Biomes, Landscapes, Restoration, and Management - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Biomes, Landscapes, Restoration, and Management PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6d5ac6-NWNmN



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Biomes, Landscapes, Restoration, and Management

Description:

Biomes, Landscapes, Restoration, and Management Chapter 5 Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:47
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 37
Provided by: CCSN8
Learn more at: http://classroom.lagovistaisd.net
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Biomes, Landscapes, Restoration, and Management


1
Biomes, Landscapes, Restoration, and Management
  • Chapter 5

2
Outline
  • Terrestrial Biomes
  • Aquatic Ecosystems
  • Human Disturbance
  • Landscape Ecology
  • Restoration Ecology
  • Ecosystem Management

3
TERRESTRIAL BIOMES
  • Biomes - Areas sharing similar climate,
    topographic and soil conditions, and roughly
    comparable communities.
  • Temperature and Precipitation are among the most
    important determinants in biome distribution.
  • Most terrestrial biomes are identified by the
    dominant plants of their communities.

4
(No Transcript)
5
Deserts
  • Characterized by low moisture levels and
    precipitation that is infrequent and
    unpredictable from year to year.
  • Wide daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations.
  • Soils are easily disturbed by human activities,
    and slow to recover.
  • Plants exhibit water conservation characteristics.

6
Grasslands
  • Communities of grasses, seasonal herbaceous
    flowering plants, and open savannas.
  • Few trees due to inadequate rainfall.
  • Large daily and seasonal temperature
    fluctuations.
  • Frequent grass fires.
  • Historic grazing by roaming herds of large
    ungulates.

7
Tundra
  • Treeless
  • Very short growing season, with cold harsh
    winters.
  • Damage slow to heal
  • Arctic Tundra exhibits low productivity,
    diversity and resilience.
  • Alpine Tundra receives intense solar radiation,
    hot daytime summer ground temperatures, and
    potential droughts.

8
Conifer Forests
  • Cone-Bearing
  • Plants reduce water loss by evolving thin,
    needle-like evergreen leaves with thick waxy
    coating.
  • Can survive harsh winters or extended droughts
    and accomplish photosynthesis even under poor
    conditions.
  • Fire often plays role in maintenance.

9
Conifer Forests
  • Boreal Forest - Northern Conifer Forest
  • Broad band of mixed coniferous and deciduous
    trees between 45 and 60 N latitude.
  • Moist and cool climate with abundant streams and
    wetlands.
  • Taiga - Northernmost edge of boreal forest
  • Species-poor. Harsh climate limits productivity
    and resilience.
  • Produce large peat bogs.

10
Conifer Forests
  • Temperate Rainforest
  • Wettest portion of coniferous forests of Pacific
    Northwest.
  • Mild temperatures, and very abundant
    precipitation. (gt250 cm)
  • Canopy condensation is major form of
    precipitation.

11
Broad Leaf Deciduous Forest
  • Temperate regions support lush summer plant
    growth when water is plentiful.
  • Deciduous leaves an adaptation to freezing
    temperatures.
  • Eastern half of US was covered with broad leaf
    deciduous forest when European settlers arrived.
    Much of that was harvested a century ago for
    timber.
  • Now large areas have re-grown and are again
    approaching old-growth status.

12
Mediterranean
  • Characterized by warm, dry summers and cool,
    moist winters.
  • Fires are a major factor in plant succession.
  • Referred to as Chaparral in California.
  • Biodiversity hotspot

13
Tropical Moist Forests
  • Humid tropical regions support one of most
    complex and biologically rich biomes.
  • Ample rainfall and uniform temperatures.
  • Cloud Forests - High mountains where fog and mist
    keep vegetation continually wet.

14
Tropical Moist Forests
  • Tropical Rainforests - More than 200 cm annual
    rainfall with warm-hot temperatures year-round.
  • 90 nutrients tied up in living organisms.
  • Rapid decomposition and nutrient cycling.
  • Thins soil cannot support continued cropping, and
    cannot resist erosion.

15
Tropical Seasonal Forests
  • Semi-evergreen and partly deciduous forests
    tending toward open woodlands and grassy
    savannas.
  • Characterized by distinct wet and dry seasons
    with hot temperatures year-round

16
AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS
  • Saltwater ecosystems cover vastly more total area
    and contain much greater volume of water than all
    freshwater bodies combined.
  • Oceans hold bulk of worlds water.
  • Aquatic ecosystems are influenced by local
    characteristics of climate, soil, and resident
    communities, and also by adjacent terrestrial
    ecosystems.

17
Critical Aquatic Characteristics
  • Dissolved Substances
  • Suspended Matter
  • Depth
  • Temperature
  • Flow Rate
  • Bottom Characteristics
  • Internal Convective Currents
  • Connectivity to Other Aquatic Ecosystems

18
Vertical Component
  • Vertical stratification is an important aspect of
    many aquatic ecosystems.
  • Organisms tend to form distinctive vertical
    sub-communities.
  • Benthos - Bottom sub-community.
  • Low oxygen levels
  • Thermocline - Distinctive temperature transition
    zone that separates warm upper layer and deeper
    cold layer.

19
(No Transcript)
20
Estuaries
  • Estuaries - Bays or semi-enclosed bodies of
    brackish water that form where rivers enter the
    ocean.
  • Usually carry rich sediments.
  • Fan-shaped sediment deposit (delta) formed on
    shallow continental shelves.

21
Wetlands
  • Land surface is saturated or covered with water
    at least part of the year.
  • Swamps - Wetlands with trees
  • Marshes - Wetlands without trees
  • Bogs and Fens - Waterlogged soils that tend to
    accumulate peat.
  • Water usually shallow enough to allow full
    sunlight penetration.
  • Trap and filter water, and store runoff.

22
Coastal
  • Barrier Islands - Low, narrow, sandy islands that
    form offshore from a coastline.
  • Protect inland shores from surf.
  • Prized for human development.
  • Loss of vegetation triggers erosion.
  • Coral Reefs - Accumulated calcareous skeletons of
    colonial organisms (coral).
  • Depth limited by light penetration.
  • Among most endangered communities.

23
Barrier Islands
24
HUMAN DISTURBANCE
  • By some estimates, humans preempt about 40 of
    net terrestrial primary productivity.
  • Temperate broad-leaved deciduous forests are the
    most completely human-dominated biome. Tundra
    and Arctic Deserts are the least disturbed.
  • About half of all original wetlands in the US
    have been degraded over the past 250 years.

25
LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY
  • Landscape Ecology - The study of reciprocal
    effects of spatial patterns on ecological
    processes.
  • Spatial patterns shape, and are shaped by,
    ecological processes occurring in them.
  • Considers humans an element of most landscapes.
  • Few places, if any, are devoid of human impacts.

26
(No Transcript)
27
Patchiness and Heterogeneity
  • Landscape ecologists claim all landscapes consist
    of similar mosaics of discrete, bounded patches
    with different biotic or abiotic composition.
  • Predominate cover type acts as a matrix in which
    other patch types are embedded.
  • Landscape heterogeneity can exist across a wide
    range of scales.

28
Landscape Dynamics
  • Boundaries between habitat patches are considered
    significant.
  • Dynamics between patches may be of greater
    importance than processes within each patch.
  • Departs from classic ecological focus, and aligns
    with conservation biology.

29
RESTORATION ECOLOGY
  • Restoration Ecology - Seeks to repair or
    reconstruct damaged ecosystems.
  • Restoration - Active manipulation to re-create
    species composition and ecosystem processes as
    close to pre-disturbance state as possible.
  • Rehabilitation - Attempt to rebuild ecological
    structure or function without necessarily
    achieving original conditions.

30
Restoration Ecology
  • Remediation - Cleaning chemical contaminants from
    a polluted area by physical or biological
    methods.
  • Living organisms are highly effective cleaning
    agents for many contaminants.
  • Reclamation - Chemical or physical manipulations
    of severely degraded sites.
  • Historically - irrigation projects to transform
    wetlands and deserts into agricultural production.

31
Restoration Ecology
  • Re-creation - Attempts to construct new
    biological communities on a severely disturbed
    site where basically nothing is left to restore.
  • Mitigation - Developers and government agencies
    are often required to mitigate damage caused in
    one area by re-creating a comparable biological
    community somewhere else.

32
Restoration Ecology Questions
  • Is the best strategy to avoid destruction in the
    first place, or is nature a simple social
    creation to be molded ?
  • Under what conditions can / should we walk away
    let nature heal itself ?
  • What role should community / plant authenticity
    place in restoration ?
  • Which historic state should an area be restored
    to ?

33
ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT
  • Ecosystem Management - Attempts to integrate
    ecological, economic, and social goals in a
    unified systems approach.
  • Most resource agencies (Federal and state) are
    attempting to identify endangered landscapes and
    implement ecosystem management as their guiding
    policy.
  • Turning away from commodity production and
    commercial / recreational resource use as top
    priority.

34
Ecosystem Management Critiques
  • We do not understand ecosystems in the detail
    necessary to manage them as single entities.
  • In developing countries, immediate needs of the
    poor will hamper enforcement of environmental
    protection.
  • Preservation / Management

35
Summary
  • Terrestrial Biomes
  • Aquatic Ecosystems
  • Human Disturbance
  • Landscape Ecology
  • Restoration Ecology
  • Ecosystem Management

36
(No Transcript)
About PowerShow.com