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World Film History II

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World Film History II Eastern Europe Eastern Europe after the II World War Rigorous control by socialist governments in line with Stalinist cultural policy toward the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World Film History II


1
World Film History II
  • Eastern Europe

2
Eastern Europe after the II World War
  • Rigorous control by socialist governments in line
    with Stalinist cultural policy toward the end of
    1940s.
  • Period of liberalization as a part of
    de-Stalinization in the latter half of 1950s
  • New restrictions implemented at different times
    in different countries
  • Political control and fear of taking risks on all
    levels of production
  • Many artist pay dearly for their boldness
  • Gradual liberalization in the 1980s
  • The fall of Socialism in 1989

3
Evasive strategies (Hendrykowski)
  • Historicism national history as irreversible
    catastrophe sometimes treated allegorically or
    with irony and black humour
  • Documentation Fiction film as a tool for social
    diagnosis
  • Literary affinities Adaptations of classical and
    contemporary literal works
  • Aesopic film language Subtle use of metaphors,
    symbols, allusions, subtexts
  • Artistic values Notion of authorial film as an
    art form with a mission

4
Poland after the war
  • Production nationalized and organized under Film
    Polski
  • Lódz Film School 1948
  • Reorganization of Film Polski in 1954
  • WANDA JAKUBOWASKA Ostatni etap (1948)
  • ALEXANDER FORD Ulica Graniczna (1948)
  • JERZY ZARZYCKI Miasto nieujarzmione(1950)

5
Thaw in Poland
  • Polish School 1954-1963 Kawalerowitcz, Wajda,
    Munk
  • Disillusionment about Socialism
  • Even official history of the war could be
    challenged the role of the home army,
    anti-heroes
  • Zbiegniew Cybulski as Polands James Dean

6
and its end
  • In the 1960s the new wave becomes a target of
    ideological criticism
  • In the 1964 party meeting certain films are
    accused of depicting Poland in negative light
  • Also Lódzin Film School which has trained 4/5 of
    Polish directors is critisized
  • Many directors who have just made their first
    films move into the West

7
New wave Filmmakers in Poland
  • JERZY KAWALEROWICZ Pociag (1959), Matka Joanna
    od aniolów (1961)
  • ANDRZEJ MUNK Eroica (1957), Pasazerka (1962)
  • ANDRZEJ WAJDA Pokolenie (1955), Kanal (1957),
    Popiól i diament (1958) Wszystko na sprzedaz
    (1968), Czlowiek z marmuru (1977), Bez
    znieczulenia (1978)
  • ROMAN POLANSKI Nóz w wodzie (1962)
  • JERZY SKOLIMOWSKI Rysopis (1964), Walkover
    (1965), Bariera (1966)

8
Filmmakers strike back
  • Cinema of Moral anxiety at the beginning of1
    970s
  • Emphasis on subjective experience rather than
    social analysis
  • Depicting the anxieties of morally sensitive
    people in a corrupt society what could they
    possibly hope for?
  • Despising conformists and cynical opportunists
    although opposing those in power does not appear
    like a workable option

9
The end of socialism
  • Filmmakers respond with enthusiasm to the
    possibility of changes
  • Martial law imposed on 13.12.1981
  • Many filmmakers join the Solidarity movement ?
    worldwide attention and gradually also freedom of
    expression
  • After 1984 many previously banned films are
    distributed
  • Film industry on the verge of bankruptcy

10
The third Polish cinema
  • KRZYSZTOF ZANUSSI Struktura krysztalu (1969),
    Barwy ochronne (1977) Rok spokójnego slonca
    (1984)
  • KRZYSZTOF KIÉSLOWSKI Amator (1979) Przypadek
    (1979) Decalog I-X (1989)
  • RYSZARD BUGAJSKI Przesluchanie (1982)
  • AGNIESZKA HOLLAND Aktorzy prowincjonalni (1980),
    Bittere Ernte (1985), Europa, Europa (1991)
  • WALERIAN BOROWCZYK Goto, Ile damour (1967),
    Contes immoraux (1974), Dzieje grzechu (1975)

11
Czechoslovakia before and after the War
  • Europes technically most advanced studios were
    in Prague
  • Nazi takeover during the war
  • Nationalization and reorganization of film
    industry in 1945 ? state controlled socialist
    realism
  • Film Faculty of the Academic Dramatic Arts (FAMU)
    with facilities for puppet and animation film
    production
  • A separate Slovak production system in 1947

12
CzechFilmmakers
  • GUSTAV MACHATÝ Kreuzersonata (1926) Erotikon
    (1929), Ecstase (1932)
  • JIRI TRNKA Špalícek (1947), Sen noci
    svatojanské (1958)

13
Towards the Prague Spring
  • Constant deterioration of the economy forced the
    socialist regime to renovate the administration ?
    hope of more democracy
  • New wave inspired by the French, British and
    above all Polish developments
  • Satirical and stylized social criticism
  • The influence of cinema on increasing
    consciousness and creating a liberal atmosphere
    was considered to be strong
  • Dubceks socialism with a human face ends in
    Warsaw Pact intervention
  • Many new wave films are banned and film industry
    is reorganized

14
  • ŠTEFAN UHER Slnko v sieti (1962)
  • VERA CHYTILOVA Strop, Pytel blech (1962),
    Sedmikrásky (1966), Ovoce stromu rajských jíme
    (1967)
  • MILOS FORMAN Cerný Petr (1963), Lásky jedné
    plavovlásky (1965), Horí, má panenko! (1967)
  • JIRÍ MENZEL Ostre sledované vlaky (1966)
  • JAROMIL JIREŠ Zert (1968)
  • JASNY, VOJTECH Všichni dobri rodáci (1968)
  • KACHYNA, KAREL Ucho (1970)

15
Hungary before and after the war
  • First major director Mihály Kertész
  • After a brief period of nationalization the film
    industry is taken over by right wing forces which
    collaborates with the Germans during the war
  • Nationalized again after the war
  • Thaw ends in the quenching of the 1956 popular
    revolt ? imprisonments
  • After 1962 amnesty film industry rises again
  • International success gives the directors more
    freedom and films give rise to debates

16
Hungary
  • After the war
  • GÉZA RADVANY Valahol Európában (1947)
  • ZOLTÁN FABRI Körhinta (1955)
  • New Wave
  • ANDRÁS KOVÁCS Nehéz emberek (1964), Hideg napok
    (1966)
  • MIKLOS JANCSÓ Szegénylegények (1965),
    Csillagosok, katonák (1967), Csend és kiáltás
    (1968), Fényes szelek (1969), Még kér a nép
    (1972), Szerelmem, Elektra (1974)

17
Yugoslavia
  • Film industry established only after the war
  • By 1951 each of the six states had its own
    central studios
  • Because of Titos independent line in respect of
    the Soviet Union, filmmakers enjoy relative
    liberty
  • The 1960s novi film movement links with the
    democracy process film production is free from
    bureaucracy and becomes innovative and critical

18
  • DUŠAN MAKAVEJEV Covek nije tica (1966), WR -
    Misterije organizma (1967)
  • EMIR KUSTURICA Otac na sluzbenom putu (1985),
    Dom za vesanje (1988), Underground (1995)

19
Soviet Union - Russia
  • During the war film industry is moved into
    Alma-Ata in Kazhastan
  • More realistic war films that in the 1930s
  • After the war the secretary of the Central
    Committee and Stalins trusted Andrei Zhdanov
    imposes strict control over all arts
  • Films were to depict the influence of the
    Communist Party on all activities in the Soviet
    Union and Stalins personal influence on all
    decision making

20
  • Film industry is to produce only masterpieces
    directed exclusively byt acknowledged masters
  • After Stalins death in 1953 ideological criteria
    are relaxed, but Zhdanovs is still above
    criticism and socialist realism remains the
    guiding line
  • Artists call for truth and authenticity,
    insisting on focusing on individuals rather than
    collectives
  • In 1962 Chrustschev announces that liberalism had
    gone too far in arts
  • Creative directors do still have some scope, but
    they encounter many hindrances

21
  • ELDAR RYAZANOV Carnival Night (1956)
  • GRIGORI KOZINTSEV Hamlet (1964) ja King Lear
    (1972)
  • SERGEI BONDARTSHUK War and Piece (1965-67)
  • MIHAIL KALATOZOV Cranes are flying (1957)
  • GEORGI DANELIYA Walking the Streets of Moscow
    (1963)
  • MARLEN KHUTSIYEV July Rain (1966)
  • KIRA MURATOVA Brief encounters (1968),The Long
    Farewells (1971)
  • ANDREI MIHALKOV-KONTSHALOVSKI The First Teacher
    (1965), Asyas Happiness (1966)
  • ALEXANDER ASKOLDOV The Commissar (1967)
  • ANDREI TARKOVSKI Ivans Childhood (1959), Andrei
    Rubljov (1969), Solaris (1966), The Mirror (1974)
    Stalker (1979)
  • VASILY SHUKSHIN The Red Snowball Bush (1974)
  • LARISSA SHEPITKO The Ascent (1977)
  • ELEM KLIMOV Agony (1975), Go and See (1985)

22
Soviet Union - other states
  • Film industry in other Soviet states only gets
    started during the thaw period
  • Freedom from Stalinistic academism
  • At their best the films were inspired by folk
    culture but generally within the bounds of teh
    official ideology
  • Studios specialized on certain genres Georgia on
    comedy, Azerbaidzan on detective stories, Central
    Asian states on westerns, oriental epics and
    melodramas
  • Filmmakers trained in Moscow, young Russians
    directing in Central Asia

23
  • SERGEI PARADZANOV Shadows of Forgotten
    Ancestors (1964), The Colour of Pomegranates
    (1969), The Legend of the Suram Fortress (1986)
  • TENGIS ABULADZE The Plea (1967), Repentence
    (1984)
  • OTAR JOSELIAN April (1961), The Falling Leaves
    (1968)

24
Sergei Paradzanov The Colour of Pomegranates
(1968)
  • Based on the biography of the Armenian poet and
    musician Sayat Nova
  • Inspired by Armenian illuminated manuscripts How
    can this be seen in the visual style?
  • Actress Sofico Chiaureli plays six roles, both
    male and female try to figure out which ones and
    why
  • First refused an export license and withdrawn
    after a two months circulation
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