought to guard himself, as
    is shown later on.

Medieval Source Book. July 10, 2004
lthttp//www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/prince-exce
rp.htmlgt
Painting by Horwath
15
Chaucer
  • In April Geoffrey Chaucer at the Tabard Inn in
    Southwerk, across the Thames from London, joins a
    group of pilgrims on their way to the Shrine of
    Thomas à Becket in Canterbury. He describes
    almost all of the nine and twenty pilgrims in
    this company, each of whom practices a different
    trade (often dishonestly). The Host of the
    Tabard, Harry Bailey, proposes that he join them
    as a guide and that each of the pilgrims should
    tell tales (two on the outward journey, two on
    the way back) whoever tells the best tale will
    win a supper, at the other pilgrims' cost when
    they return. The pilgrims agree, and Chaucer
    warns his readers that he must repeat each tale
    exactly as he heard it, even though it might
    contain frank language. The next morning the
    company sets out, pausing at the Watering of St.
    Thomas, where all draw straws, and the Knight is
    thus selected to tell the first tale.

16
Science and Religion
  • Printing Press - Johann Gutenberg
  • Books were not only cheaper but also less prone
    to the error one could make in copying a book.
  • It allowed people to obtain knowledge for
    themselves rather than to read gain knowledge by
    listening to others.
  • It is not until much later that an inexpensive
    formula for making paper is found, so books
    remain the domain of the middle and upper
    classes.

17
Fine Arts
  • Renaissance art extends well beyond simply a
    creator of pictures, sculpture etc. It expands to
    encompass the ideas of "any discipline involving
    the cultivation of skill and excellence was de
    facto an art".
  • Characteristics of Renaissance Art
  • Realism Realistic portrayal of artistic styles.
    Mastered perspective and anatomy as a means to
    achieve realism.
  • Classical Classical forms and realistic
    technique
  • Individualism Portrays the person as they are in
    an effort to describe their maximum or true
    potential
  • Art as Philosophy Symbols, structure, posture,
    color as a means to determine a realistic
    portrayal of people and places.

18
  • Characteristics of Renaissance Art
  • Realism Realistic portrayal of artistic styles.
    Mastered perspective and anatomy as a means to
    achieve realism.
  • Classical Classical forms and realistic
    technique
  • Individualism Portrays the person as they are in
    an effort to describe their maximum or true
    potential
  • Art as Philosophy Symbols, structure, posture,
    color as a means to determine a realistic
    portrayal of people and places.

19
Fine Arts - Italy
  • Italian Renaissance
  • Centered in Florence
  • Frescoes paintings done on fresh, wet plaster
    with water-based paints. (Example Sistine
    Chapel).
  • Frequently artists were patronized by the
    religious leaders of the time, which explains the
    fact that Italian Renaissance art is
    characterized by religious themes.

20
Michelangelo Creation of Man
  • Characteristics of Renaissance Art
  • Realism Realistic portrayal of artistic styles.
    Mastered perspective and anatomy as a means to
    achieve realism.
  • Classical Classical forms and realistic
    technique
  • Individualism Portrays the person as they are in
    an effort to describe their maximum or true
    potential
  • Art as Philosophy Symbols, structure, posture,
    color as a means to determine a realistic
    portrayal of people and places

21
Michelangelo - Pieta
22
St. Peters Square - Rome
23
Da Vinci Mona Lisa
Da Vinci Vitruvian Man
24
DaVinci Last Supper
25
Boticelli Birth of Venus
26
Raphael School of Athens
27
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28
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29
Fine Arts Northern Renaissance
  • The Renaissance in Northern Europe Refers to
    artistic happenings within Europe but outside of
    Italy. Mainly France, the Netherlands Germany.
  • Works to know!
  • Albrecht Durer - Self Portrait
  • Jan van Eyck - Man in a Red Turban
  • Bride of Arnolfini
  • Peter Bruegel Netherlandish Proverbs

30
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31
Van Eyk Bride of Arnolfini
http//employees.oneonta.edu/farberas/arth/arth214
_folder/van_eyck/arnolfini.html
32
Peter Bruegel Netherlandish Proverbs
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