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Phrases

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Examples of Appositives Appositives An appositive phrase usually follows the word it explains or identifies, but it may also precede it. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Phrases


1
Phrases
  • Prepositional, Infinitive, Gerund, Participial,
    and Appositive

2
Phrases
  • PHRASE A phrase is a group of related words that
    does not include a subject and verb

3
Prepositional Phrases
  • A Preposition is a word that relates a noun or
    pronoun to another word in a sentence.
  • Ex The dog sat under the tree.

about behind from on toward
above below in on top of under
across beneath in front of onto underneath
after beside inside out of until
against between instead of outside up
along by into over upon
among down like past with
around during near since within
at except of through without
before for off to

4
Prepositional Phrases
  • A Prepositional Phrase begins with a preposition
    and ends with its object (a noun or pronoun).
  • A prepositional phrase can function as an
    adjective when it modifies a noun.
  • Ex The girl with green eyes is my sister.
  • A prepositional phrase can function as an adverb
    when it modifies a verb.
  • Ex The car raced down the street.

5
Prepositional phrases
  • Examples
  • My plane departed from Sea-Tac Airport.
  • I had to run through the concourse in order to be
    on time.
  • I could see the blue jay hiding among the
    branches.
  • The magazine arrived in the post office box.
  • The pencil fell below her desk.
  • Prepositional phrases can show spatial
    connections, time, and amount.

6
Prepositional phrases
  • Examples
  • My plane departed from Sea-Tac Airport.
  • I had to run through the concourse in order to be
    on time.
  • I could see the blue jay hiding among the
    branches.
  • The magazine arrived in the post office box.
  • The pencil fell below her desk.
  • Prepositional phrases can show spatial
    connections, time, and amount.

7
Infinitives
  • An infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word
    to plus a verb (in its simplest "stem" form) and
    functioning as a noun, adjective, or adverb.
  • Examples
  • To wait seemed foolish when decisive action was
    required. (noun)
  • Everyone wanted to go. (noun)
  • His ambition is to fly. (adjective)
  • He lacked the strength to resist. (adjective)
  • We must study to learn. (adverb)

8
Infinitives vs. Prepositional Phrases
  • Be sure not to confuse an infinitive--a verbal
    consisting of to plus a verb--with a
    prepositional phrase beginning with to, which
    consists of to plus a noun or pronoun and any
    modifiers.
  • Infinitives to fly, to draw, to become, to
    enter, to stand, to catch, to belong
  • Prepositional Phrases to him, to the committee,
    to my house, to the pretty mountains, to us, to
    this address

9
Infinitive Phrases
  • An infinitive consists of to (usually) and the
    basic form of a verb, and can act as a noun,
    adjective, or an adverb
  • to travel, to be, to explain, to practice
  • BUT an infinitive phrase consists of an
    infinitive and any modifiers or compliments the
    infinitive has
  • to hit a curveball solidly, to study marine
    biology, to write the essay

10
Infinitive Phrases
  • We intended to leave early. (adverb)
  • I have a paper to write before class. (adjective)
  • Phil agreed to give me a ride. (adverb)
  • They asked me to bring some food. (adverb)
  • Everyone wanted Carol to be the captain of the
    team. (adjective)
  • To buy a basket of flowers, John had to spend his
    last dollar. (adjective)

11
Exercises on Infinitives
  • Find the infinitive phrase in each sentence,
    adding any punctuation as needed.1. I want to
    go.2. I want you to go home.3. We want to see
    the play.4. To see a shooting star is good
    luck.5. To fight against those odds would be
    ridiculous.

12
Exercises on Infinitives
  • Find the infinitive phrase in each sentence,
    adding any punctuation as needed.1. I want to
    go. (noun)2. I want you to go home.
    (adjective)3. We want to see the play. (noun)4.
    To see a shooting star, is good luck.(noun)
  • 5. To fight against those odds, would be
    ridiculous.(noun)

13
Gerunds
  • A gerund is a verbal that always ends in -ing and
    functions as a noun.
  • Running is my favorite hobby.
  • The writing kept her up all night.
  • Gerunds can be replaced with it or that since
    they function as nouns.

14
Syntax of Gerund Phrases
  • A gerund phrase consists of the gerund and any
    other modifiers or complements the gerund has.
  • Finding a needle in a haystack would be easier
    than what we're trying to do.
  • (It) would be hard to do.
  • Jeff got in trouble for lying to his parents.
  • You might get in trouble for faking an illness to
    avoid work.
  • Being the boss made Jeff feel uneasy.

15
Punctuating Gerund Phrases
  • Punctuation
  • A gerund virtually never requires any punctuation
    with it.
  • Because it functions as a noun, you dont
    separate it from the rest of the sentence.

16
Gerund Practice
  • Find the gerunds/gerund phrases in the following
    sentences.
  • 1. Swimming keeps me in shape.2. Swimming in
    your pool is always fun.3. Telling your father
    was a mistake.4. The college recommends sending
    applications early.5. He won the game by scoring
    during the overtime period.6. Her most important
    achievement was winning the national
    championship.7. Going to work today took all my
    energy.8. Fighting for a losing cause made them
    depressed.

17
Gerund Practice
  • Find the gerunds/gerund phrases in the following
    sentences.
  • 1. Swimming keeps me in shape.2. Swimming in
    your pool is always fun.3. Telling your father
    was a mistake.4. The college recommends sending
    applications early.5. He won the game by scoring
    during the overtime period.6. Her most important
    achievement was winning the national
    championship.7. Going to work today took all my
    energy.8. Fighting for a losing cause made them
    depressed.

18
Participles
  • A participle is a verbal that is used as an
    adjective and most often ends in -ing or -ed. Or
    any other past tense verb ending in -en, -d, -t,
    or -n, as in the words asked, eaten, saved,
    dealt, and seen.
  • The crying baby had a wet diaper.
  • Shaken, he walked away from the wrecked car.
  • The burning log fell off the fire.
  • Smiling, she hugged the panting dog.

19
Participial Phrases
  • The dancing bear entertained the crowd.
  • The beaten man hobbled into the hospital.
  • The grilled salmon and baked potatoes were
    delicious.

20
Participial Phrases
  • Participial phrases Phrases beginning with a
    participle, followed by its objects and
    modifiers. Participial phrases are used as
    adjectives.
  • Removing his coat, Jack rushed to the river.
  • Removing his coat describes Jack.
  • Delores noticed her cousin walking along the
    shoreline.
  • Walking along the shoreline describes cousin.

21
Punctuating Participial Phrases
  • When a participial phrase begins a sentence, a
    comma should be placed after the phrase.
  • Arriving at the store, I found that it was
    closed.
  • Washing and polishing the car, Frank developed
    sore muscles.
  • If the participle or participial phrase comes in
    the middle of a sentence, it should be set off
    with commas only if the information is not
    essential to the meaning of the sentence.
  • Sid, watching an old movie, drifted in and out of
    sleep.
  • The church, destroyed by a fire, was never
    rebuilt.
  • Note that if the participial phrase is essential
    to the meaning of the sentence, no commas should
    be used
  • The student earning the highest grade point
    average will receive a special award.
  • The guy wearing the chicken costume is my cousin.

22
Exercise on Participles
  • Getting up at five, we got an early start.
  • Facing college standards, the students realized
    that they hadn't worked hard enough in high
    school.
  • Statistics reported by the National Education
    Association revealed that seventy percent of
    American colleges offer remedial English classes
    emphasizing composition.
  • The overloaded car gathered speed slowly.
  • Gathering my courage, I asked for a temporary
    loan.
  • Starting out as an army officer, Karen's father
    was frequently transferred.
  • Mrs. Sears, showing more bravery than wisdom,
    invited thirty boys and girls to a party.
  • The student left in charge of the class was
    unable to keep order.
  • Applicants must investigate various colleges
    learning as much as possible about them before
    applying for admission.
  • The crying boy angered by the bully began to
    fight.

23
Exercise on Participles
  • Getting up at five, we got an early start.
  • Facing college standards, the students realized
    that they hadn't worked hard enough in high
    school.
  • Statistics reported by the National Education
    Association revealed that seventy percent of
    American colleges offer remedial English classes
    emphasizing composition.
  • The overloaded car gathered speed slowly.
  • Gathering my courage, I asked for a temporary
    loan.
  • Starting out as an army officer, Karen's father
    was frequently transferred.
  • Mrs. Sears, showing more bravery than wisdom,
    invited thirty boys and girls to a party.
  • The student left in charge of the class was
    unable to keep order.
  • Applicants must investigate various colleges,
    learning as much as possible about them before
    applying for admission.
  • The crying boy, angered by the bully, began to
    fight.

24
Appositives
  • An appositive is a noun or pronoun -- often with
    modifiers -- set beside another noun or pronoun
    to explain or identify it.

25
Examples of Appositives
26
Appositives
An appositive phrase usually follows the word it
explains or identifies, but it may also precede
it.
27
Punctuating Appositives
In some cases, the noun being explained is too
general without the appositive the information
is essential to the meaning of the sentence. When
this is the case, do not place commas around the
appositive just leave it alone. If the sentence
would be clear and complete without the
appositive, then commas are necessary place one
before and one after the appositive.
28
Punctuating Appositives
29
Exercises
  • 1. My son, the policeman, will be visiting us
    next week.2. The captain ordered the ship's
    carpenters to assemble the shallop, a large
    rowboat.3. Walter, the playboy and writer, is
    very attached to his mother, Mrs. Hammon.4. The
    actor Paul Newman directed only one picture.5.
    Elizabeth Teague, a sweet and lovable girl, grew
    up to be a mentally troubled woman.

30
A Brief Recap
  • Prepositional phrases begin with a preposition.
  • The bunny ran through the log.
  • Infinitive phrases begin with toverb
  • She knew she had to study for the test.
  • Gerund phrases start with ing words and can be
    replaced with it.
  • Eating ice cream is my favorite activity.

31
Recap (continued)
  • Participial phrases begin with words ending in
    ing, -ed, or any other past tense ending they
    describe a noun
  • Awakened by the vacuum, the baby began to cry.
  • Appositive phrases make positive you
    understand another noun, rename
  • Mrs. Richards, my favorite teacher, is nice.
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