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Chapter 29 Our Solar System

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Chapter 29 Our Solar System Coach Frick Spring 2012 A meteor shower may occur when particles from a comet burn up in the atmosphere as Earth intersects a comet s orbit. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 29 Our Solar System


1
Chapter 29 Our Solar System
  • Coach Frick Spring 2012

2
Overview of Our Solar System
  • Earth is one of nine planets revolving around, or
    orbiting, the Sun.
  • All the planets, as well as most of their moons,
    also called satellites, orbit the Sun in the same
    direction, and all their orbits, except Plutos,
    lie near the same plane.
  • The planets of our solar system have various
    sizes, surface conditions, and internal
    structures.

3
Early Ideas
  • Ancient astronomers assumed that the Sun,
    planets, and stars orbited a stationary Earth in
    what is now known as a geocentric model, meaning
    Earth centered.
  • Some aspects of planetary motion were difficult
    to explain and therefore...
  • In 1543, Copernicus suggested that the Sun was
    the center of the solar system, a heliocentric
    model.

4
Gravity and Orbits
  • The planets revolve around the sun due to its
    large gravitational force.
  • The planets move in an elliptical orbit, all in
    the same direction.

5
The Planets
  • The nine planets of our solar system can be
    grouped into two main categories according to
    their basic properties.
  • The terrestrial planets are the inner four
    planets of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars that
    are close to the size of Earth and have solid,
    rocky surfaces.
  • The Jovian planets are the outer planets of
    Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune which are
    much larger, more gaseous, and lack solid
    surfaces.
  • Pluto, the ninth planet from the Sun, has a solid
    surface, but it does not fit into either category.

6
Categorizing Planets
  • Size is the major difference, but they also
    differ in density, chemical make-up and rate of
    rotation.
  • The terrestrial planets are smaller, denser, made
    of rocky and metallic substances and rotate
    slower. They also have less satellites, the most
    being two for Mars.
  • The Jovian (or outer) planets are larger, have a
    rig or rings, are less dense (Jupiter could float
    on water!) made of gasses and ice and have many
    satellites. Jupiter has 63 satellites!

7
My Mercury Very Venus Educated Earth Mother
Mars Just Jupiter Served Saturn Us
Uranus Nine Neptune Pizzas Pluto
8
Mercury
  • Mercury is located closest to the Sun and has no
    moons.
  • Mercury is about one-third the size of Earth and
    has a smaller mass and radius.
  • A day is actually longer than a year on Mercury
    because of its very slow rotation. Mercury has a
    slow spin of 1407.6 hours so in two of Mercurys
    years, three of Mercurys days have passed.

9
Atmosphere
  • Mercury has essentially no atmosphere, and what
    little does exist is composed primarily of oxygen
    and sodium.
  • The daytime surface temperature on Mercury is
    700 K (427ºC), while temperatures at night fall
    to 100 K (173ºC). It is the largest temperature
    range.

10
Surface
  • Most of what we know about Mercury is based on
    radio observations and images from a United
    States space probe mission in 1974 5, called
    Mariner 10.
  • Mercurys surface is covered with craters, making
    it look similar to the moon.
  • The plains are thought to have formed from lava
    flows, much like the moon.

11
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12
Venus
  • Venus, the second planet from the Sun, has no
    moons.
  • Venuss high albedo and its proximity to Earth
    make it the brightest planet in Earths
    nighttime sky.
  • Venus rotates slowly counterclockwise with one
    day equaling 243 Earth days.
  • It has a retrograde rotation, meaning it rotates
    backwards from all the other planets. It may be
    due to an early collision.

13
Surface
  • Venus was studied in 1978 by Pioneer-Venus and in
    1989 the Magellan missions to map the surface of
    Venus in detail.
  • The surface has been smoothed by volcanic lava
    flows, and it has only a few impact craters.
  • The most recent global episode of volcanic
    activity took place about 500 million years ago.
  • There is little evidence of current tectonic
    activity on Venus, and there is no well-defined
    system of crustal plates.

14
Venus- our twin!
  • Venus is called Earths Twin because its
    size/diameter, mass and density are similar to
    Earth. Therefore, the internal structure is most
    likely similar.

15
Earth
  • Earth, the third planet from the Sun, has many
    unique properties.
  • Its distance from the Sun and its nearly circular
    orbit allow liquid water to exist on its surface
    in all three states solid, liquid, and gas.
  • Liquid water is required for life.
  • Earths moderately dense atmosphere (78 percent
    nitrogen and 21 percent oxygen) and a mild
    greenhouse effect support conditions suitable for
    life.

16
Mars
  • Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun. It is
    called the Red Planet because of iron oxide
    (rust) in the soil.
  • Mars is smaller and less dense than Earth.
  • It has two irregularly-shaped moons, Phobos and
    Deimos. They are captured asteroids.

17
  • Phobos

18
Studying Mars
  • Missions include Mariner 4, Mariner 9, Mars
    Climate Orbiter and the Mars Explorer Rover
    Mission in 2003.
  • The rovers, Spirit and Opportunity are there
    still sending back information.

19
Section 2 Gas Planets
  • The interiors of the gas giant planets are
    composed of fluids, either gaseous or liquid, and
    possibly small, solid cores.
  • They are composed primarily of lightweight
    elements such as hydrogen, helium, carbon,
    nitrogen, and oxygen, and they are very cold at
    their surfaces.
  • The gas giants have many satellites as well as
    ring systems, and they are all very large.

20
Jupiter
  • Jupiter is 5th from the sun and is the largest
    planet. Its diameter is 11 times ours and only 10
    times less than the sun. It makes up 70 of all
    matter in our solar system.
  • Jupiter has a banded appearance as a result of
    flow patterns in its atmosphere.
  • It has the Great Red Spot, a giant storm the size
    of Earth.
  • Jupiter has been explored by 5 U S space probes,
    Pioneer 10 and 11, Voyager I and II, and
    Spacecraft Galileo.

21
Saturn
  • Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the
    second-largest planet in the solar system.
  • In 2004, the United States Cassini mission,
    launched in 1997, become the fifth probe to visit
    the planet. The other missions were Pioneer 10
    and 11 and Voyager I and II.

22
Moons and Rings
  • Saturns ring system is the most striking, it
    has much broader and brighter rings than those of
    the other gas giant planets.
  • There are seven major rings composed of narrower
    rings, called ringlets, and many open gaps.
  • The ring particles are probably debris left over
    when a moon was destroyed either by a collision
    or Saturns gravity. They are made up of pieces
    of rock and ice, from microscopic bits up the
    size of houses.

23
Uranus
  • The seventh planet from the Sun, Uranus, was
    discovered accidentally in 1781.
  • Two of Uranuss larger moons, Titania and
    Oberon, were discovered in 1787.
  • Uranus has at least 18 moons and 10 rings.
  • In 1986, the United States Voyager 2 mission
    visited Uranus.

24
Neptune
  • The existence of Neptune was predicted, based on
    small deviations in the motion of Uranus,
    before it was discovered.
  • In 1846, Neptune was discovered where astronomers
    had predicted it.
  • The Voyager 2 probe flew past Neptune in 1989.

25
Pluto
  • Pluto, the ninth planet in our solar system, was
    discovered in 1930.
  • Pluto is very different from the other eight
    planets of our solar system and does not fit into
    either the terrestrial group or gas giant group.
  • The density of Pluto indicates that it is made of
    half ice and half rock, and it is smaller than
    Earths moon.
  • The atmosphere is composed of methane and
    nitrogen, but in unknown quantities.

26
Section Assessment
2. Number the nine planets, starting with the
closest to the Sun. ___ Uranus ___ Saturn ___
Mars ___ Pluto ___ Mercury ___ Neptune ___
Jupiter ___ Venus ___ Earth
7
6
4
9
1
8
5
2
3
27
3. Identify whether the following statements are
true or false.
______ Saturns rings are about 200 km
thick. ______ Earths Moon is largest satellite
in our solar system. ______ Jupiters Great Red
Spot is a storm that has been ongoing for more
than 300 years. ______ Jupiter makes up about 40
percent of all planetary matter in our solar
system.
false false true false
28
Section 4 Objectives
  • Summarize the properties of the solar system that
    support the theory of the solar systems
    formation.
  • Describe how the planets formed from a disk
    surrounding the young Sun.
  • Explore remnants of solar system formation.

29
Formation of Our Solar System
  • Astronomers use Earth-based observations and data
    from probes to derive theories about how our
    solar system formed.
  • The significant observations related to our solar
    systems formation include the shape of our solar
    system, the differences among the planets, and
    the oldest planetary surfaces, asteroids,
    meteorites, and comets.

30
A Collapsing Interstellar Cloud
  • Stars and planets form from clouds of gas and
    dust, called interstellar clouds, which exist in
    space between the stars.
  • The interstellar clouds consist mostly of gas,
    especially hydrogen and helium that often appear
    as blotches of light and dark.

31
A Collapsing Interstellar Cloud
  • Our solar system may have begun when interstellar
    gas started to condense as a result of gravity
    and became concentrated enough to form the Sun
    and planets.
  • The collapse is initially slow, but it
    accelerates and the cloud soon becomes much
    denser at its center.
  • Rotation slows the collapse in the equatorial
    plane, and the cloud becomes flattened.
  • The cloud eventually becomes a rotating disk with
    a dense concentration at the center.

32
Asteroids
  • Asteroids are rocky remnants of the early solar
    system. Most (95) are found in the asteroid belt
    between Mars and Jupiter.
  • These planetesimals remained there because
    Jupiters gravitational force prevented them from
    merging to form a planet.

33
Other Objects in the Solar System
  • As the asteroids orbit, they occasionally collide
    and break into fragments.
  • A meteoroid is a asteroid fragment or any other
    interplanetary material that falls toward Earth
    and enters Earths atmosphere.
  • A meteor is the streak of light produced when a
    meteoroid burns up in Earths atmosphere.
  • So a falling star or shooting star is
    actually a meteor.

34
  • A meteor shower may occur when particles from a
    comet burn up in the atmosphere as Earth
    intersects a comets orbit.
  • A meteor shower may occur when particles from a
    comet burn up in the atmosphere as Earth
    intersects a comets orbit.

35
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37
  • A meteorite is part of a meteoroid, that does not
    completely burn up, that collides with the
    ground.

38
Comets
  • Comets are small, icy bodies that have highly
    eccentric orbits around the Sun and are remnants
    from solar system formation. Dirty snowballs
  • Comets are made of ice and rock, and they range
    from 1 to 10 km in diameter.
  • There are two clusters, or clouds, of comets the
    Kuiper belt and the Oort cloud.
  • Occasionally, a comet is disturbed by the gravity
    of another object and is thrown into the inner
    solar system from one of these clusters.

39
Formation of Our Solar System
Comets
The Orbits of Comets
  • When a comet nears the sun in its highly
    eccentric orbit, it begins to evaporate and form
    a head and one or more tails.
  • The coma is an extended volume of glowing gas
    flowing from a comets head.
  • The nucleus of a comet is the small solid core
    that releases gases and dust particles that
    form the coma and tails when it is heated.

40
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42
Formation of Our Solar System
Comets
Periodic Comets
  • Comets that repeatedly orbit into the inner solar
    system are known as periodic comets.
  • Meteor showers occur when Earth intersects a
    cometary orbit and numerous particles from the
    comet burn up upon entering Earths upper
    atmosphere.
  • Most meteors are caused by dust particles from
    comets, while most meteorites, the solid chunks
    of rock or metal that reach Earths surface, are
    fragments of asteroids.

43
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44
Section Assessment
Formation of Our Solar System
1. Match the following terms with their
definitions. ___ asteroid ___ comet ___
meteor ___ meteorite
A. small rocky bodies orbiting the Sun that are
most likely leftover planetesimals. B. the
streak of light produced when interplanetary
material burns up upon entering Earths
atmosphere C. small, icy bodies that have highly
eccentric orbits around the Sun D. interplanetary
material that impacts Earths surface
A C B D
45
Formation of Our Solar System
Section Assessment
3. Identify whether the following statements are
true or false.
______ Temperature variation in the solar nebula
determined the primary elements in the
planets. ______ All comet tails point toward the
Sun. ______ The gravitational pull of Saturn has
prevented the material in the asteroid belt from
forming another planet. ______ The inner planets
initially had no satellites.
true false false true
46
Section 29.1 Study Guide
Section 29.1 Main Ideas
  • Early astronomers explained the motions of the
    planets with geocentric models, including
    epicycles.
  • Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, and Galileo developed
    evidence supporting a heliocentric solar system
    model.
  • Newton developed a law of gravitation that was
    used to demonstrate the validity of the
    heliocentric model.

47
Section 29.2 Study Guide
Section 29.2 Main Ideas
  • The terrestrial planets include the four planets
    closest to the Sun. They are relatively small and
    dense, and they have rocky surfaces.
  • Mercury has a surface similar to the Moons, but
    a very different interior.
  • Venus has an extremely hot surface as a result of
    greenhouse heating, but is similar to Earth in
    other properties.
  • Earth is suitable for life because of its unique
    orbital position that allows water to exist in
    all three phases on the surface.
  • Mars shows signs of having once had tectonic
    activity.

48
Section 29.3 Study Guide
Section 29.3 Main Ideas
  • The gas giant planets are very large and have low
    densities, no solid surfaces, ring systems, and
    many moons.
  • Jupiter is the largest of the planets. It has a
    fluid interior, except for a small rocky core,
    and several moons. Saturn is slightly smaller
    than Jupiter and has a more extensive ring
    system.
  • Uranus and Neptune are very similar in size and
    composition.
  • Pluto is not classified as a gas giant or a
    terrestrial planet.

49
Section 29.4 Main Ideas
  • The solar system formed from a collapsing
    interstellar cloud that flattened into a disk
    from which the planets formed.
  • Terrestrial planets formed from refractory
    materials in the hot inner disk, and gas giants
    formed from volatile elements in the cold outer
    disk.
  • Asteroids are rocky remnants of the early solar
    system. Most of them orbit the Sun between Mars
    and Jupiter.
  • Comets have highly eccentric orbits and are made
    of rock and ice. When they are close to the Sun,
    they glow brightly and have a head and tails of
    gas and dust.

50
Chapter Assessment
Multiple Choice
1. When a planet is at its farthest point from
the Sun in its orbit, it is at ____. a. perihelio
n c. eccentricity b. aphelion d. its foci
If a planet is at perihelion it is at its closest
point to the sun. Eccentricity defines the shape
of a planets elliptical orbit. Foci are the two
points that an elliptical orbit is centered on.
51
Chapter Assessment
Multiple Choice
1. When a planet is at its farthest point from
the Sun in its orbit, it is at ____. a. perihelio
n c. eccentricity b. aphelion d. its foci
If a planet is at perihelion it is at its closest
point to the sun. Eccentricity defines the shape
of a planets elliptical orbit. Foci are the two
points that an elliptical orbit is centered on.
52
Chapter Assessment
Multiple Choice
3. Which planet does not fit into either major
category of planets? a. Mercury c. Pluto b. Jup
iter d. Earth
Pluto does not fit the characteristics of either
a terrestrial planet or a gas giant planet. One
theory suggests that it was once a satellite of
Neptune that escaped as a result of a
near-collision with Triton, Neptunes largest
satellite.
53
Chapter Assessment
Multiple Choice
4. Which of the following is usually responsible
for meteor showers? a. asteroids c. planetesimals
b. meteorites d. comets
When Earth intersects a cometary orbit, we
experience a meteor shower as particles from the
comet burn up upon entering Earths atmosphere.
Most meteors are caused by dust particles from
comets, while most meteorites, the solid chunks
of rock or metal that reach Earths surface. are
fragments of asteroids.
54
Multiple Choice
Chapter Assessment
5. What unit of distance is used to measure
distance in our solar system? a. kilometers
c. astronomical units b. light
years d. gravitational force
One astronomical unit (AU) is equal to the
average distance between Earth and the Sun, or
1.496 108 km. The average distance between the
Sun and each planet are measured in astronomical
units, and therefore these distances are relative
to Earths average distance from the Sun.
55
Multiple Choice
Chapter Assessment
5. What unit of distance is used to measure
distance in our solar system? a. kilometers
c. astronomical units b. light
years d. gravitational force
One astronomical unit (AU) is equal to the
average distance between Earth and the Sun, or
1.496 108 km. The average distance between the
Sun and each planet are measured in astronomical
units, and therefore these distances are relative
to Earths average distance from the Sun.
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