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Title: video footage gathered in Rome and at sites of Ancient Roman ruins around Europe shows the glory and grandeur that was Rome. 51min.


1
video footage gathered in Rome and at sites of
Ancient Roman ruins around Europe shows the glory
and grandeur that was Rome. 51min.
2
Chapter 14 The Roman Republic Words, Terms and
People to Define and Know
  • Consuls
  • Veto
  • Dictator
  • Triumvirate
  • Tribunes
  • Latifundias
  • Publicans
  • patricians
  • Legionaries
  • Senate
  • Twelve Tables
  • Punic Wars
  • Hannibal
  • Gaius Marius
  • Julius Caesar
  • Octavian

http//www.learner.org/resources/series58.html
3
Chapter 14 The Roman Republic 508 B.C. 30 B. C.
  • 1.I can Compare direct and representative
    democracy using
  • examples of ancient Athens, the Roman republic
    and the United States today. 
  • 2. I can Describe the essential characteristics
    of the systems of government found in
    city-states, kingdoms and empires from ancient
    times through the Middle Ages.

Roman reenactors dressed as Roman soldiers
beginning from earliest Republican times in the
center, later Republican times c. 100 B.C to the
left and Empire times c. 150 A.D. to the right
4
How Rome Grew and changed from 320 B.C. to 530
A.D.
Rome the creator, shaper, and transmitter of
culture to the Western World.
  • List of maps of the ancient Roman World

5
Roman Society and Culture
  • In Greece the measure was the man in Rome it
    was the LAW!
  • In Rome organization, discipline, obedience to
    ancestral tradition and custom were the most
    important aspects of communal life.
  • Mos Maiorum
  • Obedience to custom, tradition and Rome itself
  • Horatius at the Bridgestory (read) p.470 B.O.V.
  • Gravitas
  • The disposition to take things seriously
  • Dignitas
  • A dignified manner an innate right to respect
    and ethical treatment. The Strength of character
    to honor your word.
  • The Story of Regulus (read) 617 B.O.V.

portraits of grim-faced, middle-aged men
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (r. 21117 A.D.),
nicknamed Caracalla
Bust of Alexander the Great idealism, Beauty-perfe
ction.
6
The Constitution of the Roman Republic was an
unwritten set of guidelines and principles passed
down mainly through precedent.2 The Roman
constitution was not formal or even official. It
was largely unwritten, uncodified and constantly
evolving. Laws First written
down around 450 B.C.
Chart showing checks and balances of government
under the Republic Complicated isnt it? Just
remember that in the Republic real power was
originally in the hands of the Senate
7
Another Way Of Looking At The Flow of Power In
the Republic
8
American System -- based on balance of
powers/functions Our system protects the rights
of the individual against the power of the state
Executive Legislative Judicial
President Congress Supreme Court
Roman System -- based on balance of interests
more concerned with protecting the interests of
various societal groups
Monarchical Aspects Aristocratic Aspects Democratic Aspects
2 Consuls other magistrates Senate 300 members Assembly of Tribes Tribune
Directed government and army Acted as judges Could issue edicts Acted as chief priest Controlled state budget Could pass laws Approved/rejected laws Decided on War Tribune could veto actions of magistrate Acted as final court
Basis of power possess imperium, the right to rule need for leadership Basis of power members were richest men in Rome. Basis of power provided most of the soldiers
Limits on power one year term each could veto Limits on power could not control army needed majority as soldiers. Limits on power Could not suggest laws often paid as clients by the elite

9
  • In the American system of government the powers
    of government are divided to prevent any one
    branch from becoming too powerful. We operate
    under a system of checks and balances. We also
    have a written constitution that guarantees
    individual rights and protects citizens against
    abuses of the power of government. No one is
    above the law and there are no distinctions in
    the law concerning class, or social position.

10
Section One Summarizes the rise of Roman
democracy
  • I. The Government
  • People to Know Tarquin the Proud ( last
    Etruscan king who was overthrown)
  • Terms to Learn Republic
  • Terms to Learn Patricians
  • Terms to Learn Plebeians
  • A. Two consuls headed Roman Republic
  • 1. Administrators and military leaders Lucius
    Quinctius Cincinnatus 458 B.C. Book of Virtue
    pgs. 671-74
  • a.) each with power of veto on the other
  • b.) Both had to agree for laws to be passed
  • B. Senate (Senatus is derived from the Latin
    word senex, meaning old man or elder Senate is,
    by etymology, the Council of Elders.)
  • 1. 300 men chosen for life (although the number
    grew through time.)

The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum, the seat of
the imperial Senate. (44 BC.) Curia Julia is one
of only a handful of Roman structures to survive
to the modern day intact, due to its conversion
into the basilica of Sant'Adrianoal Foro in the
seventh century.
11
(No Transcript)
12
On a piece of paper answer these three
questions. What are the qualities of a good
leader? Should leaders always be measured by
the results they achieve? Have the qualities
of good leaders changed over time?
13
I. Cont.
  • 2. Handled daily problems of govt.
  • 3. Advised the counsels
  • Terms to Learn Consuls
  • C. Tribunesgovt. officials who protected the
    rights of plebeians

Those who held the office of Tribune were granted
sacrosanctity the right to be legally protected
from any physical harm, the power to rescue any
plebeian from the hands of a patrician
magistrate, and the right to veto any act or
proposal of any magistrate, including another
tribune of the people and the consuls. The
tribune also had the power to exercise capital
punishment against any person who interfered in
the performance of his duties.
In the case of ancient Rome-the clothes really do
make the man! (read Guys in Sheets)
14
Guys in Sheets or, How to Tell One Roman from
Another
1. The word toga derives from the Latin word
'tegere' meaning to cover. It was a loose outer
garment without sleeves which was open from the
waist upwards, worn by the ancient Romans,
consisting of a single broad piece of woolen
cloth of a shape approaching a semicircle. 2.
The toga was gracefully draped by placing an edge
on the left side of the body which extended from
the lower legs up over the shoulder, around the
back and beneath the right arm. The loose end of
cloth which remained was thrown over the left
shoulder. 
15
3. There were specific laws called Roman
Sumptuary Laws which dictated which type of
clothing could be worn by Romans. This included
the type of material, the style of the clothes
and the color that people were allowed to wear.
4. These laws ensured that a specific class
structure was maintained in the Roman Republic
and the Roman Empire. Only Roman citizens were
permitted to wear the toga. Emperor Augustus
enforced the public wearing of the toga by males
in the center of Rome and in the media cave of
the theater. Foreigners and banished Romans were
banned from wearing the toga. 5. Only the
Emperor was allowed to wear a toga which was
entirely colored in purple. Statues of gods were
also dressed in the purple toga. 6. Only the
augurs were allowed to wear a saffron toga. A
toga with stripes on the border symbolized the
status of the wearer such as senators and
magistrates. The toga picta or toga palmata was a
toga with a gold border which was only permitted
to be worn by generals in their triumphs. The
toga symbolized a garment of peace.
16
Guys in Sheets Continued
  • 7. During the early period of the Roman
    Republic the toga was at first worn by women as
    well as men. However, a garment called the stola
    was introduced and worn by married women. 8.
    Prostitutes and women condemned for adultery,
    were not permitted to wear the stola and forced
    to wear a toga. A toga-clad prostitute was called
    a togatae.
  • 9. The color of the toga worn by men was
    generally white, that is, the natural colour
    of white wool. Hence it was called pura or
    vestimentum purum. 10. The toga was kept white
    and clean by the fuller. When this was neglected,
    the toga was called sordida, and those who wore
    such garments sordidati. 11. A black or dark
    colored toga was worn as a sign of mourning. The
    augurs wore a saffron colored toga. The colors of
    the borders on the toga indicated the status of
    the wearer. 

17
How to wear a sheet-- or,how I will ensure Ill
never be considered normal by my friends.
  • 12. How to Make a Toga from a Bed Sheet How to
    make a toga from a bed sheet is easy! The type of
    sheet should preferably be white and the sheet
    you want to work with is an unfitted top sheet.
    The instructions on how to make a toga from a bed
    sheet is as follows - it's easier if you have
    someone to help with the draping
  • The bed sheet should be draped over a t-shirt
    and/or shorts
  • Take a corner of the bed sheet in one hand and
    hold in front of the top of your left shoulder
    with your chin
  • Drape the sheet firmly across your chest and tuck
    it under the right arm
  • Wrap the toga around your back
  • Tuck it under the left arm and again around the
    front of your chest
  • Take the second corner and bring it across your
    chest, under your arm and around your back
  • Bring the corner of the bed sheet up over your
    back
  • Secure the two ends with a brooch, a safety pin
    or a knot

And after carefully following these instructions
Either wayyoure not signaling prospective
employers youre ready for the job!
you might look like this!
But, more likely, youll look like this!
18
The Tunic the basic item of dress for men.
  • basic tunic equestrian tunic (tunica)
    (tunica angusticlavia) senatorial
    tunic
    (tunica laticlavia)

The basic item of male dress was the tunic, made
of two pieces of undyed wool sewn together at the
sides and shoulders and belted in such a way that
the garment just covered the knees. Openings for
the arms were left at the top of the garment,
creating an effect of short sleeves when the
tunic was belted since tunics were usually not
cut in a T-shape, this left extra material to
drape under the arm. Men of the equestrian class
were entitled to wear a tunic with narrow
stripes, in the color the Romans called purple
but was more like a deep crimson, extending from
shoulder to hem, while broad stripes
distinguished the tunics of men of the senatorial
class. Most ancient statues do not show these
stripes Working men and slaves wore the same type
of tunic, usually made of a coarser, darker wool,
and they frequently hitched the tunic higher over
their belts for freer movement. Sometimes their
tunics also left one shoulder uncovered. The
basic female garment was the stola. It was
essentially a long tunic reaching to the ground.
It could have long or short sleeves, or be
entirely sleeveless. The stola was generally worn
over another long tunic, the tunica interior.
19
I. Continued
  • D. All Roman citizens belonged to the assemblies
  • E. 450 B.C. Roman laws written down on the
    Twelve Tablets
  • 1. 12 Tablets posted in the Forum and were
    important because they made laws pubic for all
    citizens to read.
  • 2. Laws expand and by 250 B.C. no one could be
    sold into slavery And Plebeians could hold public
    office

20
Section Two describes the armys role in the
Roman Republic
  • II. Roman Expansion
  • A. Romans cross the Tiber River and conquered
    several Etruscan cities
  • B. Either conquered neighbors or made alliances
  • C. By 146 B.C. Rome ruled most of the
    Mediterranean world.

Aerial view of the Tiber Island and bridges
21
Roman Federation
  • Several Degrees of Privileges
  • Full Roman Citizenshipfull protection of the law
  • Sine SuffragioCitizens without the vote
  • Socii (allies) Roman protection, but liable
    for troops

22
Romes Conquest of Italy
23
As time passed, the number of legions grew but
for many centuries each legion remained the same
size. Legions of 4,200 fought against Hannibal in
the Second Punic War (218201 BC) but by the
time of Julius Caesar, in the first century BC, a
legion could contain as many as 6,000.
The critical difference between the phalanx
formation and the flexible legion was initiative.
The Greek phalanx was a frontal attack that used
all the soldiers of the army and, once it was set
in motion, could not deviate from its path, while
the Roman legion's use of smaller flexible groups
made it possible for some groups to fight in one
place while other groups could fight elsewhere,
including the rear where the phalanx had no
protection. 602 run time
Roman general Flamininus defeats Philip V at
Battle of Cynoscephalae In 197 B.C.
Demonstrating the superiority of the maniple
system (video clip 819)
http//www.learn360.com/ShowVideo.aspx?ID316948
24
The soldiers of the Roman army would daily
practice their combat skills. For this they
would use shields made from wickerwork and
wooden swords in order not to injure each other.
Replica gladius. Note the triangular ricasso or
unsharpened portion of the blade just below the
hilt is a historical inaccuracy as no historical
gladii have been shown to possess this feature.
The Testudo (Tortoise)
The orb was a defensive formation in the shape of
a complete circle which could be taken by a unit
which had either become detached from the army's
main body and had become encircled by the enemy,
or a formation which might be taken by any number
of units if the greater army had fallen into
disorder during a battle. It can hence be seen as
a formation representing a desperate 'last stand'
by units of a collapsing army. But also it can be
seen as a disciplined holding position by a unit
which has been divided from the army's main body
in battle and which is waiting for the main force
to rejoin them. In either case, it is not a
formation one would like to find oneself in, as
it obviously indicates that they are surrounded
by the enemy. Naturally any officers or archers
would be positioned in the centre of the orb, as
can be seen in the example above.
A perfect illustration of the repel cavalry
formation. It would be a brave horse which would
try to barge its way through this.
Pilum,
25
'Marius' Mules'
  • So weighed down were the soldiers by all their
    stuff, that they were nicknamed 'Marius' mules'
    (after the famous Roman general Gaius Marius (157
    BCJanuary 13, 86 BC) ).

26
http//www.murphsplace.com/gladiator/legions.html
  • The pugio or dagger was worn on the left,
    and a gladius, or short sword, on the right. Both
    were Spansih types copied by the Romans. The
    sword was a terrible stabbing weapon, short
    enough to wield easily in the crush of battle. It
    was horribly effective against the most un
    armoured Gauls.

Military sandals (caligae) were as important as
armour, because the legions won wars by fast
marches as much as by battle. These boots were
strong and well-ventilated. with patterns of iron
hobnails especially designed to take weight and
withstand miles of marching.
http//www.learn360.com/ShowVideo.aspx?ID316948
27
II. Cont.
Aosta This whole city is a treasure trove of
Roman remains, having been built in 25 BC as a
strategic outpost defending the (Northern Italy)
northeastern alpine border. The well-preserved
walls, Porta Pretoria, Arch of Augustus and
ancient theatre (open 930-12 and 230-630
230-430 in winter) are made even more
picturesque by the mountainous surroundings, and
there's a good provincial museum full of
artifacts.
  • D. Roman legions
  • 1. 5000 soldiers divided into groups of 60-120
    soldiers.
  • 2. Each legionary depended upon his own fighting
    ability
  • 3. Built fortified towns fort and roads
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castra
  • http//www.viminacium.org.yu/index_html?languagee
    nglish
  • http//www.learn360.com/ShowVideo.aspx?ID346806
  • 4. Mild rulers, let conquered people keep own
    governments.
  • 5. Conquered people expected to serve in the
    Roman army

RECONSTRUCTION OF A COHORT FORT A typical1st or
2nd century turf walled small fort capable of
holding a quingenaria cohort (480 infantry men).
Barracks blocks for the six centuries (1)
Workshops or stores (2) The granaries
(3) Headquarters building (4) Commander's house
(5) More stores or workshops at the rear of the
fort (6)
Run Time 0653 The Legions included
surveyors, architects, engineers, and craftsmen
who rebuilt the empire when not in battle.
http//www.learn360.com/ShowVideo.aspx?ID346806
28
Carthaginian Empire
http//www.learn360.com/ShowVideo.aspx?ID346643
29
Punic Wars The Playing Field
Rome
Battle of Cannae

Sagantum
Messina
Carthage
Battle of Zama
30
Section Three discusses Romes rise to power in
the Mediterranean region
  • III. The Punic Wars People to Know Hannibal
    Barca
  • A. 264 B.C. Rome comes into conflict with
    Phoenicians (child sacrifice) city of Carthage
    map Kothoa video on Carthage 45 minutes
    http//www.learn360.com/ShowVideo.aspx?ID231053
    http//www.learn360.com/ShowVideo.aspx?ID346648
    Carthages fleet
  • B. Carthage ruled western half of Sicily
  • C. First Punic War
  • 1. 264 B.C. War breaks out and lasts for 23
    years
  • 2. Carthage was a naval power Rome was a land
    power.
  • 3. Rome builds navy using Carthaginian warship
    as model
  • (a.) Romans add a corvus
  • (b.) defeat the Carthagians in 241 B.
  • D. Hannibal and the Second Punic war
  • Places to Locate Carthage
  • Places to Locate Sicily
  • Places to Locate Gaul
  • E. Rome attacks Carthage and Hannibal is
    defeated at the Battle of Zama
    http//www.learn360.com/ShowVideo.aspx?ID466327

http//www.roman-empire.net/army/zama.html
Scipio Africanus
31
III. Cont.
"Delenda est Carthago!" Carthage must be
destroyed!
  • 1. 201 B.C. Carthage pays Rome a huge sum on
    money and gives up all Spain including resources
    of copper, gold, lead and iron
  • F. The Third Punic War
  • 1. Following 2nd war there was peace for 50
    years
  • 2. 149 B.C. Rome burned Carthage and plowed
    salt into its fields and killed or sold its
    inhabitants into slavery
  • 3. 146 B.C. Greek city-state of Corinthmap
    refused to obey an order and the Romans burned it
    to the groundthis added Greece to those areas
    under their rule Places to Locate Corinth

Cato the Elder
32
(No Transcript)
33
Section Four Analyzes the effects of foreign
conquests
  • IV. Effects of Conquest
  • A. Agricultural Changes
  • 1. Small farms were replaced by latifundias
    (large estates shown Germany between Stuttgart
    and Lake Constance at the end of the 1st century
    AD )
  • 2. Romans begin to import wheat from conquered
    areas
  • 3. Hannibals invasion led to the change in
    agriculture
  • 4. By By 146 B.C. Rome begins enslaving people,
    most of whom worked on the latifundias
  • B. From Farm to City

34
IV. Cont.
  • 1. Small farmers who sold their land moved to
    the cityRome
  • 2. Crowded into wooden apartment buildings
  • 3. Aquaducts photo that bought water into the
    city and the sewer that carried waste away were
    not connected to the apartmentsphoto more
  • 4. Fire and disease common
  • 5. Farmers sell their votes to politicians to
    make a living

Baths of Caracalla, Rome, Italy In 354 there were
952 public baths in Rome
Roman brick is a type of brick with dimensions of
12" x 4" x 2" (30 cm x 10 cm x 5 cm), making it
longer and narrower (621 ratio) than most types
of brick made in the U.S. 8 4 2¼ inches.
Roman brick was spread by the Romans to the lands
they conquered.
35
IV. Cont.
  • C. Decline of the Roman Republic
  • 1. Rome demands taxes and slaves from conquered
    areas
  • 2. Tax contracts collected by publicans
  • (a.) tax contract was to be no more than 10
    above the tax
  • 3. By 135 B.C. Rome was in economic trouble due
    to the loss of independent farmers and Romans
    buying luxury goods from elsewhere
  • 4. Rich and poor fear and distrust each other
    and Rome becomes politically unstable

36
Section five examines the attempts to solve the
Republics problems
  • V. 100 years of attempted reforms
  • A. The Reformers
  • 1. Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus 1st reformer
  • (a.) made limited amount of land a person could
    own
  • (b.) ran for a second illegal term and was killed
    along with his followers during a staged riot
  • 2. 123 B.C. Tiberius Gracchuss brother Gaius
    Sempronius Gracchus elected tribune
  • (a.) moved poor from city back to countryside
  • (b.) had govt. take over sale of wheat and sell
    it to poor
    below market price
  • (c.) In 121 B.C. the Senate had him killed
  • B. The Generals Terms to Learn Dictator
  • Terms to Learn
    Triumvirate

Tiberius and Caius Sempronius Gracchus
37
V. cont.
  • 1. 107 B.C. General Gaius Marius becomes consul
  • (a.) first lower class Roman elected to the
    office
  • 2. Established professional army paid for by the
    state--opened to anyone
  • 3. Offered pay, land pensions and booty
  • 4. Transfers loyalty from the Republic to the
    generals
  • http//www.learn360.com/ShowVideo.aspx?ID346800
    444 min. allegiance to Rome was diluted by
    foreign recruits.
  • 5. Gaius Marius opposed by Lucius Cornelius Sulla
  • 6. Sulla marches his army on Rome and seized the
    city
  • 7. Civil war breaks out and Sulla makes himself
    dictator
  • 8. Sulla doubles the size of the Senate and
    weakened the power of the tribunes
  • 9. Stopped generals from holding the same army
    for more than one year
  • C. Julius Caesar http//www.learn360.com/ShowVide
    o.aspx?ID366131
  • 1. Sulla retires and fighting ensues for
    control of Rome

Mithridates VI
38
Imperator and Dictator 61 - 44 B. C. "I came, I
saw, I conquered!" These words express the
incredibly strong will and no-nonsense attitude
of one of history's most famous men. Julius
Caesar was courageous and quick-witted. He was
also very good with people. But (actual scary
story read in classyou should have been there!)
YIKES!
39
V. Cont.
  • 2. 60 B.C. power passes to a triumvirate ( three
    person group of rulers)
  • a.) Marcus Licinius Crassus
  • b.) Gnaeus Pompeius
  • c.) Julius Caesar
  • http//www.learn360.com/ShowVideo.aspx?ID347414
  • 3. Crassus dies (while on campaign in Syria
    against Parthia. defeated at the Battle of
    Carrhae in June 53 B.C.) and Pompey and Caesar
    fight for power http//www.learn360.com/ShowVideo
    .aspx?ID316950

40
  • 4. In 50 B.C. Caesar marches his army into Rome
    (crosses the Rubicon BOV p. 477) by 46 B.C. he
    was dictator or Rome 7 http//www.learn360.com/Sho
    wVideo.aspx?ID226984 22 min.
  • 5. Pompey defeated at Farsala (see Hail Caesar!
    Video)
  • 4. Pompey murdered in 48 B.C.
  • 5. Caesars reforms
  • a.) redistributed lands
  • b.) gave land to ex-soldiers
  • c.) Build roads and buildings, drained swamps
    http//www.learn360.com/ShowVideo.aspx?ID348289
    248 Fire in the Museum

41
Run Time 0507 Julius Caesar's First
Triumvirate led to his control the Republic, but
in 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by senators who
opposed his absolute power.
42
V. Cont.
  • (d.) est. gladiatorial games
  • (e.) doubled size of Senate and lessened their
    power
  • f.) gave citizenship to Greeks, Spaniards and
    Gauls and
  • adopted a new calendar based on Egyptian
    calendarJulian Calendar.
  • (g.) Caesar killed on the Ides of March (March
    15th ) 44 B.C. by senators who feared he would
    become king.
  • D. End of the Republic
  • 1. Power passes to another triumvirate
  • a.) Mark AntonyEast
  • b.) Octavian, Caesars grand-nephew and adopted
    son--West
  • c.) Marcus Aemilius LepidusAfrica
  • 2. The civil war that followed Caesars death
    ended with total victory for Octavian

43
Causes of Political Decline of the Roman Republic
  • Booty and Profits of War
  • Too much wealth too quickly
  • Wealthier elements benefits, lower classes do
    not. Profits from war leads to competition for
    high office and extensive bribery
  • Heightened Status of Roman Senators
  • Emergence of Slave Agricultural Economy
  • Shift from small farms to Latifundia
  • No sufficient police force to watch slaves
  • Slave revolts in 136-130 B.C.
  • 105 B.C. slaves revolt in Southern Italy
  • 72-70 B.C. Sparticus Revolt
  • The Servile Wars were a series of three slave
    revolts between 135-71 B.C. In 73 B.C. one of
    every 3 people living in Italy were slaves.
  • The Third Servile War 73 BC 71 BC in
    mainland Italy, led by Spartacus
    http//www.learn360.com/ShowVideo.aspx?ID226987
    22 minutes
  • Emergence of Rome as an Imperial Capital
  • rapid growth, surplus population under
    employed, squalid living conditions, people could
    not return to the land
  • Changes in the Military from citizen soldiers to
    professional army

44
(No Transcript)
45
Rome Gives Us Our Concepts of Government and
Citizenship Romans developed written laws and
the 1st representative republic based on elected
officials it later became an empire. Scientific
and Cultural Advances Est. concepts of law,
engineering (arches and Concrete) and Latin
Languages.
SPQR is an initialism from a Latin phrase,
Senatus Populusque Romanus ("The Senate and the
People of Rome" or "The Senate and Roman
People"),
46
Possible Essay Questions for Test Chapter 14
  • Compare the system of government in the United
    States to that of the Roman Republic. What are
    some similarities and differences?
  • In essay form briefly outline the reasons for and
    the results of the three Punic wars.
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