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World Film History II


World Film History II Eastern Europe Eastern Europe after the II World War Rigorous control by socialist governments in line with Stalinist cultural policy toward the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World Film History II

World Film History II
  • Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe after the II World War
  • Rigorous control by socialist governments in line
    with Stalinist cultural policy toward the end of
  • Period of liberalization as a part of
    de-Stalinization in the latter half of 1950s
  • New restrictions implemented at different times
    in different countries
  • Political control and fear of taking risks on all
    levels of production
  • Many artist pay dearly for their boldness
  • Gradual liberalization in the 1980s
  • The fall of Socialism in 1989

Evasive strategies (Hendrykowski)
  • Historicism national history as irreversible
    catastrophe sometimes treated allegorically or
    with irony and black humour
  • Documentation Fiction film as a tool for social
  • Literary affinities Adaptations of classical and
    contemporary literal works
  • Aesopic film language Subtle use of metaphors,
    symbols, allusions, subtexts
  • Artistic values Notion of authorial film as an
    art form with a mission

Poland after the war
  • Production nationalized and organized under Film
  • Lódz Film School 1948
  • Reorganization of Film Polski in 1954
  • WANDA JAKUBOWASKA Ostatni etap (1948)
  • ALEXANDER FORD Ulica Graniczna (1948)
  • JERZY ZARZYCKI Miasto nieujarzmione(1950)

Thaw in Poland
  • Polish School 1954-1963 Kawalerowitcz, Wajda,
  • Disillusionment about Socialism
  • Even official history of the war could be
    challenged the role of the home army,
  • Zbiegniew Cybulski as Polands James Dean

and its end
  • In the 1960s the new wave becomes a target of
    ideological criticism
  • In the 1964 party meeting certain films are
    accused of depicting Poland in negative light
  • Also Lódzin Film School which has trained 4/5 of
    Polish directors is critisized
  • Many directors who have just made their first
    films move into the West

New wave Filmmakers in Poland
  • JERZY KAWALEROWICZ Pociag (1959), Matka Joanna
    od aniolów (1961)
  • ANDRZEJ MUNK Eroica (1957), Pasazerka (1962)
  • ANDRZEJ WAJDA Pokolenie (1955), Kanal (1957),
    Popiól i diament (1958) Wszystko na sprzedaz
    (1968), Czlowiek z marmuru (1977), Bez
    znieczulenia (1978)
  • ROMAN POLANSKI Nóz w wodzie (1962)
  • JERZY SKOLIMOWSKI Rysopis (1964), Walkover
    (1965), Bariera (1966)

Filmmakers strike back
  • Cinema of Moral anxiety at the beginning of1
  • Emphasis on subjective experience rather than
    social analysis
  • Depicting the anxieties of morally sensitive
    people in a corrupt society what could they
    possibly hope for?
  • Despising conformists and cynical opportunists
    although opposing those in power does not appear
    like a workable option

The end of socialism
  • Filmmakers respond with enthusiasm to the
    possibility of changes
  • Martial law imposed on 13.12.1981
  • Many filmmakers join the Solidarity movement ?
    worldwide attention and gradually also freedom of
  • After 1984 many previously banned films are
  • Film industry on the verge of bankruptcy

The third Polish cinema
  • KRZYSZTOF ZANUSSI Struktura krysztalu (1969),
    Barwy ochronne (1977) Rok spokójnego slonca
  • KRZYSZTOF KIÉSLOWSKI Amator (1979) Przypadek
    (1979) Decalog I-X (1989)
  • RYSZARD BUGAJSKI Przesluchanie (1982)
  • AGNIESZKA HOLLAND Aktorzy prowincjonalni (1980),
    Bittere Ernte (1985), Europa, Europa (1991)
  • WALERIAN BOROWCZYK Goto, Ile damour (1967),
    Contes immoraux (1974), Dzieje grzechu (1975)

Czechoslovakia before and after the War
  • Europes technically most advanced studios were
    in Prague
  • Nazi takeover during the war
  • Nationalization and reorganization of film
    industry in 1945 ? state controlled socialist
  • Film Faculty of the Academic Dramatic Arts (FAMU)
    with facilities for puppet and animation film
  • A separate Slovak production system in 1947

  • GUSTAV MACHATÝ Kreuzersonata (1926) Erotikon
    (1929), Ecstase (1932)
  • JIRI TRNKA Špalícek (1947), Sen noci
    svatojanské (1958)

Towards the Prague Spring
  • Constant deterioration of the economy forced the
    socialist regime to renovate the administration ?
    hope of more democracy
  • New wave inspired by the French, British and
    above all Polish developments
  • Satirical and stylized social criticism
  • The influence of cinema on increasing
    consciousness and creating a liberal atmosphere
    was considered to be strong
  • Dubceks socialism with a human face ends in
    Warsaw Pact intervention
  • Many new wave films are banned and film industry
    is reorganized

  • ŠTEFAN UHER Slnko v sieti (1962)
  • VERA CHYTILOVA Strop, Pytel blech (1962),
    Sedmikrásky (1966), Ovoce stromu rajských jíme
  • MILOS FORMAN Cerný Petr (1963), Lásky jedné
    plavovlásky (1965), Horí, má panenko! (1967)
  • JIRÍ MENZEL Ostre sledované vlaky (1966)
  • JAROMIL JIREŠ Zert (1968)
  • JASNY, VOJTECH Všichni dobri rodáci (1968)
  • KACHYNA, KAREL Ucho (1970)

Hungary before and after the war
  • First major director Mihály Kertész
  • After a brief period of nationalization the film
    industry is taken over by right wing forces which
    collaborates with the Germans during the war
  • Nationalized again after the war
  • Thaw ends in the quenching of the 1956 popular
    revolt ? imprisonments
  • After 1962 amnesty film industry rises again
  • International success gives the directors more
    freedom and films give rise to debates

  • After the war
  • GÉZA RADVANY Valahol Európában (1947)
  • ZOLTÁN FABRI Körhinta (1955)
  • New Wave
  • ANDRÁS KOVÁCS Nehéz emberek (1964), Hideg napok
  • MIKLOS JANCSÓ Szegénylegények (1965),
    Csillagosok, katonák (1967), Csend és kiáltás
    (1968), Fényes szelek (1969), Még kér a nép
    (1972), Szerelmem, Elektra (1974)

  • Film industry established only after the war
  • By 1951 each of the six states had its own
    central studios
  • Because of Titos independent line in respect of
    the Soviet Union, filmmakers enjoy relative
  • The 1960s novi film movement links with the
    democracy process film production is free from
    bureaucracy and becomes innovative and critical

  • DUŠAN MAKAVEJEV Covek nije tica (1966), WR -
    Misterije organizma (1967)
  • EMIR KUSTURICA Otac na sluzbenom putu (1985),
    Dom za vesanje (1988), Underground (1995)

Soviet Union - Russia
  • During the war film industry is moved into
    Alma-Ata in Kazhastan
  • More realistic war films that in the 1930s
  • After the war the secretary of the Central
    Committee and Stalins trusted Andrei Zhdanov
    imposes strict control over all arts
  • Films were to depict the influence of the
    Communist Party on all activities in the Soviet
    Union and Stalins personal influence on all
    decision making

  • Film industry is to produce only masterpieces
    directed exclusively byt acknowledged masters
  • After Stalins death in 1953 ideological criteria
    are relaxed, but Zhdanovs is still above
    criticism and socialist realism remains the
    guiding line
  • Artists call for truth and authenticity,
    insisting on focusing on individuals rather than
  • In 1962 Chrustschev announces that liberalism had
    gone too far in arts
  • Creative directors do still have some scope, but
    they encounter many hindrances

  • ELDAR RYAZANOV Carnival Night (1956)
  • GRIGORI KOZINTSEV Hamlet (1964) ja King Lear
  • SERGEI BONDARTSHUK War and Piece (1965-67)
  • MIHAIL KALATOZOV Cranes are flying (1957)
  • GEORGI DANELIYA Walking the Streets of Moscow
  • MARLEN KHUTSIYEV July Rain (1966)
  • KIRA MURATOVA Brief encounters (1968),The Long
    Farewells (1971)
    (1965), Asyas Happiness (1966)
  • ALEXANDER ASKOLDOV The Commissar (1967)
  • ANDREI TARKOVSKI Ivans Childhood (1959), Andrei
    Rubljov (1969), Solaris (1966), The Mirror (1974)
    Stalker (1979)
  • VASILY SHUKSHIN The Red Snowball Bush (1974)
  • LARISSA SHEPITKO The Ascent (1977)
  • ELEM KLIMOV Agony (1975), Go and See (1985)

Soviet Union - other states
  • Film industry in other Soviet states only gets
    started during the thaw period
  • Freedom from Stalinistic academism
  • At their best the films were inspired by folk
    culture but generally within the bounds of teh
    official ideology
  • Studios specialized on certain genres Georgia on
    comedy, Azerbaidzan on detective stories, Central
    Asian states on westerns, oriental epics and
  • Filmmakers trained in Moscow, young Russians
    directing in Central Asia

  • SERGEI PARADZANOV Shadows of Forgotten
    Ancestors (1964), The Colour of Pomegranates
    (1969), The Legend of the Suram Fortress (1986)
  • TENGIS ABULADZE The Plea (1967), Repentence
  • OTAR JOSELIAN April (1961), The Falling Leaves

Sergei Paradzanov The Colour of Pomegranates
  • Based on the biography of the Armenian poet and
    musician Sayat Nova
  • Inspired by Armenian illuminated manuscripts How
    can this be seen in the visual style?
  • Actress Sofico Chiaureli plays six roles, both
    male and female try to figure out which ones and
  • First refused an export license and withdrawn
    after a two months circulation