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Airpower in the Post Cold War

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Airpower in the Post Cold War * Target Systems. 1. National Leadership--again, the most important strategic target. a. This category targeted the civil/military ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Airpower in the Post Cold War


1
Airpower in the Post Cold War
2
Overview I
  • Gulf War Background
  • The Enemy
  • The Plan of Attack
  • Objectives
  • Concept of Operations
  • Five Strategic Rings
  • Targets
  • Phases of the Campaign
  • Operations PROVIDE COMFORT/NORTHERN WATCH
  • The Conflict and Lessons Learned

3
Overview II
  • Operation SOUTHERN WATCH
  • The Conflict and Lessons Learned
  • Operations PROVIDE RELIEF/RESTORE HOPE
  • The Conflict and Lessons Learned
  • History of the Balkans
  • Background
  • Ethnic Groups

4
Overview III
  • Operation DENY FLIGHT
  • The Conflict and Lessons Learned
  • Operation ALLIED FORCE
  • Background
  • NATO Actions
  • Operation ALLIED FORCE Begins
  • Lessons learned by US Military
  • Political Lessons Learned
  • Impact of Lessons Learned on Future DOD Budget
  • Evolution of Airpower

5
Gulf War Background
  • Conflict began 2 August 1990
  • Iraq and Kuwait could not settle grievances over
    oil
  • Saddam Hussein sent armies to invade Kuwait

6
US Objectives
  • Immediate, complete, and unconditional withdrawal
    of all Iraqi forces from Kuwait
  • Restoration of Kuwaits legitimate government
  • Security and stability of Saudi Arabia and the
    Persian Gulf
  • Protection of American citizens abroad

7
Operation DESERT SHIELD
  • CENTCOM CINCArmy Gen H. Norman Schwarzkopf
  • CENTAF Lt Gen Charles A. Horner
  • Became JFACC during the war
  • In first 5 days
  • Five fighter squadrons, contingent of AWACS, and
    part of 82d Airborne Division
  • Equaled Iraqi force in first 35 days
  • Air Reserves/Air National Guard called to active
    duty

8
DESERT STORM Begins
  • 16 JanAn 11th-hour appeal for Iraqi withdrawal
    from Kuwait drew silence
  • 17 JanOperation DESERT STORM began as allied
    forces answered Iraqs silence
  • Within 10 days, air sorties reached the 10,000
    mark

9
Iraqi Threat
  • 4th largest armed force in world
  • Well over 1 million troops
  • 750 combat and 200 support aircraft
  • Nuclear, biological, and chemical capabilities
  • SCUD Missiles

10
Air Defense Threat
  • Iraqs air defense system thought to be the best
    outside of the Soviet Union
  • United States was probably the only nation in the
    world with the airpower to disintegrate an
    integrated system of this type

11
Objectives
  • Isolate and incapacitate Iraqi command structure
  • Win air superiority
  • Destroy nuclear, biological, and chemical
    capabilities
  • Eliminate Iraqi offensive military capability
  • Eject Iraqi Army from Kuwait

12
Boyd 2 Video
13
Concept Of Operations
  • Powerful and focused air attacks on strategic
    centers of gravity over a short period of time
  • Target Hussein Regime, not Iraqi people
  • Minimize civilian casualties and collateral
    damage
  • Minimize Coalition losses
  • Pit US and Coalition strengths against Iraqi
    weaknesses

14
Instant Thunder
  • Developed by Colonel John Warden and his
    Checkmate staff in Washington
  • Named in direct response to Vietnams
    unsuccessful Rolling Thunder campaign
  • Based on a unique five-ring model of the modern
    nation-state

15
The Five Strategic Rings
16
Target Systems
17
Horner 2 Video
18
Campaign Overview
  • Four Part Campaign
  • Phase I Strategic Air Campaign
  • Phase II Suppression of enemy Air Defenses over
    Kuwait vicinity
  • Phase III Air Attacks on ground forces in
    Kuwait and vicinity
  • Phase IV Ground Operations as directed

19
And in the end
  • On 27 Feb 1991, the Iraqi military was scattered
    and defeated
  • Iraq lost 90 aircraft to coalition forces
  • 122 Iraqi aircraft fled to Iran
  • Stealth provided the needed edge
  • The Persian Gulf War officially ended on 11 Apr
    1991

20
Post-Desert Storm Video
21
The Crisis in IraqONW
  • UN Security Council established a no-fly zone
    over northern Iraq to protect the Kurdish people
    from attacks by Saddam Hussein
  • Operation Provide Comfort began on 5 Apr 1991 as
    a humanitarian relief effort to deliver food,
    clothing, and supplies to Iraqs Kurdish refugees
  • C-130s began airdropping supplies on 7 Apr 1991
  • Lasted approximately 8 years and was then
    replaced by Operation NORTHERN
    WATCH

22
The Crisis in Iraq Lessons LearnedONW
  • The need to avoid fratricide
  • The limitations of airdrops
  • Host-country tensions
  • The need for alternate bases
  • Lack of an exit strategy

23
The Crisis in IraqOSW
  • OSW was a Combined Task Force enforcing the
    no-fly zone below the 32nd parallel (extended
    to 33rd in 1996) in southern Iraq
  • Not an aggression against Iraqexecuted as a
    self-defense measure
  • Coalition partners included the US, UK, France,
    Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait
  • Fire from more than 850 Iraqi SAMs and
    AAAs directed at coalition
    aircraft
  • Iraq violated the no-fly zone more than
    160 times
  • More than 150,000 USAF sorties by 1998

24
What weve effectively done since 1992 is
conduct an air occupation of a country
  • General Ronald R. Fogleman Jul 1995

25
The Crisis in Iraq Lessons LearnedOSW
  • Became a test for USAF AEF concept in Oct 1995
  • Quality-of-life changes needed due to high
    Ops-Tempo
  • Reorganized Security Forces

26
The Crisis in Somalia
  • In mid-1992, drought and civil war devastated
    Somalia
  • Food supplies became a weapon of war
  • Operation PROVIDE RELIEF began by the United
    States on 22 Aug 1992 to deliver food to Somali
    refugees
  • Military and civilian aircraft used
  • Over 2,000 sorties, carrying 48,162 metric tons
    of food

27
The Crisis in Somalia
  • Although a humanitarian effort
  • 44 American soldiers lost their lives
  • 175 were injured or wounded
  • Danger of failure due to warlord interference
  • Operation Restore Hope
  • Coalition peacekeeping operation from 9 Dec 1992
    to 4 May 1993
  • First test of Rapid Global Mobility from the
    CONUS

28
The Crisis in Somalia Lessons Learned
  • First large scale test of newly formed AMC and
    the Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC)
  • Difficulties evolved in the planning,
    coordinating, and managing the operation
  • Austere infrastructure of Somalia added to lack
    of adequate bases for strategic airlift aircraft

29
The Balkans A Brief History
  • After World War II, monarchy abolished Communist
    Party leader Tito proclaimed the country the
    Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, with
    himself as prime Minister
  • Eliminating opposition, the Tito govt executed
    Mihajlovic in 1946 Tito died in 1980, and the
    fragility of the federation he ruled quickly
    became apparent

30
Three Ethnic Groups In Conflict
  • SerbsDominant in Yugoslavia's politics and army,
    orthodox Christianity makes them natural allies
    of Russia
  • CroatsRoman Catholics, closer to the West than
    Serbs and exposed to Western Influences
  • MuslimsLiving mainly in ethnically mixed towns
    and cities in Bosnia-Herzegovina

31
(No Transcript)
32
Operation DENY FLIGHT
  • Oct 1992, UN Security Council Resolution 781
    established a no-fly zone over Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Operation DENY FLIGHT
  • Enforced the no-fly zone
  • Provided close air support to UN troops
  • Conducted approved air strikes under a dual-key
    command arrangement with the UN
  • 28 Feb 1994, NATO aircraft shot down four
    warplanes violating the no-fly zone over
    Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • This was the first military engagement ever
    undertaken by the Alliance

33
Operation DENY FLIGHT
  • NATO objectives
  • Bosnian Serb compliance to cease attacks on
    Sarajevo and other safe areas
  • Withdrawal of Bosnian Serb heavy weapons from the
    total exclusion zone around Sarajevo
  • Complete freedom of movement for UN Forces and
    personnel, and nongovernment officials
  • Unrestricted use of Sarajevo airport

34
Operation DENY FLIGHT
  • NATO missions of Operation DENY FLIGHT
  • To conduct aerial monitoring and enforce
    compliance with UN Security Council Resolution
    816
  • To provide close air support for UN troops on the
    ground at the request of, and controlled by, UN
    forces
  • To conduct approved air strikes against
    designated targets threatening the security of
    the UN-declared safe areas

35
Operation DENY FLIGHT
  • Operation DENY FLIGHT lasted from 12 Apr 1993-20
    Dec 1995
  • Almost 100,000 sorties flown
  • A formal closure ceremony was held in Vicenza,
    Italy on 21 Dec 1995
  • Forces associated with Operation DENY FLIGHT were
    then transferred to Operation DECISIVE ENDEAVOR
    as part of the overall NATO operation JOINT
    ENDEAVOR.

36
The Crisis in Bosnia Lessons Learned
  • Lack of doctrine
  • Tactical air and space power problems
  • Bases werent large enough to accept the
    contingency surges
  • Coalition/Joint problems
  • Technological problems

37
KOSOVO
38
Kosovo Crisis
  • Kosovo lies in southern Serbia and has a mixed
    population, the majority of which are ethnic
    Albanians (Muslims)
  • Serbian leader Slobodan Milosevic altered the
    status of the region, removing its autonomy and
    bringing it under the direct control of
    Belgrade, the Serbian capital
  • The Kosovar Albanians strenuously opposed the move

39
United States NATO Interests at Stake
  • Serb aggression threatened peace throughout the
    Balkans and the stability of NATOs SE region
  • Belgrades repression in Kosovo created a
    humanitarian crisis of staggering proportions
  • President Milosevics conduct directly challenged
    the credibility of NATO

40
NATO Action
  • After the failure of repeated international
    diplomatic efforts since the spring of 1998 to
    peacefully resolve the conflict in Kosovo
  • North Atlantic Council decided on 23 March 1999
    to authorize NATO air strikes
  • Aimed at strategic targets in the Federal
    Republic of Yugoslavia to end the repression of
    Kosovar Albanians by the Yugoslav government

41
NATOs Objectives
  1. A stop to all military action and the immediate
    ending of violence and repression
  2. The withdrawal from Kosovo of the military,
    police, and paramilitary forces
  3. The stationing in Kosovo of an international
    military presence

42
NATOs Objectives (contd)
  1. The unconditional and safe return of all refugees
    and displaced persons
  2. Establish political framework agreement for
    Kosovo in conformity with international law

43
NATOs Strategic Objectives
  • Demonstrate the seriousness of their opposition
    to Belgrades aggression in the Balkans
  • Deter Milosevics attacks on helpless civilians,
    and reverse ethnic cleansing
  • Damage Serbias capacity to wage war against
    Kosovo

44
Military Objective
  • Degrade and damage the military and security
    structure President Milosevic has used to
    depopulate and destroy the Albanian majority in
    Kosovo.
  • William Cohen, SECDEF
  • 15 April 1999

45
Lessons Learned on Kosovo War Objectives
  • US Grand Strategy
  • Maintain a peaceful, prosperous US-led Europe
  • Convince NATO to transition from old Cold War
    common defense against external threats to new
    Continental security coalition
  • Persuade NATO to acquire means and will to
    conduct out of area military ops
  • European Strategy
  • Maintain a peaceful, prosperous, and
    independent Europe
  • Prevent spillover into Albania and Macedonia,
    then to Greece and Turkey
  • Maintain NATO relationship with Russia and give
    it a role in helping end the crisis
  • Demonstrate European unity
  • Kosovo War Aims
  • Stop the Serbian slaughter and expulsion of
    ethnic Albanians
  • Remove Milosevic from power
  • Accomplish the above with minimal collateral
    damage and NATO casualties

Common Effort Concealed Widely Differing
Objectives
46
Lessons Learned by US Military
  • United States air refuelers were stretched thin
    during operation
  • Force structure numbers and resources were
    inadequate for current level of commitments (all
    services) support and training as important to
    victory as strike
  • Older platforms with smart weapons may be seen as
    good enough smart weapons may be better than
    smart platforms
  • Need the right force structure for the future
  • C4ISR is currently the weakest link in joint and
    coalition ops
  • On the brink of another hollow force

47
Political Lessons Learned by Europeans
  • Militarily, Europe remains dependent on Americans
  • Best technology, weapons, and platforms Made in
    USA.
  • Politicians unwilling to pay the cost of matching
    unique US capabilities
  • United States cannot always be counted on to
    serve the Alliances interests
  • US focus shifted with opinion polls
  • Fear US commitment could falter if US forces take
    heavy casualties

48
More Political Lessons Learned by Europeans
  • European Union can provide diplomatic muscle
    (Martti Ahtisaari saves the day) many foreign
    policy interests are similar among EU Nations
  • Threat of rising Islamic
  • fundamentalism
  • Humanitarian (ethnic cleansing)
  • Need to build external identity
  • Europe can overcome internal diversity to
    maintain cohesion
  • German Luftwaffe conducted first combat missions
    since 1945
  • Greece provided logistical support despite
    popular opposition
  • Italy and France (which have Communist ministers)
    offered air bases

49
Impact of Kosovo Lessons Learnedon Future DOD
Budget Trends
  • No DOD/Allied spending surge like post-Desert
    Storm
  • International defense market continues to shrink
  • Readiness and retention will increasingly consume
    for modernization
  • Inevitable tax cut legislation will further erode
    DOD budgets
  • Services must eventually deal with the bow wave
  • Old platforms with smart weapons were good enough
  • Congress may balk at big bills for new platforms
    (JSF, F-22, CVX, DD-21)
  • Support forces will need big too

We have to make a trade between smart weapons
and platforms...We need to encourage the services
to concentrate more on smart weapons. Jacques
Gansler Former Under Secretary
of Defense for Acquisition,
Technology, and Logistics
50
Evolution of Airpower
  • So, what have we learned?
  • What were significant airpower achievements and
    changes during this period?
  • What was the impact of these achievements and
    changes?

51
Summary I
  • Gulf War Background
  • The Enemy
  • The Plan of Attack
  • Objectives
  • Concept of Operations
  • Five Strategic Rings
  • Targets
  • Phases of the Campaign
  • Operations PROVIDE COMFORT/NORTHERN WATCH
  • The Conflict and Lessons Learned

52
Summary II
  • Operation SOUTHERN WATCH
  • The Conflict and Lessons Learned
  • Operations PROVIDE RELIEF/RESTORE HOPE
  • The Conflict and Lessons Learned
  • History of the Balkans
  • Background
  • Ethnic Groups

53
Summary III
  • Operation DENY FLIGHT
  • The Conflict and Lessons Learned
  • Operation ALLIED FORCE
  • Background
  • NATO Actions
  • Operation ALLIED FORCE Begins
  • Lessons learned by US Military
  • Political Lessons Learned
  • Impact of Lessons Learned on Future DOD Budget
  • Evolution of Airpower
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