Complex Hydrides as Solid Storage Materials: First Safety Tests Wiebke Lohstroh Maximilian Fichtner Wolfgang Breitung - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Complex Hydrides as Solid Storage Materials: First Safety Tests Wiebke Lohstroh Maximilian Fichtner Wolfgang Breitung

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Title: Slide 1 Author: FZK Last modified by: Usuario Created Date: 4/24/2007 11:38:07 AM Document presentation format: Presentaci n en pantalla (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Complex Hydrides as Solid Storage Materials: First Safety Tests Wiebke Lohstroh Maximilian Fichtner Wolfgang Breitung


1
Complex Hydrides as Solid Storage Materials
First Safety Tests Wiebke Lohstroh Maximilian
Fichtner Wolfgang Breitung
2
Hydrogen Storage for Mobile Applications
4 kg H2
Complex Hydrides Mg2NiH4
metal Hydrides LaNi5H6
H2 (lq)
H2 (200 bar)
L. Schlapbach and A. Züttel, Nature 414 (2001)
p353
  • high volumetric and gravimetric storage density
  • working temperature Tlt 150 C
  • Fast kinetics for loading unloading
  • Safety
  • Production costs

3
Hydrogen Storage in Complex Hydrides
NaAlH4 ? 1/3 Na3AlH6 2/3 Al H2 3.7 wt ?
NaH Al 3/2 H2 1.8 wt
Ti-cluster
O. Kircher, A. Leon, M. Fichtner
4
Hydrogen absorption kinetic
100 bar H2 100 C
M. Fichtner et al., Nanotechnology 14 (2003) 778
M. Fichtner, Adv. Eng. Mater. 6 (2005) 443
5
Complex Hydrides
Hydrogen release reaction NaAlH4? 1/3 Na3AlH6
2/3 Al H2 ? NaH Al 3/2 H2
Operating temperatures 100 150 C, 0 100 bar
H2 nano scale powder particle size a few
100 nm
  • Reaction with water / oxygen
  • reaction products, e.g. NaOH, Al2O3, NaOx, NaOH
    yH2O, Al2O3 zH2O
  • exothermic
  • H2 release

high reactivty with oxygen / water high energy
content large surface area in combination with
pressurized H2
6
Simulation of a tank failure
Disk bursts at p 10 bar Material shot into the
environment
Experiments (i) expulsion of the powder in
ambient air (ii) expulsion of the powder in
ambient air and ignition with an electric
spark (iii)expulsion of the powder in spray water
environment repeat (ii) with equivalent amount
of gaseous H2
7
Setup of Safety Experiments
8
High speed camera
ambient environment
9
High speed camera
water spray
10
Expulsion of the powder Visible
water spray environment
ambient air
  • ignition at borders of the powder / gas cloud
  • turbolent deflagration
  • flame speeds 2 13 m/ s
  • no measureable pressure loads
  • no ignition
  • fine distribution of powder which fell to ground
  • material still active after experiment, e.g.
    reacted with water

11
Expulsion of the powder IR
water spray environment
ambient environment
  • temperature loads along the jet axis
  • T ? 500 C at the center of the cloud
  • H2 gas from reactor dispersed before reaction
    started
  • powder emitted at 130C
  • no heating development in powder cloud

12
Expulsion of the powder IR
water spray environment
spark ignition
  • temperature loads along the jet axis
  • T ? 500 C at the center of the cloud
  • H2 gas from reactor dispersed before reaction
    started
  • ignition
  • temperature load mainly along the jet axis
  • temperatures above 500 C in center of the cloud
  • H2 gas from reactor takes part in the reaction

13
Expulsion of the powder IR
water spray environment
14
Expulsion of the powder IR
spark ignition
15
Sound levels during the first ms
16
Conclusions
  • No reaction when powder is expelled into open air
  • Ignition of the powder / hydrogen mixture when an
    external source is provided (water, electric
    spark)
  • Under these experimental conditions mainly
    thermal loads along the jet axis. No signifcant
    pressure loads were detected.
  • Future experiments
  • Test of expulsion into media (water or oil bath)
  • Test different materials (and loading states!)

17
People
Krzysztof Chlopek Christoph Frommen Nobuko
Hanada Aline Léon Wiebke Lohstroh Eva Roehm Oleg
Zabara Maximilian Fichtner Gerold Stern Wolfgang
Breitung
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