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Title: Recruiting and Interviewing

Recruiting and Interviewing
I/O Psychology in My Life
How did you find out about your most recent job?

Effective Recruitment Methods Should
  • Get the attention of the public
  • Screen unqualified applicants
  • Motivate qualified people to apply
  • Be cost effective
  • Be timely

Recruitment Methods
  • Formal or Direct
  • Media advertisements
  • Point of purchase
  • Direct mail
  • Employment agencies
  • College recruiters
  • Computer databases
  • Special events
  • Employee referral programs
  • Informal or Indirect
  • Situation-wanted ads
  • Direct applications
  • Employee referrals

Special Populations
  • The retired
  • The mentally or physically challenged
  • Ex-cons
  • Current convicts
  • People on public assistance
  • Other organizations employees
  • People in foreign countries
  • Temps

Recruiting a Diverse Workforce
  • Build long-term relationships with minority
  • Learn how to effectively interview diverse groups
  • Advertise in minority-read publications
  • Recruit at historically black/female colleges
  • Provide minority role-models
  • at work
  • in recruiting materials

Media AdsOnly 10 of all jobs are advertised
  • Newspaper
  • Television
  • http//
  • http//
  • Radio
  • Web sites
  • Billboards

Newspaper Ads
AVAILABLE Good tasting soda. Consumers must
want 20 ounces of fluid, regular level of
caffeine, and competitive price. If interested,
purchase Coca-Cola from your neighborhood store.
Newspaper Employment AdsEffective Print Ads
  • Creative
  • Attractive
  • Contain information about the job

  • C. Rinker Paving
  • Needs some good men
  • asphalt foreman and full and part-time workers
  • Must be able to tell time
  • Must have hair short enough to see and hear
  • Must know address or make and model of car you
    are living in
  • Must have shoes and trousers
  • All nose and ear rings should be light enough not
    to interfere with your work
  • Must be able to go eight hours without drugs or
  • Must know left from right, right from wrong, and
    be able to use a phone
  • Must be able to check the gas and oil in a
  • Must be able to gulp down a sandwich in 30
    minutes, and be able to work at least 30 minutes
    without going to the restroom or drinking
  • If you need employment and can qualify, please
  • 368-9551 between 5 p.m. and 9 p.m.

Newspaper Employment AdsFive Major Types
  • Apply in person
  • Call
  • Send resume
  • Blink box
  • Employment agency

Apply-in-Person Ads
  • Dress as if it were an interview
  • Be prepared to interview on the spot
  • Bring copies of your resume
  • Bring a black pen
  • Be nice to the receptionist

CUSTOMER SERVICELocal home health company has an
immediate, full time position available. Direct
personal contact and requires a caring
individual. Some typing and billing helpful.
Competitive salary and benefits. Apply in
person, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., Mon-Fri., 2501
Williamson Road
Call Ads
  • Often used to quickly screen applicants
  • Practice your first few sentences
  • Be prepared for a short phone interview
  • Have your resume ready to answer questions
  • Have paper and pencil close by

Sales Experienced sales people preferred. Neat
and dependable. Flexible hours good pay. Call
366-6071, 12 800 p.m., Tues-Fri Sat. 10
a.m.-5 p.m.
Send Resume
  • Employer expects a large response
  • Type envelope if possible
  • Include cover letter
  • Do not use your employers stationary
  • Send
  • Immediately?
  • Wait a few days?

RECEPTIONIST Local construction company has
immediate opening for person with excellent
telephone skills and professional manner to
operate the switchboard and greet the public.
Typing skills required. Send resume to
Personnel, Acme Co., Box 20069, Roanoke, VA 24018
Blind Box
  • Used when employer
  • doesnt want incumbent to know
  • doesnt want name in the public
  • Is afraid people wont apply if they knew the
    name of the employer
  • Send resume immediately

Carpet Cleaning Looking for clean cut, reliable,
self-motivated person to clean carpet for growing
business. Room for advancement. Must be at
least 21 years old and have a valid drivers
license. Send resume to Box P-271, c/o Roanoke
Times World News, P.O. Box 491, Roanoke, VA
Employment Agencies
Programmer/Analyst 30 to 40s Fee Paid Degree
required. ASCS-BSCS. 1-2 years experience.
989-2831 Carol Day Associates
  • Types
  • Public
  • Private Employment Agency
  • Employer pays fee
  • Applicant pays fee
  • Executive search firms
  • Temporary employment agencies

Machine Operator ½ Fee Paid Will train on
production equipment. Experience with fabric
helpful. 13-15 per hour. 981-0799 AAA
Employment Agency
Situation-Wanted Ads
  • Ads run by applicants
  • Internet has perhaps made these obsolete
  • Effectiveness
  • Willis (1991)
  • Williams (1991)

Top Speechwriter Currently writing speeches for
Fortune 200 CEO. Background in tech,
multi-industry, Wall St., Wash DC Box EA-648,Wall
Street Journal
Former Marijuana Smuggler Having successfully
completed a 10-year sentence, incident free, for
importing 75 tons of marijuana into the US, I am
now seeking a legal and legitimate means to
support myself and my family. Business
Experience Owned and operated a successful
fishing business multi-vessel, one airplane,
one island and processing facility.
Simultaneously owned and operated a fleet of
tractor-trailer trucks conducting business in the
western US. During this time I also co-owned and
participated in the executive level management of
120 people worldwide in a successful pot
smuggling venture with revenues in excess of 100
million annually. I took responsibility for my
own actions, and received a 10-year sentence in
the US while others walked free for their
cooperation. Attributes I am an expert in all
levels of security I have extensive computer
skills, am personable, outgoing, well-educated,
reliable, clean and sober. I have spoken in
schools to thousands of kids and parents over the
past 10 years on the consequences of choice,
and received public recognition from from the
RCMP for community service. I am well-traveled
and speak English, French and Spanish.
References available from friends, family, and
the U.S. District Attorney.
Toronto Financial Post, Friday, February 23, 2001
EffectivenessNumber of Inquiries
Inquiries Frequency Percent
0 44 30.6
1 20 13.9
2 26 18.1
3 18 12.5
4 8 5.6
5 9 6.3
6 6 4.2
7 4 2.8
10 4 2.8
12 2 1.4
gt20 3 2.1
EffectivenessNumber of Job Offers
Job Offers Frequency Percent
0 117 78.5
1 10 6.7
2 11 7.4
3 2 1.1
4 2 1.3
5 3 2.0
6 1 0.7
7 1 0.7
15 1 0.7
20 1 0.7
Point of Purchase Methods
  • Signs
  • Cash register receipts
  • On-hold phone recording (Papa Johns)
  • Restaurant placemats
  • Pizza boxes
  • Table tents
  • Sides of trucks
  • Brochures
  • Milk cartons
  • Book markers

  • Recruiters
  • Campus recruiters
  • Outside recruiters
  • Employment Agencies and Search Firms
  • Private employment agencies
  • Executive search firms
  • Public employment commissions
  • Job Fairs
  • http//

Employee Referral ProgramsFrequency of Use
  • Private Sector (SHRM, 2005)
  • 50 have formal programs
  • 66 use in some way
  • Public Sector
  • 1 have formal programs (Trice, 1997)

Employee Referral ProgramsIncentive for Referral
  • Incentive Given
  • 88 if referral results in hire
  • 2 if referral results in interview
  • 4 for making a referral
  • Type of Incentive
  • 77 provide financial incentive
  • 23 give cars, gift certificates, trips, and
    other gifts
  • Amount of Incentive
  • Median is less than 1,000
  • 12 have incentives over 2,000

Employee Referral ProgramsWhy are They so
  • Realistic job preview
  • Employees and friends are similar
  • Personality
  • Ability
  • Employee can help socialize friend when hired

Direct Mail Recruiting
  • Types
  • e-mail
  • fax
  • Postal
  • Postal Basic Facts
  • Response rate should be 1-2
  • Make mailing creative and eye catching
  • Hand addressed mail gets opened most frequently,
    then typed names, followed by mailing labels

Direct Mail Success Stories
  • Mailed out 30,000 letters
  • Received 350 responses
  • Hired 5 nurses
  • Union Special
  • Illinois manufacturer of sewing machines
  • Had 10 openings for engineers
  • Sent 3,300 cards to Chicago area engineers
  • Received 100 responses
  • Interviewed 30 applicants
  • Allstate
  • Local unemployment was 2.9
  • Previous help-wanted ads yielded 2 responses
  • 14 data processing openings
  • Direct mail to local Allstate customers
  • Received 500 responses and hired 20 employees

Internet Recruiting
  • In 2010, 90 of employers planned to invest
    significantly in Internet recruiting
  • Three common Internet methods
  • Employer-based websites
  • Normal website
  • Company blogs
  • .jobs domain
  • Internet recruiters
  • Social networking websites
  • FaceBook, MySpace, LinkedIn
  • http//
  • Blogs
  • Podcasts
  • http//

Offering Incentives
  • Bonus
  • signing
  • tenure
  • year-end
  • 401k match
  • Relocation
  • Vacations
  • Flexible schedules
  • Educational assistance
  • Casual dress

Evaluating Recruitment Effectiveness
  • Time to fill
  • Retention rates
  • Cost per hire
  • Number of applicants
  • Job performance of new hires
  • EEO/diversity impact

Most Common Methods
HR Departments Job Seekers
Newspaper ads 96 95
Networking 95 95
Employee referrals 91 92
Internet 88 96
Employment agency 76 81
Walk-ins 76 62
Temp-to-hire 75 65
Head hunters 74 89
Job fairs 70 76
Ads in trade journals 67 78
Community organizations 55 63
Minority job fairs 51 42
Website job applications 49 90
Rating Method as Effective
HR Departments Job Seekers
Networking 61 78
Internet job postings 58 48
Employee referrals 55 65
Head hunters 54 45
Newspaper ads 47 30
Website job applications 40 36
Ads in trade journals 37 37
Temp-to-hire 36 43
Employment agency 35 31
Job fairs 23 23
Job hotlines 22 19
Radio/TV advertising 21 15
Open houses 18 12
Why Recruitment Sources Should Differ
  • Informal sources provide realistic job previews
  • Different sources reach different types of people
  • Similarity of employee and person referred

Let's Talk
What are the most effective recruitment methods
you have seen?
Humor Break
Name Greg Bulmash
Sex Not yet. Still waiting for the right person
Desired position Company president. But seriously, whatever is available. If I was in a position to be picky, I wouldnt be applying here.
Desired salary 185,000 a year plus stock options and a Michael Ovitz style severance package. If thats not possible, make an offer and we can haggle.
Education Yes
Last position Target for middle management hostility
Salary Less than Im worth
Most notable achievement My incredible collection of stolen pens and post-it notes
Reason for leaving It sucked
Hour available to work Any
Preferred hours 130-330 p.m., Monday, Tuesday, Thursday
Do you have any special skills? Yes, but they are better suited to a more intimate environment
May we contact your current employer? If I had one, would I be here?
Do you have a car? I think the more appropriate question here would be, Do you have a car that runs?
Have you received any special awards? I may already be a winner of the Publishers Clearing House Sweepstakes
Do you smoke? In the job no, on my breaks yes.
What would you like to be doing in 5 years? Living in the Bahamas with a fabulously wealthy dumb sexy blond super model who thinks Im the greatest thing since sliced bread. Actually, Id like to be doing that now.
Sign here Aries
Structured Interviews
Interviews Differ in Three Ways
  • Structure
  • Unstructured
  • Structured
  • Style
  • One-on-one
  • Serial
  • Return
  • Panel
  • Group
  • Medium
  • Face-to-face
  • Telephone
  • Videoconference
  • Written

Optimal Employee Selection Systems
  • Are Valid
  • Based on a job analysis (content validity)
  • Predict work-related behavior (criterion
  • Reduce the Chance of a Legal Challenge
  • Face valid
  • Dont invade privacy
  • Dont intentionally discriminate
  • Minimize adverse impact
  • Are Cost Effective
  • Cost to purchase/create
  • Cost to administer
  • Cost to score

Unstructured Interviews are Not Optimal
  • They are
  • Unreliable
  • Not valid
  • Legally problematic
  • Because they
  • Are not job related
  • Rely on intuition, amateur psychology, and talk
    show methods
  • Suffer from common rating problems
  • Primacy
  • Contrast
  • Similarity
  • Range restriction (e.g., leniency, strictness,
    central tendency)

Common Unstructured Interview Questions
  • Where do you see yourself five years from now?
  • What are your greatest strengths?
  • What are your greatest weaknesses?
  • What subject did you most enjoy in college?
  • Why should I hire you?
  • Why are you interested in this job?

Top Ten Stupid Interview Tricks
  • A manager at Wells Fargo wont hire MBAs who
    take more than 60 seconds to scan the menu at
  • A CEO wouldnt hire applicants who salted their
    food before tasting it
  • Holiday Inn doesnt hire applicants who smile
    less than four times during the interview
  • An HR professional wouldnt hire applicants who
    didnt have the back of their shoes properly
  • An auto insurance executive takes off points for
    education I dont want the valedictorian, I
    want the kid who sold cigarettes in the bathroom.

Top Ten Stupid Interview Tricks
  • An HR manager asked applicants about their
    favorite book
  • A town manager likes to leave the room, not come
    back, and then wait to see how long an applicant
    will wait
  • An HR recruiter asks applicants, If you could be
    any animal, what would you be?
  • A local school superintendent wont hire men with
    hair in their ears
  • Any interviewer who does not use structured

Let's Talk
What interview horror stories have you heard
Structured Interviews are Optimal
  • They are
  • Reliable
  • Valid
  • Not as prone to legal challenge
  • Because they
  • Are based on a job analysis
  • Ask the same questions of each applicant
  • Have a standardized scoring procedure

High Structure Low Structure Study
Validity r .57 r .20 Huffcutt Arthur (1994)
Gender Differences d .00 d .23 Huffcutt, et al (2001)
Racial Differences d .13 d .51 Huffcutt, et al (2001)
Going Hollywood
Dirty Harry Tries His Hand at Interviewing (The
Enforcer DVD segment 6)
Structured Interview Goals
  • Understand the Applicant
  • Clarify and confirm resume information
  • Obtain new information
  • Predict Job Performance
  • Ask questions focused on past behavior
  • Ask questions focused on knowledge and skills
  • Ask questions focused on future behavior
  • Predict Organizational Fit
  • Use several interviewers
  • Combine interview impression with test scores
  • Sell the Organization to the Applicant
  • Provide information about the position/organizatio
  • Answer the applicants questions

Creating the Structured InterviewSteps
  • Conduct a thorough job analysis
  • Determine best way to measure each KSAO
  • Construct Questions
  • Determine rating anchors for each question
  • Choose two or more members for the interview panel

Creating the Structured InterviewConduct a
Thorough Job Analysis
  • Tasks performed
  • Conditions under which they are performed
  • KSAOs needed to perform the tasks
  • When KSAOs are needed
  • Before hire
  • After hire
  • Critical incidents of poor and excellent

Creating the Structured InterviewDetermine Best
Way to Measure each KSAO
  • Interview questions
  • Psychological tests
  • Simulations or job samples
  • Reference or background checks
  • Training and experience ratings

Creating the Structured InterviewConstruct
Interview Questions
  • Clarifiers
  • Clarify resume information
  • Seek missing information
  • Disqualifiers
  • Past focus (behavioral description)
  • Skill or knowledge focus
  • Future focus (situational)
  • Organizational fit focus

Examples of Clarifiers
  • I noticed that you do not have an education
    section on your resume, could you tell me about
    your educational background?
  • I noticed a three-year gap between two of your
    jobs, could you tell me a little about that?
  • You were a bench hand at ATT. What is that?
  • Why did you leave your job at McDonalds?

Examples of Disqualifiers
  • Can you work at least one weekend a month?
  • Can you work overtime without notice?
  • Do you have any felony convictions?
  • Would you be willing to treat a patient with
  • Do you have a valid drivers license?

Examples of Past-Focused Questions
  • When dealing with customers, it is inevitable
    that you are going to get someone angry. Tell us
    about a time when a customer was angry at you.
    What did you do to fix the situation?
  • The job of network engineer requires a good deal
    of customer service. Tell us about your previous
    customer service.
  • This job involves persuading employees to follow
    our safety rules. Tell us about a time in the
    past when you had to persuade an employee to do

Examples of Skill Determiners
  • A customer brings you his check book and says
    that he cannot get it to balance. What is he
    probably doing wrong? How would you explain the
    error to him?
  • A client calls and tells you that she has 10
    computers in a 30 by 100 room and that she
    wants to network the computers. What questions
    would you ask her? What parts would you need to
    compile to complete the task?
  • Several months after installing the above
    network, the client calls and says that nothing
    will print on the printer. What could be going on?

Examples of Future-focused Questions
  • Suppose that you were scheduled to work on
    Saturday. A friend calls on Thursday and says
    that you get to use a condo at the beach for
    freebut it has to be this weekend. What would
    you do?
  • Imagine that you told a client that you would be
    there at 1000 a.m. It is now 1030 and there is
    no way you will be finished with your current job
    until 1130. You are scheduled to meet another
    client for lunch at 1200 and then be at another
    job at 115. How would you handle the situation?

Examples of Organizational-Fit Questions
  • Under what type of supervisor do you work best?
    Is there a type of supervisor for which you have
    trouble working?
  • What type of work pace is best for you?
  • Describe your sense of humor?
  • Describe your experience working with a
    culturally diverse group of people.

Creating the Structured InterviewConstruct
Rating Anchors
  • Correct/Incorrect Approach
  • Typical Answer Approach
  • Key Issues Approach

Sample Question
  • You are working as a teller and have a long line
    of waiting customers. A customer runs to the
    front of the line and yells that he bounced a
    check and was charged 20, which caused other
    checks to bounce. He then swears at you and
    tells you that he will not leave until the
    problem is solved. You are unable to check on
    his account because the computer is down. What
    would you do?

Typical Answers Scoring
  • Because I do not have the information and the
    line is long, I would call my supervisor and have
    her talk to the customer in her office away from
    everyone else
  • While trying to calm him down, I would call my
  • I would try to calm him down and explain to him
    that the computer is down
  • I would explain that I cannot help him because
    the computer is down, and ask him to come back
  • I would tell him to get to the end of the line
    and wait his turn
  • I would ignore him until he went away

Key Issues Scoring
  • ___ Acknowledged the long line and concern for
  • other customers
  • ___ Recognized the need to calm the customer
  • ___ Recognized the need to get the customer
  • away from the other customers
  • ___ Recognized that help could not be
  • given because the computer was down
  • ___ Was not confrontational with the customer

Conducting the Structured InterviewChoose
Interviewers for Panel
  • Use at least 2 interviewers
  • Consider gender and race representation
  • Consider best format
  • Panel interview
  • Multiple interviews

Conducting the Structured InterviewInterviewing
  • Build rapport
  • Explain the process and the agenda
  • Ask the questions
  • Score the answer and take notes after each
  • Provide information about the job and the
    organization (e.g., salary, benefits, climate)
  • Answer interviewees questions
  • End the interview on a pleasant note

After the Interview
  • Keep all interviewees informed of your progress
  • Tactfully reject the applicants who are not hired
  • Document, document, document

Resumes and Cover Letters
Views of Resumes
  • A history of your life
  • An advertisement of your skills

Characteristics of Effective Resumes
  • Attractive and easy to read
  • white space
  • font
  • Does not contain typing, spelling, or factual
  • Makes the applicant look as good as possible

General Considerations
  • Length
  • Paper color and type
  • How it will be sent
  • mailed
  • faxed
  • scanned
  • Job objectives

Problems with Job Objectives
  • Limit job opportunities
  • Take-up valuable space and reading time
  • Are difficult to write

Types of Resumes
  • Chronological
  • Functional
  • Psychological

Important Psychological Principles
  • Primacy
  • Priming
  • Short-term memory
  • Relevancy
  • Negative information bias
  • Unusualness
  • Andersons adding versus averaging principle

Andersons Averaging Versus Adding Principle
  • Ted Gacy
  • Smart 3
  • Fun 3
  • Motivated 3
  • Sum 9.0
  • Average 3.0
  • John Bundy
  • Smart 3
  • Fun 3
  • Motivated 3
  • Well-dressed 2
  • Sum 11.0
  • Average 2.75

Sample Professional Strengths
  • Highest degree
  • Work experience
  • Computer skills
  • Other skills
  • Languages spoken
  • Leadership experience
  • International travel
  • Personal traits

Sample Highlights
  • Minor or concentration
  • GPA (overall, major)
  • Clubs
  • Leadership positions
  • Community service
  • Worked to finance education
  • Internships

Professional Experience
  • Include all relevant jobs
  • Can include
  • internships
  • volunteer work
  • For each job, include
  • dates
  • duties
  • level of performance
  • reason for leaving

Cover Letters
Cover Letter Paragraphs
  • Opening Paragraph
  • Here is my resume
  • This is the job I am applying for
  • This is how I know about the job
  • Second Paragraph
  • I am qualified
  • Here is why
  • Optional Paragraph
  • Why your organization?
  • Last Paragraph
  • Looking forward to hearing from you
  • Here is how to reach me

Opening Paragraphs
Advertisement in Newspaper Enclosed find a
copy of my resume. Please consider me for the
sale associate position that was advertised
recently in the Charleston Gazette. Blind
Application Enclosed find a copy of my
resume. Please consider me for any sales-related
positions that are either now available in your
organization or may soon become
available Referral from a Friend Enclosed
find a copy of my resume. Please consider me for
the sales associate position that John Andersona
friend and ATT employeetold me was now available
General Points
  • Keep to one page
  • Dont beg
  • Avoid sounding desperate
  • Avoid grammar and spelling errors
  • No officious words or phrases
  • No personal circumstances
  • Avoid curse words and insults
  • Dont rehash your resume
  • Dont bad mouth your former employer
  • Tailor your letter to each company
  • Direct to a particular person

April 18, 2012 Mr. John Smith Alco, Inc. 217
West Street Johnson, VA 24132 Dear Mr.
Smith Enclosed find a copy of my resume.
Please consider me for the position of welder
that was advertised in the Roanoke Times and
World News. I believe I am qualified for your
position. I have six years of welding experience
in an industrial setting. Furthermore, I am a
very dependable worker as shown by the fact that
I have only missed two days of work in the last
five years. Finally, I am available to work any
shift at any of your three plants. I look
forward to hearing from you. I can best be
reached after 300 p.m.on weekdays and anytime on
weekends. Sincerely, Andrew S. Jones
Disastrous OpeningsCover Letters That Were Never
  • Dear Dave,
  • I call you that because I feel Ive known you
    for years.
  • Dear Mr. Todd
  • As Rod McKuen said so beautifully.
  • Dear Mr. Todd
  • I would like to aply for the position of
    editoral asistent
  • Dr. Mr. Todd
  • I have always dreamed of being a writer.
  • Dear Mr. Todd
  • My mother told me I should

  • FLASH!
  • Judy Carson is coming to Nashville and
  • Dear Mr. Todd
  • The Bible tells us See and ye shall find.
    So I am seeking .
  • My dear Mr. Todd
  • While vacationing on the Continent (a
    delightful time!), it occurred to me that
  • Dr. Mr. Todd
  • Your company appears to be violating the
    Equal Opportunities Amendment and to help you
    rectify the situation, I would like to
  • Dear Mr. Todd
  • Your company needs help
  • Dear Mr. Todd
  • You dont know me, but

Putting it all Together
Applied Case Study Recruitment at the Borgata
Hotel Casino and Spa
Let's Talk
Focus on Ethics Ethical Communication
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