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2 Major Court Cases

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Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: Owner Last modified by: Ross Arnold Created Date: 1/7/2005 4:17:58 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 2 Major Court Cases


1
2 Major Court Cases
  • Page 290-91 and Page 708-709
  • 1) Compare and contrast the court cases of Plessy
    v. Ferguson, 1896 to Brown v. Board of Education,
    1954. (What is each case about AND what is the
    ruling of each case?)
  • 2) What was the response of the southern states
    to the ruling of Brown v. Board of Education?
  • 3) What impact has the Brown decision had on the
    American way of life?

2
Bell Quiz Use pages 700-704
  • 1) Define segregation.
  • 2) According to the map on page 701 how many
    states required segregation of public schools?
  • 3) What is a Jim Crow law?
  • 4) How much more money did the U.S. spend
    educating white students compared to black
    students in 1938?
  • 5) What was the 14th amendment?

3
Bell Quiz Answers
  • 1) Separation of races.
  • 2) 17 states.
  • 3) Laws in the south that separated races and
    facilities.
  • 4) 10x as much money was spent educating white
    students as African-American students.
  • 5) Guaranteed all Americans equal treatment under
    the law.

4
CIVIL RIGHTS
5
AMENDMENTS
  • 1) 13th Abolished Slavery
  • 2) 14th Civil Rights Amendment, grants
    citizenship, and provides equal protection under
    the law for all citizens (June 13, 1868).
  • 3) 15th Amendment African-American men given the
    right to vote (February 26, 1869).

6
BLACK CODES
  • Originated in 1865 in Mississippi and South
    Carolina.
  • City ordinances prohibiting blacks from being
    equal. Not allowed to
  • Carry weapons, testify against whites, marrying
    whites, serving on juries, starting own business,
    traveling w/out permits, renting or leasing
    farmland.

7
VOTING RESTRICTIONS
  • 1) Literacy Test Reading and writing test.
  • 2) Poll Tax Pay to vote.
  • 3) Grandfather Clause You could vote IF your
    Father or Grandfather had been eligible to vote
    before Jan.1, 1867.
  • Problem?

8
Who is Jim Crow?
  • Jim Crow was NOT the name of an actual person.
  • In 1832 Jim Crow became the stage name of a
    performance making fun of the stereotypical black
    person.
  • Basically, the performance was the equivalent to
    Saturday Night Live.

9
Jim Crow Laws
  • The southern states expanded the Black Codes by
    making laws separating races.
  • These laws became known as Jim Crow laws or
    Negro laws.
  • Jim Crow laws created separate facilities of
    various sorts throughout the south.
  • Segregationseparation of races.
  • DesegregationNo separation of races.

10
De facto vs. De jure Segregation
  • De facto Segregation Racial segregation,
    especially in public schools, that happens by
    fact or is customary rather than by legal
    requirement. For example, often the concentration
    of African-Americans in certain neighborhoods
    produces neighborhood schools that are
    predominantly black.
  • De jure Segregation segregation that is imposed
    by law.

11
Drinking Fountains
12
Waiting Rooms
13
Hotels
14
Movie Theaters
15
Movie Theaters
16
Restaurants
17
Transportation Systems
18
Public Schools
19
Plessy vs. Ferguson, 1896
  • Homer Plessy, a Creole with just 1/8
    African-American blood, was arrested for sitting
    in the white only section of a railroad car.
  • The fine was just 25, but Plessy refused to pay
    and eventually decided to challenge the state
    law.
  • The Supreme Court ruled 8-1 against Plessy,
    stating that the law did not violate the 14th
    amendment guaranteeing all Americans equal
    treatment under the law.
  • Therefore, Separate, but equal was legal!!!!
  • Segregation will be legal for the next 58
    years!

20
NAACP
  • The National Association for the Advancement of
    colored People.
  • Goal full equality among all races.
  • Fought for equality by using the court system.

21
Brown vs. Board of Education
  • In 1954, the NAACP challenged the Separate, but
    equal ruling in the Supreme Court on behalf of 9
    year old Linda Brown.
  • The board of education in Kansas had denied Linda
    entrance into an all white elementary school just
    4 blocks from her house.
  • Instead, Linda had to walk 21 blocks to an all
    black school!

22
Brown vs. Board of Education
  • Thurgood Marshall, an NAACP lawyer, was
    instrumental in winning the court case and
    getting the Supreme Court to rule that
    segregation was unconstitutional.
  • Separate, but equal facilities are inherently
    unequal.

23
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24
Reaction
  • Southern states accused the Judicial Branch of
    abusing their power. They felt as if segregation
    was a state issueSouthern Manifesto.
  • Southern Congressmen promised to use "all lawful
    means to bring about a reversal of this decision
    which is contrary to the Constitution and to
    prevent the use of force in its implementation.
    Also encouraged the citizens to disobey the
    Supreme Court decision.
  • The governor of Georgia pledged to map a program
    that will insure permanent segregation of the
    racesthe people of Georgia will not comply with
    the decision of the court. Were going to do
    whatever is necessary in Georgia to keep white
    children in white schools and colored children in
    colored schools.
  • In Short, the Southern states refused to abide by
    the Federal Governments ruling.
  • WHO HAS SUPREME POWER?

25
Brown II
  • 500 school districts across the country had
    desegregated their classrooms by the start of the
    1955 school year.
  • However, still many school districts refused to
    desegregate their schools.
  • In 1955 the supreme court issued a demand known
    as Brown II mandating that school desegregation
    be implemented with all deliberate speed.
  • School districts across the south still refused
    to obey the supreme court (just 1 of schools
    were integrated by 1960).

26
Emmett Till Video Clip (Next Slide) First 26
minutes
27
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28
Little Rock, Arkansas
  • In 1957, 9 African-American students volunteered
    to integrate Central High School.
  • Arkansas governor Orval Faubus ordered the
    National Guard to not let the 9 students into the
    school.

29
Little Rock, Arkansas
  • President Eisenhower was forced to show the
    southern states that the federal government has
    supreme power.
  • Eisenhower sent 1000 paratroopers to Little Rock
    and escorted the 9 students past a white mob and
    into the school.

30
Ernest Green
  • 2 years after being escorted into Central High
    School, Ernest Green became the 1st
    African-American to graduate.
  • 8 of the Little Rock 9 eventually graduated
    from Central High.

31
Central High School Video (Next slide) Start at
600. Finish at 3000.
32
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33
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