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Technology in Architecture

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Technology in Architecture Lecture 16 Historic Overview Acoustical Design Sound in Enclosed Spaces Reverberation Ray diagrams Trace the reflection paths to and from ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Technology in Architecture


1
Technology in Architecture
  • Lecture 16
  • Historic Overview
  • Acoustical Design
  • Sound in Enclosed Spaces
  • Reverberation

2
Historic Overview
  • Greek Theatre
  • Open air
  • Direct sound path
  • No sound reinforcement
  • Minimal reverberation

M p. 785, F.18.17a
3
Historic Overview
  • 1st Century AD
  • Vitruvius 10 Books of Architecture
  • Sound reinforcement
  • Reverberation

M p. 785, F.18.17b
4
Acoustical DesignArchitects Role
  • Source Path Receiver
  • slight major design primarily interest
  • influence

5
Acoustical Design Relationships
  • Site
  • Location
  • Orientation
  • Planning
  • Internal Layout

6
Site
  • Factory
  • Close to RR/Hwy
  • Seismic

7
Site
  • Rest Home
  • Traffic Noise
  • Outdoor Use
  • Contact/Isolation

8
Location
  • Take advantage of distance/barriers

Distance
9
Location
  • Take advantage of distance/barriers

Acoustical Barriers
10
Orientation
  • Orient Building for Acoustical Advantage

Playground
School
Note Sound is 3-dimensional, check
overhead for flight paths
11
Planning
  • Consider Acoustical Sensitivity of Activities

Noisy Quiet
Barrier
12
Planning
  • Consider Acoustical Sensitivity of Activities

Critical Non-Critical Noise
13
Internal Layout
  • Each room has needs that can be met by room
    layout

I p.116 F.5-12
14
Acoustical FundamentalsSound
  • Mechanical vibration, physical wave or series of
    pressure vibrations in an elastic medium
  • Described in Hertz (cycles per second)
  • Range of hearing 20-20,000 hz

15
Sound Power
  • Energy radiating from a point source in space.
  • Expressed as watts

M p. 750, F.17.9
16
Sound Intensity
  • Sound power distributed over an area
  • IP/A
  • I sound (power) intensity, W/cm2
  • P acoustic power, watts
  • A area (cm2)

17
Intensity Level
  • Level of sound relative to a base reference

10 million million one
M p. 750, T.17.2
18
Intensity Level
  • Extreme range dictates the use of logarithms
  • IL10 log (I/I0)
  • IL intensity level (dB)
  • I intensity (W/cm2)
  • I0 base intensity (10-16 W/cm2, hearing
    threshold)
  • Log logarithm base 10

19
Intensity Level Scale Change
  • Changes are measured in decibels
  • scale change subjective loudness
  • 3 dB barely perceptible
  • 6 dB perceptible
  • 7 dB clearly perceptible
  • Note round off to nearest whole number

20
Intensity LevelThe Math
  • If IL160 dB and IL250dB,
  • what is the total sound intensity?
  • 1. Convert to intensity
  • IL110 log (I1/I0) IL210 log (I2/I0)
  • 6010 log(I1/10-16) 5010 log(I2/10-16)
  • 6.0 log(I1/10-16) 5.0 log(I2/10-16)
  • 106I1/10-16 105I2/10-16
  • I110-10 I210-11

21
Intensity LevelThe Math
  • If IL160 dB and IL250dB,
  • what is the total sound intensity?
  • 2. Add together
  • I1I21 x 10-10 1 x 10-11
  • ITOT11 x 10-11 W/cm2

22
Intensity LevelThe Math
  • If IL160 dB and IL250dB,
  • what is the total sound intensity?
  • 3. Convert back to intensity
  • ILTOT 10 Log (ITOT/I0)
  • ILTOT10 Log (11 x 10-11 )/10-16
  • ILTOT10 (Log 11 Log 105 )
  • ILTOT10 (1.04 5) 60.4 dB

23
Intensity Level
  • Add two 60 dB sources
  • ?dB0,
  • add 3 db to higher
  • IL60363 dB

M p. 753, F.17.11
24
Sound Pressure Level
  • Amount of sound in an enclosed space
  • SPL10 log (p2/p02)
  • SPL sound pressure level (dB)
  • p pressure (Pa or µbar)
  • p0 reference base pressure (20 µPa or
  • 2E-4 µbar)

25
Perceived Sound
  • Dominant frequencies affect sound perception

M p. 747, F.17.8
26
Sound MeterA Weighting
  • Sound meters that interpret human hearing use an
    A weighted scale
  • dB becomes dBA

27
Sound In Enclosed SpacesSound Absorption
  • Amount of sound energy not reflected

M p. 771, , F.18.2
28
Sound Absorption
  • Absorption coefficient
  • aIa/Ii
  • aabsorption coefficient
  • Iasound power intensity absorbed (w/cm2)
  • Iisound power impinging on material (w/cm2)
  • 1.0 is total absorption

29
Sound Absorption
  • Absorption coefficient

M p. 769, T.18.1
30
Sound Absorption
  • Absorption
  • ASa
  • Atotal absorption (sabins)
  • Ssurface area (ft2 or m2)
  • aabsorption coefficient
  • sabins (m2) 10.76 sabins (sf)

31
Sound Absorption
  • Total Absorption
  • SaS1a1 S2a2 S3a3 Snan
  • or
  • SAA1 A2 A3 An

32
Sound Absorption
  • Average
  • Absorption
  • aavgSA/S
  • aavg lt0.2 live
  • aavg gt0.4 dead

M p. 774, F.18.6
33
Reflection in enclosed spaces
  • Acoustical phenomena

M p. 787, F.18.20
M p. 788, F.18.21
34
Ray diagrams
  • Trace the reflection paths to and from adjoining
    surfaces
  • angle of incidence angle of reflection

I
R
35
Ray diagrams
  • Trace the reflection paths to receiver
  • Reflected sound path Direct sound path55
  • Note check rear wall
  • and vertical paths
  • Note SR-6RR-7

SR-6 p.116, F.5-12
36
Reflection inenclosed spaces
  • Auditorium sound reinforcement

M p. 789, F.18.23
37
Reverberation
  • Persistence of sound after source has ceased

M p. 771, F.18.2
38
Reverberation Time
  • Period of time required for a 60 db drop after
    sound source stops
  • TR K x V/SA
  • TR reverberation time (seconds)
  • K 0.05 (English) (0.049 in SR-6) or 0.16
    (metric)
  • V volume (ft3 or m3)
  • SA total room absorption, sabins (ft2 or m2)

39
Reverberation Time
  • Application
  • Volume

M p. 782, F.18.13
40
Reverberation Example
  • Compile data
  • Material Absorption Coefficient
  • Material Surface Area

SR-6 p.121
41
Reverberation Example
  • Compare to requirements and adjust

M p. 782, F.27.13
42
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