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World War I


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Title: World War I

World War I
  • Mr. Stikes

  • SSUSH15 The student will analyze the origins and
    impact of U.S. involvement in World War I.
  • a. Describe the movement from U.S. neutrality to
    engagement in World War I, with reference to
    unrestricted submarine warfare.
  • b. Explain the domestic impact of World War I, as
    reflected by the origins of the Great Migration,
    the Espionage Act, and socialist Eugene Debs.
  • c. Explain Wilsons Fourteen Points and the
    proposed League of Nations.
  • d. Describe passage of the Eighteenth Amendment,
    establishing Prohibition, and the Nineteenth
    Amendment, establishing womens suffrage.

Origins of World War I
  • Causes
  • Balkan nationalism
  • Militarism
  • Entangling alliances
  • Early war in Europe
  • Assassination of Archduke (June 28, 1914)
  • Mobilization
  • Invasion of France, development of trench lines

Origins of World War I
  • U.S. Neutrality
  • Wilsons Declaration of Neutrality
  • August 19, 1914

The effect of the war upon the United States will
depend upon what American citizens say and do.
Every man who really loves America will act and
speak in the true spirit of neutrality, which is
the spirit of impartiality and fairness and
friendliness to all concerned The United States
must be neutral in fact, as well as in name,
during these days that are to try men's souls. We
must be impartial in thought, as well as action
World War I
  • Submarine warfare
  • February 5th, 1915 Germany announces submarine
    blockade of Britain
  • Why?
  • May 7th, 1915 Lusitania sunk
  • 1,198 civilians, includes 128 Americans killed
  • Takes 18 minutes to sink

German warning to American passengers
The Lusitania
  • British ocean liner
  • Carried articles of war (up to 1/2 of cargo)
  • 1,250 cases of shrapnel shells 18 cases of
    fuses 4,200 cases of Remington rifle cartridges
    (1,000 to a box) 50 cases of explosive powder
  • U.S. Response
  • Wilson issues demand to stop sub attacks
  • William Jennings Bryan resigns in protest

Aftermath of the Lusitania
  • Sussex Pledge
  • Germany promises not to attack any more ships
  • National Defense Act
  • June 1916
  • Basically doubles size of army, spends 313
    million to improve the navy

1916 Presidential Election
  • Woodrow Wilson
  • He kept us out of war - Slogan
  • Supported U.S. neutrality officially, while
    building up the army navy and loaning money to
    the Allied powers
  • Argued for a peace without victory
  • Central Question of the time

Should the U.S. remain neutral?
Isolationism v. Globalization
  • Isolationism
  • William Jennings Bryan, Secretary of State,
    argued for neutrality
  • No loans to powers that were fighting, U.S.
    should stay out of the war
  • Globalization
  • Theodore Roosevelt and others argued that the
    U.S. should intervene on the side of the Allies
  • Germany attacked the U.S. by attacking British

Road to War
  • Submarine Attacks
  • In desperation, unrestricted submarine warfare
    began again on February 1, 1917
  • Germans hoped to defeat Allied before U.S. could
    impact the war
  • Zimmerman Telegram (1917)
  • German foreign secretary Zimmerman sent telegram
    to Mexico asking them join war in return for New
    Mexico, Texas and Arizona
  • Intercepted by British and leaked to American

Zimmerman Telegram
Declaration of War
  • April 2, 1917

"The world must be made safe for democracy. Its
peace must be planted upon the tested foundations
of political liberty It is a fearful thing to
lead this great peaceful people into war, into
the most terrible and disastrous of all wars,
civilization itself seeming to be in, the
balance.  But the right is more precious than
peace, and we shall fight for the things which we
have always carried nearest our hearts--for
democracy, for the right of those who submit to
authority to have a voice in their own
governments, for the rights and liberties of
small nations, for a universal dominion of right
by such a concert of free peoples as shall bring
peace and safety to all nations and make the
world itself at last free"
U.S. in World War I
  • Soldiers called doughboys
  • Major battles
  • 2nd Battle of the Marne
  • St. Mihiel
  • Meuse-Argonne Offensive

Domestic Impact of U.S. during WW I
  • Domestic Impact How the war impacted Americans
    at home
  • Ways the war impacted America
  • Great Migration
  • Espionage Act Privacy
  • Eugene Debs Socialism
  • Changing Workforce Demographics

Domestic Impact of U.S. during WW I
  • Great Migration (1890s-1920s)
  • Mass movement of African Americans to northern
  • Why?
  • Escape negative
    aspects of Southern
  • Economic

Black Population Trends Black Population Trends Black Population Trends Black Population Trends
  1890s 1960s 1960s
Southern 90.3 90.3 10
Rural 90 90 5
Northern 9.7 9.7 90
Urban 10 10 95
Domestic Impact of U.S. during WW I
  • Great Migration (1890s-1920s)
  • African-Americans created separate communities
    within northern cities
  • Best example Harlem in New York City
  • Helps lead to the Harlem Renaissance
  • Race relations deteriorate
  • Northern resistance
    (residential segregation)
  • Marcus Garvey racial pride
    and self-help
  • Rise of the 2nd Ku Klux Klan

Domestic Impact of U.S. during WW I
  • Eugene Debs and socialism
  • Eugene Debs (1855-1926)
  • Helped establish Socialist Party of America
  • Ran for President in 1904, 1908, 1912 and 1920
  • Served 5 years in prison for violating the
    Espionage Act

Domestic Impact of U.S. during WW I
  • Espionage Act and Privacy
  • Espionage Act of 1917
  • Made it illegal to interfere with military
    recruitment or operations, or to openly support
    Americas enemies
  • Most famous violator Eugene V. Debs
  • Schenck v. United States (1919) Constitutional,
    not a violation of 1st Amendment freedom of
  • Still in effect today
  • Some want Julian Assange, founder of WikiLeaks,
    charged under the Espionage Act for his actions
    in releasing classified military documents from
    the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan

Debs was a pacifist. He, along with many other
socialists, argued that the United States should
not enter World War I
Domestic Impact of U.S. during WW I
  • Changing workforce demographics
  • Great Migration more African-American
    industrial workers
  • World War I more women employed

Wilsons Fourteen Points
  • January 8, 1918
  • Speech to Congress made by President Woodrow
  • Set out U.S. war goals
  • Idealistic
  • War was moral and continual peace was the main

League of Nations
  • Extra-national organization
    founded after World War I
  • Purpose
  • Eliminate future wars by settling disputes
    between nations by negotiation and arbitration
  • U.S. fails to join
  • Does not ratify Treaty of Versailles

Return to Isolationism
  • U.S. does not join League of Nations
  • Returns to isolationism

18th Amendment
Passed by Congress December 18, 1917. Ratified
January 16, 1919. Repealed by amendment
21. Section 1.After one year from the
ratification of this article the manufacture,
sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors
within, the importation thereof into, or the
exportation thereof from the United States and
all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof
for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.
18th Amendment
  • Temperance Movement
  • Sought to reduce/eliminate alcohol consumption in
    the United States
  • Typical members were evangelical Protestants,
    many were women
  • Important temperance organizations
  • Womens Christian Temperance Organization
  • Anti-Saloon League of America

18th Amendment
  • Prohibition in Georgia
  • 1885 GA General Assembly gives counties the
    right to declare themselves dry
  • 1907 GA General Assembly enacts mandatory
    statewide Prohibition
  • Implemented between 1908-1915
  • 1919 18th Amendment ratified

19th Amendment
AMENDMENT XIX Passed by Congress June 4, 1919.
Ratified August 18, 1920. The right of citizens
of the United States to vote shall not be denied
or abridged by the United States or by any State
on account of sex. Congress shall have power to
enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
19th Amendment
  • Provides women the right to vote
  • Linked w/ movement to provide African Americas
    with suffrage

19th Amendment
  • Womens suffrage in Georgia
  • July 24, 1919 GA rejects the 19th Amendment
  • 1920 19th Amendment ratified
  • 1922 Georgia women first given right to vote
  • 1970 Georgia officially ratifies the 19th