INTRODUCTION to the INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION United States - Canada for Representatives from the Government of Mozambique James Chandler Frank Bevacqua October 9, 2001 www.ijc.org - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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INTRODUCTION to the INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION United States - Canada for Representatives from the Government of Mozambique James Chandler Frank Bevacqua October 9, 2001 www.ijc.org

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Title: INTRODUCTION to the INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION United States - Canada for Representatives from the Government of Mozambique James Chandler Frank Bevacqua October 9, 2001 www.ijc.org


1
INTRODUCTION to the INTERNATIONAL JOINT
COMMISSION United States - Canada
for Representatives from the Government of
Mozambique James Chandler Frank
Bevacqua October 9, 2001 www.ijc.org
2
Agenda
  • The IJC
  • Authorities
  • Organization
  • Great Lakes Water Quality
  • Great Lakes Water Levels
  • Great Lakes Water Uses
  • Other Transboundary Activities
  • Summary

3
United States
4
The IJC in Brief
  • A Unitary Treaty Organization
  • Six Commissioners -Serve without Instructions
  • Decides by Consensus
  • Operates from Yukon to Gulf of Maine
  • Controls Flows in Boundary Waters
  • Prevents and Resolves Disputes Over Shared Water
    and Air
  • Watchdog of Great Lakes Restoration Efforts
  • Conducts Studies for Governments

5
Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909
  • Provided Principles and Mechanisms to Prevent and
    Resolve Disputes Concerning Water Quantity and
    Water Quality and Other Environmental Issues
    Along the U.S.-Canada Boundary
  • Freedom of Navigation in Boundary Waters
  • Required Approval of the IJC or the Two Federal
    Governments for Projects that Affect Levels and
    Flows in Boundary Waters

6
Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909 cont.
  • In Transboundary Rivers, Upstream Country
    Controls Flows that would Cross Boundary, but
    Downstream Country needs International Approval
    for Dams that Raise Water Levels Upstream of the
    Boundary
  • Pollution Causing Transboundary Injury is
    Prohibited
  • Established the International Joint Commission
    (IJC)

7
Other IJC Authorities
  • Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement of 1978
  • References from Governments
  • Orders in Response to Applications
  • Columbia River Treaty
  • Rainy Convention
  • Lake of Woods Convention

8
International Joint Commission Principles of
Operation
  • Operation Without Instructions
    from Governments
  • Balanced Membership
  • Three Commissioners From Each Country
  • Equality on IJC Boards and Working Groups
  • Service in Personal and Professional Capacity
  • Good Science - Joint Fact Finding
  • Full Public Involvement

9
Commissioners
Mary Gusella
Tom Baldini
Jack Blaney
Robert Gourd
10
IJC Organization
Commissioners
Great Lakes Regional Office (Windsor, ON)
US Section Washington
Canadian Section Ottawa
Pollution Surveillance Boards
Great Lakes Water Quality Institutions
Boards of Control - Combined Boards
Investigative Bodies
11
Boards and Task Forces
  • BOARDS of CONTROL/COMBINED BOARDS/POLLUTION
    BOARDS
  • International St. Lawrence River Board of Control
  • International Niagara River Board of Control
  • International Lake Superior Board of Control
  • International Osoyoos Lake Board of Control
  • International Rainy Lake Board of Control
  • International Rainy River Pollution Advisory
    Board
  • International Lake of the Woods Board of Control
  • International Kootenay Lake Board of Control
  • International Columbia River Board of Control
  • International Air Quality Advisory Board
  • International Red River Board
  • International St. Croix River Board
  • International Souris River Board
  • Newly Combined Boards
  • GREAT LAKES WATER QUALITY
  • Great Lakes Water Quality Board
  • Great Lakes Science Advisory Board
  • Council of Great Lakes Research Managers
  • INVESTIGATIVE BODIES
  • Health Professionals Task Force
  • St. Mary-Milk Rivers Accredited Officers
  • Lake Ontario-St. Lawrence Study Board
  • Upper lakes Plan of Study Team

12
The Great Lakes
  • 20 of Worlds Fresh Water
  • Inland Navigation Highway
  • Power Source for Industries
  • Water Source for 40 Million
  • Natural Treasure
  • Recreation Centerpiece
  • Threatened by Pollution
  • Challenged by Demand

13
Great Lakes Water Quality
  • Binational GL Water Quality Agreement
  • IJC Watchdog Parties Implement
  • IJC Biennial Report to Governments
  • Issues
  • Restoration
  • Adequate Funds (gt6B) -Defined Program
  • Role of Air Pollution
  • Aquatic Nuisance Species
  • Standards
  • Federal Action Gap
  • Emerging Issues
  • Groundwater
  • Urban Sprawl
  • Review of the Agreement

14
Great Lakes Water Levels
  • Water Level Shifts
  • Highs - 70s-90s
  • Lows - 60s, 1998-2001
  • Impacts
  • High Levels
  • Shoreline Erosion - Flooding - Cross-currents
  • Low Levels
  • Hydropower - Navigation - Recreational Boating -
    Environment
  • Actions - Review of IJC Orders
  • 20 Million St. Lawrence-Ontario Study
  • Proposed Upper Lakes Study
  • Unknown - Climate Change

15
Upper Lakes
Lake Ontario-St Lawrence
16
LAKE ONTARIO - ST. LAWRENCE RIVER
OTTAWA RIVER
MONTREAL
CORNWALL
MOSES SAUNDERS HYDRO PROJECT
PRESCOTT
KINGSTON
OGDENSBURG
ST. LAWRENCE RIVER
CAPE VINCENT
TORONTO
OSWEGO
ROCHESTER
NIAGARA R.
LAKE ERIE
17
St. Lawrence-Lake Ontario Study
  • Background
  • St Lawrence River Projects Authorized by IJC in
    1952 under Boundary Waters Treaty
  • Current regulation - Orders of Approval as
    Amended in 1956
  • Treaty Interests Navigation, Water Supply,
    Hydropower,
  • Purpose of Study Review Regulation to Ensure
    Appropriate Treatment of Existing Interests and
    Consideration of
  • Environmental Factors
  • Recreational Boating and Related Interests
  • Actual Water Supplies Received
  • Climate Change and Variability

18
International Lake Ontario-St. Lawrence River
Study
IJC
U.S. Canadian Co-Directors Study Board - 14
members
U.S. Canadian Study Managers Public Affairs
Officers
  • Technical Work Groups
  • Environmental
  • Recreational Boating/ Tourism
  • Hydrologic Models, Clim. Change Eval.
  • Coastal Zone/ Shore Interests
  • Commercial Navigation
  • Domestic, Industrial Municipal Water
  • Hydroelectric Power
  • Common Data Needs
  • Plan Formulation

Public Interest Advisory Group 22-24 Members
(U.S.-Canadian) appointed by IJC in
consultation with the Study Board
Direct
Consultative
19
Upper Lakes Study
  • Background
  • Current regulation of Lake Superior - Orders of
    Approval as Amended in 1979
  • Identified Interests Navigation, Water Supply,
    Hydropower
  • Purpose of Study Review Regulation to Ensure
    Appropriate Treatment of Existing Interests and
    Consideration of
  • Environmental Factors
  • New Interests
  • Actual Water Supplies Received
  • Climate Change and Variability
  • Technological Advances

20
NOVA
21
Great Lakes Water Uses
  • IJC Study Protection of the Waters of the Great
    Lakes
  • No Surplus Threat from Near-basin Communities
  • Protect Integrity of Waters
  • Diversions
  • Consumptive Use
  • Need No Discrimination Standards
    NAFTA/GATT/Commerce Clause
  • Governors/Premiers Prepare Standards
  • without prejudice to authority of federal
    governments

22
Great Lakes Water Uses Ongoing Actions
  • States/Provinces
  • Annex 2001 - Diversions
  • Information Systems Improvements
  • Cumulative Impact Analysis
  • Federal
  • IJC 2003 Review of Progress
  • IJC 10-year Review of Water Use

23
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24
International Transboundary Watershed Boards
  • Outgrowth of IJC and 21st Century
  • Bring Together Transboundary Ecosystem Interests
  • Alert, Assess, Report

25
International Transboundary Watershed Boards
  • 1998 Reference to IJC
  • Concept Has Merit
  • Examine Border Areas for Feasibility
  • Recommend Pilot Board
  • IJC December 200 Report
  • Reaction on Border Mixed
  • IJC Combining Boards as First Step
  • Red River Recommended as Pre-pilot Board
  • Resources Will be Required

26
The Red River Basin
  • Transboundary Pollution
  • Red River Floods

27
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28
The Red River Flood of 1997
  • gt4 Billion (US) Damages
  • gt2 Billion (US) Federal Flood Recovery Costs
  • gt100,000 People Evacuated
  • 4 Major Communities Flooded
  • Grand Forks Population Dropped by 8
  • Winnipeg Spared by Centimeters
  • Largest Canadian Military Deployment since
    Korean War

29
Study Conclusions - The Flood
  • Flood Was Natural Event
  • Equal or Larger Floods Can Be Expected in Future
  • Paleo-Analysis
  • Historical Records - 1826 Flood
  • People and Property at Risk
  • Winnipeg
  • Cities and Villages

30
Study Conclusions - Necessary Actions
  • Development of Comprehensive Binational Basin
    Plan
  • Use of Balanced Approach - No Single Solution
    Will Solve Problem -
  • - Reservoirs - Micro-Storage
  • - Wetlands - Levees
  • - Relocations

31
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32
Souris River Basin
33
International Souris River Board
  • Combining Board WQG
  • Quantity IJC
  • Quality - Governments
  • Small Membership Enlarge?
  • Flood Concerns- Flood Report
  • Lake Metigoshe
  • Federal-State- Provincial Tensions

34
Rainy River Basin
35
Rainy-Lake of the Woods
  • 1925 Lake of the Woods
  • Convention and Protocol
  • International regulation - ILOWCB - only for
    water levels greater than 1061 ft or less than
    1056 feet
  • 2001 concerns over high water, international
    regulation
  • Lack of clarity over (U.S.) ILOCB reporting
    channels
  • 1938 Rainy Lake Convention
  • IJC to avoid high and low emergency levels
  • Accomplished via rule curves (major review
    completed 2000)
  • IJC combining water level and water pollution
    boards

36
Rainy Issues
  • New Orders
  • Background Local Interest
  • Wellstone Amendment
  • Follow-up - Assessment
  • 2001 High Water
  • Issues
  • Report
  • Rainy Boards Combination QQ
  • Membership
  • Operations
  • Activity - Resources

37
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38
IJC Experience
  • Independently Regulates
    Operation of 19 Structures
    in Boundary/transboundary Waters
  • Addressed Over 50 Potential Problems At Request
    of Governments
  • Provides Periodic Alerting Reports to Governments
    on Transboundary Air and Water Issues
  • Apportions Waters on 3 Transboundary Rivers
  • Monitors Government Progress Under Great Lakes
    Water Quality Agreement

39
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