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1st part Ethics Elements Serious Thoughts in a Cartoon

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The 1st part of this document covers through animated cartoons, the various principles of ethics and professional conduct that apply to nursing. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 1st part Ethics Elements Serious Thoughts in a Cartoon


1

Ethics Elements - Serious Thoughts in
a Cartoon - 1st part fundamental concepts 2006,
revised nov. 2012 Margot Phaneuf, inf., Ph.D.
2
OBJECTIVES . Think about some ethical aspects
related to nursing care. . Clarify some basic
principles that are likely to orient our
care. . Realize the sources of our professional
Code. . Discover how language and culture
might influence our understanding of
professional ethics.
3
WARNING This document has no theoretical
pretentions it aims only to bring some concepts
to the students reach. The main topic here is
applied ethics. All the principles of ethics are
not dealt with in this document and as for the
Professional Code of Quebec, only the general
articles are mentioned. The images of this
document belong to diverse sites identified in
the webography. We thank them.
4
Whatever our work field is, we must remember
that the individual must be the center and the
measure of everything.
La personne
La personne
La personne
5
A basic knowledge of ethics is needed to work
with sick people and a good understanding of
our professional Code is essential.
6
This course is about ethics. I do not know much
about that. Is it going to be hard?
No, but Mister Owl knows everything. He must be
able to explain it
Do you know what it is, Leo?
7
Mister Owl, what are ethics?
Yes, I would also like to know!
8
Mister Owl, what does the word ethics mean?
From its etymology  ethos  this term means
Habit, house
Use, way of live
A way of being in oneself in order to live
better.
9
Hum ! Hum!!! Lets see! You know I am no
specialist!
Mister Owl, you are wise. Please explain what it
is used for.
10
It helps us to be in harmony with
well-considered principles and morally accepted
reasoning.
Ethics allows us to live better in our society
by respecting ourselves and by respecting
others.
11
Our ethical principles allow us not to hide our
heads in the sand and to see our responsibilities
more clearly!
12
But Mister Owl, how can we find our way among all
those terms which are not very familiar to us?
13
It is true that there are many terms, but,
little Frog, some explanations will follow!
14
There is the term ethics which we will see later,
morals and bioethics
Quite a lot..!
15
Yet they are so important for the serious
decisions we have to make while caring for
patients.
And, dear friend, do not forget clinical ethics
!!!
16
Right! But they must consider situations in the
care teams and they often can give
knowledgeable opinions!
But nurses do not make those serious decisions!
17
You have to know, Mister, that there are
situations where we do not really know what to
do!!!
Yes, when we are on the tight rope of some
serious decisions, ethical notions can shed
light on the situations!!!
18
In fact, ethics applied to nursing care
  • Deals with what we must do or not do in a care
    situation.
  • Proceeds by reasoning in order to fix the course
    of action we must take in view of a decision or a
    difficulty with moral implications.

Still a little bit abstract..!!
19
All right, but how does that affect nurses in
their everyday work?
20
But Kitten and Polly the ethical principles
  • Guide our important decisions about patients and
    orient our professional daily behaviour.
  • They stimulate our honesty and our kind
    consideration for the patients, our intellectual
    rigour in care organisation, our technical
    accuracy for its application, and respect of the
    standards and asepsis.

21
And, ethical principles
  • Act upon the way we approach patients,
    communicate with them and offer them help when
    they have some problems.
  • They set guidelines for our professional and
    interprofessional relations.

22
My friends, ethical principles
  • Are like personal points of reference for our
    behaviour in society whatever the situations in
    which we evolve, whatever their nature, social or
    professional.

23
  • Ethical principles are like professional
    landmarks for our behaviour in care situations.

It is serious. An infraction of the Code of
ethics can even lead to a professional sanction
!!!
24

That is really something!!!
Gosh! I did not know that it went that far!
25

In every aspect! Most definitely!
But Dino, except for infractions, should we
bother about ethics and principles in our daily
work?
26
Can you shed light on that??? As for me, I am
lost!!!
Ethics, morals what are they exactly ?
27
Morals and ethics feed each other. Morals are
to ethics what north is to a compass. (Jacques
Benoit, 2000, p. 33)
But they do have differences!

I am anxious to know what they are!
28
Dear colleague, please give us precise
definitions. We need more complete
explanations and if possible more concrete

29
Listen carefully, Kitty
  • Morals is a normative construct of good and
    evil.
  • It imposes duties, taboos and interdictions.
  • Its ultimate goal is good.
  • It raises the individual awareness of good and
    evil
  • and makes one conscious of their relations
    with
  • others.

30
Be attentive Puppy!!!
  • Ethics is the fundamental art of
  • managing our personal conduct.
  • It covers a large field of human
  • consciousness.
  • It opens us to values of integrity and
  • social responsibility, to public-
  • spiritedness, environmental protection,
  • humanism in patient care, lifes value,
  • quality of life, etc.
  • It applies to all human beings
  • whatever their religion.

31
Hey! Kittens, do you see how marvelous and
important it is for our profession!!!
  • Ethics introduces reflection on principles
  • common to all mankind.
  • It tends to make all human groups more
  • aware and focused and to penetrate our
  • functioning in society.

So our professional lives are happier and more
fulfilling
32
Is it now a little clearer?
I will see with the applications.
Differences between morals and ethics
Morals has a religious connotation, it is outside of the individual, it calls upon us with authority, it presupposes obedience it is an unbreakable rule. Ethics has a non-religious connotation, it comes from our inner self, it makes us aware of our responsibilities, it brings discernment and knowledgeable judgment, it is judged individually. (Jacques Benoit, 2000, p. 33)
33
I think that in spite of the numerous
current references to ethics, morals maintain all
their value. They support all the reasoning in
our personal and professional conduct.
But if we have ethics, are morals still needed?
What do you think, Toucan?
34
Morals are at the base of all those
ethical principles !
35
Thus, morals remain the basis for our conduct???
Oh yes, Little Devil!!! They are not outdated..!
36
We need more clarification! Mister Owl, please
give us some concrete definitions before Kitty is
tangled up!

With pleasure, Toucan!
Yes, that might help me!
37
Applied ethics
Gosh! Another term!!!
Oh la la! Its getting complicated!!!
  • Is an ethical problem-solving approach as those
    problems lived and dealt with are in various
    milieus of life. To solve them calls for an
    individual and collective critical-thinking
    process.
  • It took root in the situational ethics movement
    introduced by Joseph Fletcher and Jonsen and
    Toulimin.

38
Applied Ethics
Watch out kittens!!!
  • This philosophical way of thinking distanced
    itself from traditional moral thinking and
    renewed casuistry (part of morals which tries to
    solve consciousness problems) by urging
    ethicians to play a part in social issues.
    http//www.usherbrooke.ca/cirea/recherche/lexique.
    htmlC9thique20appliquE9e

39
  • Clinical Ethics
  • introduces thinking about ethics in the core of
    the
  • practices in the field of health.
  • it deals with clinical practice and patient
    care.
  • Its objectives are
  • clinical consultation,
  • lines of action and recommendations about the
  • norms to be applied for ethical problems in
    the
  • hospital,
  • ethical sensitisation to the milieu.
    (information
  • formation). http//www.ethique.msss.gouv.qc.ca
    /site/download.php?id3758544,75,1

40
Bioethics
I knew that bio means life but I never thought
it would imply such complex realities!!!
  • It is a thoughtful consideration of moral
    problems related to research on living beings and
    its applications.
  • Bioethics deals with ideas to ensure the respect
    and protection of individual life in the face of
    the evolution of scientific knowledge and its
    possible applications for example, euthanasia,
    organ transplant, cloning, stem cell research,
    etc.
  • Bioethical rules are those which regulate
    research on living beings and its uses.
    (http//www.dictionnaire-biologie.com/biologie/def
    inition_48.html

41
It is important to understand those concepts
well !
Yet one more thing!!!
42
Are there any other terms???
Yes! Because we live in Quebec, We also need to
have an idea of the term  deontology .
What is that Prof. Bookworm?
43
The French language makes a difference between
the words ethics and deontology and their
application to a profession like nursing.
Why do I have to know that?
Yes why???
44
Because if you ever work in a hospital or an
organization where French is spoken, you will
have to make the distinction.
Yes, thats interesting!
But tell us what it is ?
45
Deontology was developed by the philsopher
Kant. It encourages us to act so that we treat
humanity, both in our own person and in that of
another, always as an ends and never merely as a
means.
46
This principle is interesting!
It is a program in itself. Here are a few
details about it
47
Deontology is a duty-based ethics it judges
morality by examining the nature of actions and
the will of agents rather than goals achieved.
But Kitty, deontology applies to a limited field
of a profession or a corporation. Listen to the
next definition.
I am not sure I understand!!!
48
Differences between deontology and ethicsin
French
  • The word deontology comes from the Greek root
    deont which mean need or
  • obligation.
  • Deontology is a standard of behaviour,
  • but it operates within a corporate
  • domain.
  • A professional community is
  • linked by a savoir-faire that its
  • standards aim to protect and promote .

Then this is the difference!!!
49
Differences between deontology and ethics
  • Deontology is not universal, but unique to a
    given community.
  • As with law, deontology is sanctioned  . (Jean
    de Maillard, magistrate, and André
    Comte-Sponville, philosopher) http//www.bourin-co
    nseil.fr/com/focus/citoyenneteuk.php

Interesting!!!
50
Differences between deontology and ethics
We have to be careful!
  • Some ethical principles are assembled in a Code
    of deontology (what we call our Code of ethics)
    particular to each profession.
  • Within this Code are added some professional
    rules (OIIQ c.1-8, r.4.1)

51

All those principles are listed in a
professional Code of deontology which is the
equivalent of our Code of ethics.
We have to walk the line.
52
So if I understand, there is always a moral
responsibility in our actions...!!!???
And this responsibility is made explicit in our
Code of Ethics
53
But do we really need that in nursing??
It is absolutely essential!!!Is it not
Mister Owl?
54
That is right, Kitty and for many reasons
55
We need ethics in nursing
  • Because of


the need to adapt our behaviour rules to the
constant changes in our society.
  • the pressure for individual rights and the
  • need to find an optimal balance between
    individual rights and collective rights.

56
We need ethics in nursing
  • Because of
  • the evolution in mentalities and values
  • influenced by social development and
  • the fast circulation of information.

  • the progression of knowledge and the
  • dehumanising progress of technology.

57
But where can we apply that ?
Everywhere andalways???
58
Assessment and data/communication
Interpretation/ nursing diagnosis
Decision making/ planning
Ethics applies to all the steps of the nursing
process
Execution /protocols technical
applications/ helping relationship
Evaluation
Care documentation
59
It also applies to diverse nursing functions
!!!
60
Ethics applies whatever your professional
status and the type of your work
If you are a manager, or work with patients in a
hospital, in the community, in research, or
in teaching!!!
61
  • Ethics must really penetrate all the actions of
    our lives, whether personal or professional, in
    order to give all of us a just, logical
    orientation.

62
Yes, serious thinking, and a few principles
Mister Wizard, is there a recipe for ethics?
To continue
63


End of the 1st part. Come and visit us for the
2nd part!
64
Bibliography
  • Badiou, Alain (1993) L'éthique. Paris, Hatier.
  • Beauchamp, T.L. et J.F. Childress (1984)
    Principles of biomedical Ethics. 2e N.Y. Oxford
    University Press.
  • Benoit, Jacques (2000) Graine déthique. Paris,
    Presses de la Renaissance.
  • Blondeau, Danielle (1986) De l'éthique à la
    bioéthique. Montréal, Gaétan Morin.
  • Bologne J.C. (1986) Histoire de la pudeur. Paris,
    Olivier Orban.
  • Davis, Ann J. in Marsha D.M. Fowler et June
    Levine-Ariff, (1989) Éthique des soins
    infirmiers, traduit par Françoise Bourgeois.
    Paris, Medsi/McGraw-Hill. 1989, p. 95).
  • Dictionnaire Grand Robert, 2001, Windows
  • Dictionnaire Petit Larousse, 2006, Paris
    Larousse.
  • Dupouey, Paul (1998) Éthique et formation. Paris,
    Insep Éditions.
  • Durant, Guy (1999) Introduction générale à la
    bioéthique. Montréal Fides.

65
Bibliography
  • Flynn, Patricia A.R. in Marsha D.M. Fowler et
    June Levine-Ariff, 1989, Éthique des soins
    infirmiers, traduit par Françoise Bourgeois.
    Paris, Medsi/McGraw-Hill. 1989, p. 95).
  • Fortin Jacqueline (1985) L'euthanasie, conflit de
    valeurs et dissidence in Viateur Boulanger et Guy
    Durand. L'Euthanasie. Montréal, Fides, 1985.
  • Hoerni, B. (1996) Éthique et déontologie
    médicale. Paris, Masson. Husted, gladys. L. et
    James H. Husted. Ethical Decision Making in
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  • Jameton, Andrew (1974) Nursing Practice the
    Ethical Issues, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall
    1984, p. xvi)
  • Maillard, Jean de André Comte-Sponville
    Citizenship and business is it possible? Human
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  • Monette, Marcelle (2004) La prise de décision en
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    Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Qué.
  • OIIQ. Code dÉthique. Montréal, OIIQ.

66
Bibliography
  • Phaneuf, Margot (1997) L'importance de l'éthique
    dans la formation des infirmières cliniciennes.
    Conférence prononcée dans le cadre du Congrès
    Européen des infirmières cliniciennes, Paris,
    France, mars 1998. Phaneuf,
  • Phaneuf, Margot (1998) Les interrogations
    éthiques dans  Démarche de soins face au
    vieillissement perturbé . Paris Masson, p.
    246-268.
  • Phaneuf, Margot (2000) L'éthique au quotidien
    respect du malade et respect de soi. Conférence
    prononcée dans le cadre de la journée clinique.
    Hôpital général de Perpignan, France.
  • Ricoeur, Paul (1990) Soi-même comme un autre.
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  • Speaman, Robert (1997) Bonheur et bienveillance.
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67
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