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The United Nations and the Cold War


The United Nations and the Cold War Collective Security and Superpower Confrontation – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The United Nations and the Cold War

The United Nations and the Cold War
  • Collective Security and
  • Superpower Confrontation

The United Nations (UN)
  • Created by 51 countries
  • purpose of facilitating world peace through
    collective security
  • Achieve Collective Security by
  • Resolutions-speak against the aggressor
    condemning it for its actions
  • Sanctions-encourage UN members not to trade with
    the aggressing nation
  • Military-send in a military force to create peace

Parts of the UN
  • General Assembly
  • Parliament of the world
  • Each country has one representative and one vote
    passes resolutions
  • Security Council
  • made up of 15 nations
  • 5 permanent members-USSR, USA, France, Britain,
    China-they all hold veto power
  • 10 non-permanent members that work on a 2 year
  • decisions need the agreement of 9 of the members,
    but any of the 5 permanent members can use their
    veto power to stop the decision.
  • Veto power was used 78 times prior to 1955-75

Not just Peace
  • The Un is also pledged to end disease and famine,
    and protect human rights
  • this is carried out through organizations like
    the World Health
  • Organization (WHO),
  • the UN Childrens fund
  • (UNICEF),
  • and the International
  • Monetary Fund (IMF).

The Korean Conflict 1950First test of the UN
  • Korea divided after WWII-
  • communism in the north backed by the USSR and
  • weak democracy in the south backed by the USA.
  • 1950-North Korea invades South Korea
  • Take most of South quickly
  • UN forces, lead by America, enters Korea
    attempting to push the North Koreans back
  • Canada sends thousands of troops and three Naval
    destroyers to assists.
  • USA- MacArthur wants to use atomic bomb
  • MacArthur is fired
  • Lester Pearson tries to convince all sides to
    agree to a ceasefire
  • Ceasefire finally agreed upon in 1953, however,
    this war increased cold war tensions.

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Suez Canal
  • UNs next big challenge

The canal allowed access to Asia from Europe
The Suez Crisis 1956
  • Egypt Nationalizes (takes control of) the Suez
    Canal which was privately owned by British and
    French investors.
  • Israel thinks Egypt is becoming too aggressive
  • Britain and France support an Israel invasion
    despite a UN resolution to not interfere
  • USSR quickly backs Egypt
  • USA, although angry at its allies offers its
    support against the USSR
  • Lester Pearson suggests that the UN send its
    military forces in to separate and mediate (Peace
    Keeping) between the armies involved. This
    proves to be successful

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Cuban Missile Crisis
  • 1959 Fidel Castro overthrows pro-American
    government in Cuba
  • Americans react by imposing trade and economic
  • Try to get rid of Castro many times eventually
    finance and supervise an invasion by anti-Castro
    forces (Bay of Pigs) This fails miserably
  • Castro fears further US intervention and turns to
    USSR for support

  • USSR sends Nuclear missiles to Cuba
  • US responds with a Naval and Air blockade
  • USSR initially refuses to back down
  • US has missiles in Turkey
  • USSR wants removed
  • On the brink (edge)
  • of Nuclear War

What happened
  • Last minute Soviet leader Khrushchev backs down
  • Will remove missiles if US promises not to invade
  • Canada as a partner in NORAD was expected by US
    to back them
  • Diefenbaker did not want to get drawn into a
    conflict stemming from what he thought was flawed
    US policy
  • Diefenbaker wanted the UN to send a fact finding
  • Refused to put Canadian NORAD bases on
  • Refused to let US nuclear armed planes land at
    Canadian bases
  • Canadas relations with US grow worse

Avro Arrow
  • 1950s Canada begins the development of a
    supersonic Jet Fighter to counteract the threat
    of Soviet Nuclear armed Bomber aircraft
  • Cancelled in 1959 by Diefenbaker
  • Some say it was because the plane was too good
    and US interests did not want competition so US
    government put pressure on the Canadian govt.
  • Others say it was too costly and intercontinental
    missiles made it obsolete before it was even done
  • Most of Canadian designers went down too the US
    and worked for US companies after the Arrow was
    scrapped (cancelled)

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The Nuclear Issue in Canada
  • After the Arrow was scrapped Canada agreed to
    accept US made BOMARC missiles on Canadian soil
    took years and in the meantime Canadians had
    second thoughts
  • Became a huge debate in Canada
  • Hypocritical to urge the UN to work for
    disarmament and have nuclear missiles at the same
  • Liberal- Yes to missiles under certain conditions
    (Business men did not want to make US mad)
  • Conservatives No missiles (Canada should not be
    bullied by US Nationalism)
  • Liberals win minority in 1963

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Vietnam War
  • Domino Theory Spread of communism had to be
    stopped or all of Southeast Asia would fall like
  • In the 1960s Vietnam was divided into North and
    South like Korea
  • North Communist
  • South Dictatorship friendly to US and backed by
    the US

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  • 1965 US President Lyndon Johnson authorizes
    increased number of US troops to back the South
    Vietnam govt.
  • By 1966 190,000 continued to grow
  • South was backed by USSR and Communist China
  • Television war as it progresses and more and
    more American soldiers die support for the war in
    the US dwindles (becomes less)
  • 1969 a new President Nixon- promises to remove
    the troops from Vietnam
  • Last US combat troops leave 1973 1975 South is
    overrun by North Vietnamese army
  • Many South Vietnamese flee the country fearing
    reprisals Boat people
  • Thousands come to Canada

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  • Although some Canadian companies sold war goods
    to the US, Canada remained out of the war
  • Most Canadians did not agree with the slogan
    Better Dead than Red
  • Canadian PM Pearson
  • openly states his
  • disagreement with US policy
  • in Vietnam on a visit to the
  • US and is berated by the US
  • president Johnson

Pearson Johnson